فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 22 (پاییز و زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • محمد عابدی اردکانی*، علی مزیدی صفحات 1-16
    اهمیت امام خمینی(ره) و سنت آگوستین در حوزه تمدن اسلام و غرب، به دلیل آن است که افکار و آثار هر دو منشا تحولات عمیقی بوده است؛ از این رو مقایسه اندیشه های سیاسی این دو شخصیت اهمیت زیادی دارد. این مقایسه براساس سه محور «ماهیت سیاست»، «ارتباط دین و سیاست» و «وظیفه شهروندان»، با توجه به تاثیرپذیری محورهای مذکور از نگرش دینی آن دو شخصیت، صورت گرفته است؛ بنابراین هدف پژوهش حاضر، مقایسه نگرش دینی امام خمینی و آگوستین و تاثیر آن بر اندیشه های این دو شخصیت است. بر اساس این، پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی تحلیلی با ماهیت کیفی و رویکرد مقایسه ای است. جمع آوری داده ها نیز به شیوه کتابخانه ای انجام شد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهند گرچه دغدغه اصلی امام خمینی و آگوستین توجه به دین و برکشیدن آن بر فراز سیاست یا دینی کردن سیاست و درنهایت هدایت انسان به سوی حقیقت آسمانی و وحی و دستیابی او به رستگاری اخروی بوده است، نگرش و برداشت متفاوت آن دو متفکر از دین، باعث ایجاد تفاوت در باورهای سیاسی آنها شده است. آگوستین به جدایی بین امر سیاسی و امر دینی قائل است و سیاست را شر ضروری می داند که نتیجه آن، سلطه انسان بر انسان است؛ در حالی که امام خمینی معتقد است بین سیاست و دین پیوندی ناگسستنی وجود دارد و سیاست را تا حد قدسی ارتقا می دهد که وظیفه مهم هدایت انسان ها به سوی کمال را به عهده دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: آگوستین، امام خمینی، دین، سیاست، اندیشه
  • حامد نظرپور*، مجتبی سپاهی صفحات 17-30
    معنویت یکی از نیازهای اساسی انسان است. یکی از مفاهیم بحث شده درباره ارتباط با معنویت، مفهوم الاهیات است. منظور از الاهیات، تبیین نظام مند از خداوند و روابط خدا با جهان و همان نظام اعتقادی است. مک گراث یکی از متالهانی است که در حوزه مسیحیت به رابطه معنویت و الاهیات پرداخته است. در حوزه اسلام نیز شهید مطهری به رابطه معنویت با اعتقادات پرداخته است. هدف این مقاله، بررسی دیدگاه این دو متفکر درباره رابطه معنویت و الاهیات با رویکرد مقایسه ای و به روش توصیفی تحلیلی براساس آثار آنهاست. از دیدگاه دو متفکر، معنویت عنصری مهم در دین است. هر دو بر معنویت دینی و مبتنی بر اعتقادات دینی تاکید می کنند و معتقدند معنویت باید خدامحور و مبتنی بر متن مقدس باشد. هر دو بر جامعیت معنویت تصریح دارند و به پیوند عمیق معنویت و اعتقادات و پایه و اساس بودن اعتقادات برای معنویت معتقدند. وجد شباهت ها نشان دهنده اهمیت نیاز معنوی انسان، ضرورت معنویت دینی و توجه به مبانی الاهیاتی معنویت است. با اینکه مک گراث تاکید می کند اعتقادات باید متقن باشد، برخی از اعتقادات مسیحی اینگونه نیستند. همچنین وحیانی بودن متن قرآن اثبات شدنی است؛ اما درباره کتاب مقدس چنین مطلبی صادق نیست. تفاوت ها ناشی از تفاوت جهان بینی و سنت دینی آنهاست.
    کلیدواژگان: معنویت، الاهیات، مک گراث، شهید مطهری، ایمان
  • سهیلا جلالی کندری*، مهدیه کیان مهر صفحات 31-50
    جیمز بلمی ازجمله مستشرقانی است که گمان می کند اشتباهاتی در متن قرآن وجود دارد. او به دلیل پیدانکردن داستان «شعیب» در کتاب مقدس و واژه «شعیب» در زبان های عبری، آرامی و کتیبه های عرب باستان، معتقد است واژه «شعیب» در قرآن، صحیح ثبت نشده و اصل آن «شعیا» یعنی صورت عربی کلمه «اشعیاء» است و داستان «شعیب» در قرآن بازگویی از پیش گویی «اشعیاء» درباره عرب است و اصحاب ایکه، بازرگانان ددان در زمان اشعیاء نبی بوده اند. اهمیت بررسی ادعاهای او آن است که کمترین نتایج حاصل از آنها، تاکید بر اخذ قرآن از کتاب مقدس، تشکیک در واقع نمایی و صحت داستان های تاریخی و خدشه در اعتقاد به تحریف نشدن قرآن است. نقد ادعاهای تفسیری او، در نتایج پیش گفته تردید وارد می کند. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان می دهند نام «شعیب» در اصل عربی است و نام هایی از ریشه «شعب» از زمان قبل اسلام در زبان عربی وجود داشته اند. دلایلی نظیر تکرار نزول داستان شعیب در طول دوران نزول تدریجی، تداول قرائت، حفظ و آموزش قرآن، شیوه کتابت قرآن با حضور شاهدان و املاءکنندگان و... استنساخ اشتباه این واژه را ناممکن می کند. همچنین، اقتباس «داستان شعیب» از «پیش گویی اشعیاء درباره اعراب»، با توجه به تفاوت های بنیادین در غرض، موضوع و جزئیات این دو داستان، پذیرفتنی نیست. همچنین توجیه لازم برای تطابق ددان با ایکه وجود ندارد. نتیجه مهم دیگر آنکه تغییر واژه «شعیب» به «اشعیاء» با معیارهای اصلاح متن بلمی مانند بهبود معنای متن و سازگاری با سبک قرآن مطابق نیست.
    کلیدواژگان: شعیب، اشعیاء، اصحاب ایکه، بلمی، استشراق، متن قرآن، کتاب مقدس
  • مهدی پیچان، مهدی مطیع* صفحات 51-62
    مروجان داخلی قانون جذب، آن را تاییدشده متون دینی معرفی کرده اند؛ تا جایی که دعا در معارف دینی را همان قانون جذب دانسته اند؛ به طوری که اصرار و توجه به خواسته ها در دعا برای تحقق آنها در عالم خارج است. در این نوشتار بیان می شود تسلط نداشتن علمی بر معارف دینی و سوء برداشت از مفهوم و هدف دعا و اجابت آن و نیز تقطیع و تاویل غیرعلمی آیات، ایشان را به راه ناصواب کشانده است. رهبران قانون جذب، خواست انسان را اصل و اساس در رسیدن به خواسته ها می دانند؛ اما برخلاف نظر رهبران قانون جذب، طبق برخی از آیات و روایات، خواست و اراده خدا در هر دو عالم حکم فرما بوده است و آن مقدار از خواسته انسان که به آن می رسد نیز به اراده خدا و به واسطه تلاش اوست، نه به دلیل تجسم و تصورش. در دعا نیز برخلاف ادعای قانون جذب، آدمی خدا را عطاکننده می داند، نه اینکه ذهن و باور خود را معطی بداند. همچنین هدف از دعا فقط خواستن حاجت نیست، بلکه هدف اصلی، اظهار فقر و مسکنت و بندگی به درگاه خداست.
    کلیدواژگان: قانون جذب، راز، دعا، عرفان، تجسم خلاق
  • کرم سیاوشی*، میثم خلیلی، سمیرا قلی ئی صفحات 63-80

    شیوا ترین ابزار بیان و انتقال مفاهیم و انگاره های مدنظر، روایت و به تصویر کشیدن وقایع در قالب «قصه» است که اهداف متعددی را با خود به همراه دارد. داستان طوفان نوح(ع) یکی از داستان های مشترک در میان دو کتاب مقدس تورات و قرآن است. این پژوهش در راستای تحلیل عناصر داستان طوفان نوح(ع)، با روش تحلیل تطبیقی خرد، سامان یافته و با استفاده از روش های جزئی دانش نشانه شناختی، واکاوی شده است. تاکنون پژوهش مشابهی صورت نگرفته است. نتیجه به دست آمده نشان می دهد هرچند اشتراک هایی بین دو روایت در عناصری همچون بیان نزول عذاب به سبب نافرمانی، تبیین شخصیت نقش اصلی داستان، کوهستانی بودن مکان داستان، محوریت زمانی خطی و منسجم وجود دارد، درباره پیرنگ داستان، زاویه دید، شخصیت ها، کشمکش، گفت و گو و صحنه پردازی تفاوت های چشمگیری به چشم می خورد. نکته مهم دیگر اینکه روایت تورات از طوفان نوح(ع) با پرداختن بیش از حد به جزئیات زمانی و مکانی، بیشتر شبیه روایتی تاریخی است؛ اما روایت قرآن از ماجرای طوفان در ورای بیان داستان، بیشتر اهداف هدایتی و انذاری و عبرت انگیز را دنبال می کند که این موضوع سبب جذابیت و اثرگذاری بیشتر روایت قرآنی شده است

    کلیدواژگان: نشانه شناسی، داستان طوفان نوح(ع)، عناصر هنری، تحلیل تطبیقی خرد، سفر پیدایش، سوره هود
  • بهجت السادات حجازی*، هادی پور شیخعلی صفحات 81-92

    یکی از مطالب عمیق و درخور بحث و تحقیق در بسیاری از علوم انسانی، موضوع هویت است. مفهوم هویت هرچند جدید و نوظهور است، ریشه های آن به قرون گذشته و حتی زمان پیش از اسلام بر می گردد. مولانا شاعر معناگرای بزرگ قرن هفتم، برمبنای اثرپذیری تاویلی از قرآن، تعبیر و تفسیر دیگری از مفهوم وطن و هویت دارد. هویت در قرآن بیشتر بر مبنای خودشناسی و بازگشت به فطرت الهی انسان است و همچنین به مقام والای انسان در پهنه هستی توجه می شود. نگاه قرآن به هویت جمعی، بیشتر به صورت «امت واحده» و اتحاد بین امت ها است. قرآن دلیل برتری انسان ها و امت ها را تفاوت های ظاهری بیان نمی کند؛ بلکه در برتری تقوا، کسب دانش و جهاد فی سبیل الله معرفی می کند. در اندیشه مولانا عشق به ذات احدیت و انسانیت مبتنی بر نظریه جهان وطنی موج می زند؛ بنابراین نباید انتظار داشت او با تاکید بر ملی گرایی، آدمیان را به زندگی مادی و سرزمین مادری محدود کند. در نظر او، پس از ارج نهادن به هویت الهی، ذاتی و فردی، فراملی گرایی یا هویت جمعی اهمیت خاصی پیدا می کند. مولانا در مثنوی از مفهوم وطن به نوعی آشنایی زدایی معنایی کرده است؛ از این رو آشنایی زدایی در حوزه معنا و تاویل های جدید از واژه ها و مفاهیم نیز نمود دارد. در این پژوهش به شیوه تحلیل محتوای سروده های مولانا در مثنوی، جنبه های متفاوت هویت بررسی شده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: آشنایی زدایی، هویت، تاویل قرآنی، مثنوی، ملی گرایی، فراملی گرایی
  • مهدی گنجور* صفحات 93-106
    علم کلام از آغاز پیدایش، به لحاظ روش شناختی، مراحل و اطوار مختلفی را پشت سر گذاشته است؛ رویکرد نقلی و اخبارگرایی، روش جدلی، عقلی، تاویل گروی و رویکرد کلام فلسفی از مهم ترین رویکردها در سیر تطور کلام شیعی به شمار می آیند. در این نوشتار با روش توصیفی تحلیلی، ضمن معرفی اجمالی جریان کلام فلسفی و مولفه های آن، روش کلامی ابن میثم بحرانی، بیان و با ارائه شواهد متعددی از آثار و آرای او ثابت شده روش کلامی او عقلی - فلسفی است. او به سبک و سیاق مرسوم آثار فلسفی به امور عامه و طبیعیات را در اثر کلامی خود قواعدالمرام فی علم الکلام، طرح و همان شیوه حکما را در نگارش علم کلام در پیش گرفته است. بازکاوی و بیان شاخصه های کلام فلسفی در اندیشه ابن میثم، از این نظر نیز بااهمیت است که با تاکید بر عقلانیت، استدلال گروی، آزاداندیشی و تفکر انتقادی می تواند یک الگوی روش شناختی در حوزه کلام امامیه را پیش روی پژوهشگران و دین پژوهان قرار دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: ابن میثم، کلام امامیه، کلام فلسفی، روش های کلامی
  • مظاهر احمدتوبی* صفحات 107-120

    نقد آرای کلامی فرق اسلامی، یکی از مباحث مهم در برخی از تفاسیر قرآن است. بررسی این نقدها باعث روشن شدن هرچه بیشتر عقاید مفسر می شود. یکی از تفاسیر بررسی شده درباره آرای کلامی خوارج، مرجیان، معتزله و... تفسیر عرفانی کشف الاسرار و عده الابرار اثر ابوالفضل رشیدالدین میبدی است. این مقاله با روش توصیفی تحلیلی نگارش یافته و به علت توجه ویژه میبدی به جهمیان، آرای کلامی این فرقه، نقد و بررسی و دیدگاه میبدی در هر یک از موضوعات نقدشده او، در این تفسیر ذکر شده است. یکی از مهم ترین بدعت های جهمیان، انکار صفات خدا و تاویل آنها است. آنها صفات خدا را برای جلوگیری از تشبیه او به مخلوقات و پاسبانی از تجرید او تاویل می کنند. به نظر میبدی، خدا دارای صفات است (نفی تعطیل)؛ ولی بنابر قاعده «هم نامی اقتضای هم سانی نکند»، نباید همان معنای انسانی در آنها را بر خدا حمل کرد (نفی تشبیه). همچنین، آنها را نباید تاویل و معنای مجازی کرد. به عقیده میبدی، ظاهر آنها را باید به سمع قبول کرد و باطن (حقیقت معنای) آنها را باید به تسلیم به حق سپرد.

    کلیدواژگان: اهل بدعت، جهمیان، تاویل، میبدی، کشف الاسرار
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  • Mohammad Abedi Ardakani *, Ali Mazidi Pages 1-16
    In the area of Islamic civilization and the West, Imam Khomeini and St. Augustine are important because the thoughts and effects of both have been the source of profound developments, hence the comparison of the political ideas of these two characters is of great importance. This comparison is based on the three pillars of the "nature of politics", "the relationship between religion and politics" and "the duty of citizens", given the impact of these axes on the religious attitude of the two characters. The main purpose of this study is to compare the religious attitude of Imam Khomeini and Augustine and its effect on the thoughts of these two characters. The main question is: what influence did the religious attitude of Augustine and Imam Khomeini have on their political ideas? Based on this, the present study is a descriptive-analytic type with qualitative and comparative approach taken by the library method. Findings of the research show that different attitudes and impressions of Augustine and Imam Khomeini from religion have caused a difference in their political beliefs.  In relation to the first axis, the "nature of politics", Augustine's view of politics is a negative and pessimistic view, in which he considers politics the domination of man over man. He believed that God initially created human beings, but with the disobedience of Adam and Eve, many difficulties and problems, including politics, arose for mankind. In other words, he believed that politics was a punishment and divine punishment for mankind, which was created by the guilt of Adam and Eve. But according to Imam Khomeini, the nature of politics is considered as a desirable and guiding phenomenon. From Imam Khomeini's point of view, there is a policy of spiritual color, because politics is a way of life and has dimensions of the worldly and non-existent. Indeed, based on the spiritual attitude, Imam Khomeini considers politics to guide the society and preserve its material. Therefore, in his view, politics is not only an evil and unpleasant thing, but a sacred and spiritual matter, which is responsible for leading society to perfection.  In the second axis, "The Relationship between Religion and Politics," Augustine believed that the state and church were two separate issues. He believed in the supremacy of the church over the power of the state. In his view, the domains of the Church include the entire world and is an eternal institution, but the state is a temporary variable that will be destroyed by the divine manifestation. However, according to Imam Khomeini, there is no separation between religion and politics, and they are both complementary; politics does not need to be in line with the religious guidelines, so that it does not deviate from the right path and follow the right path. Running requires government power. Imam believed in unity and did not accept the duality of political and religious thought. According to him, religion is the same politics.  At last, this article examines the views of Augustine and Imam Khomeini on "citizen duties". In the political thought of Augustine, Christian is passive in terms of political activity.  The only duty of citizens against the rulers is obedience and prayer in the king's right; it does not matter whether these rulers are just or ruthless. For Augustine, citizens do not have the right to protest or fight and uprising against the rulers, because the ruler has received his authority from God. However, Imam Khomeini portrayed citizens as one of the pillars of governance and considered participation in political activity as one of their great religious authorities and made indifference in the affairs of the state a major sin. He considers the revolution and the uprising of the people against the tyrannical rulers from the very important duties of the citizens, which, if they are disregarded, will learn the corruption of the whole earth and human societies will be degenerated.
    Keywords: Augustine, Imam Khomeini, religion, politics, thought
  • Hamed Nazarpour *, Mojtaba Sepahi Pages 17-30
    One of the basic needs of human is spirituality. Spirituality is the inner connection of man with God, which affects various aspects of life. One of the dimensions of the subject of spirituality is its relation to other concepts, including religion, ethics, mysticism, and concepts of this kind. One of the concepts that discusses its relation to spirituality is the concept of theology. The meaning of theology is the systematic explanation of God and the relationship of God with the world and the same system of belief. One of the Christian theologians who deals with spirituality and theology, is McGrath, a professor of theology at the University of Oxford. In the field of Islam, Martyr Motahhari also deals with the relationship of spirituality with beliefs. He is an influential scholar of contemporary religious thought in the Muslim world. The purpose of this paper is to examine the views of these two thinkers on the relationship between spirituality and theology with a comparative and descriptive-analytic approach based on their work. Although both thinkers have lived in two religious traditions and periods of time, both of them have been bound up with their religion. Both were concerned with the comprehensive, accurate, and systematic expression of religious doctrines. Both sought to strengthen the religiosity of humans in achieving prosperity and salvation. Both have focused on the issues and concerns of the society of their time. Therefore, their views are comparable. Considering the importance of spirituality in the contemporary world, the necessity of dialogue among religious followers in today's world, the importance and capacity of the topic of spirituality as a common topic for dialogue and the place of comparative studies in order to better understand the topic, the necessity of this research is determined. From McGrath’s point of view, spirituality has a strong link with theology. In his view, spirituality is based on knowledge and, of course, is also a component of feeling, tendency and personal experience. The other component of spirituality is action and behavior based on personal beliefs and experiences of God. In his view, Christian spirituality should not be ignored of social conditions. Spirituality from the perspective of Martyr Motahhari is a comprehensive concept that is the result of all the teachings of Islam. Spirituality is based on true faith that embraces all aspects of human life. Martyr Motahhari believes that faith has two basic components of knowledge and tendency. In other words, he believes in epistemic and emotional aspects of faith. In his view, true faith is meaningful with these two components, and the lack of each one leads to flawed faith. He not only believes in faith based on knowledge, but also believes in knowledge as a necessary part of faith and as its components. From the point of view of both thinkers, spirituality is an important element in religion. Both emphasize religious spirituality based on religious teachings and beliefs. Spirituality should be theocentric and based on the holt text. Both emphasize the comprehensiveness of spirituality. Both believe in the relationship between spirituality and beliefs and the foundation of beliefs for spirituality. They do not regard spirituality and faith, apart from knowledge and belief, as well as action and social life. The existence of similarities indicates the importance of the spirituality and spiritual needs of human, the necessity of religious spirituality and the attention to the theological foundations of spirituality. Despite these similarities, there are some differences. Although McGrath insists beliefs must be firm, some Christian beliefs are not. For example, the doctrine of the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus is a belief in the opposite of reason. Also, the revelation and infallibility of the text of the Quran, as the sacred text of the Muslims and the source of spirituality, can be proved on the basis of rational and religious reasons. But this is not true for the Bible and there is no valid rational or historic reason for the heavenly nature of the whole Bible. The New Testament is a collection of records of some of the apostles. In addition, during the Biblical historical critique, it has been proven that some of its books do not belong to their authors. Regarding the Old Testament, in addition to the Quranic reasons, there are several reasons in the Biblical historical critique that shows that the Old Testament, especially Torah, has been altered and distorted. It seems that the differences are due to differences in the worldview of two thinkers, most of which are due to the religious tradition that they belong to.
    Keywords: spirituality, Theology, McGrath, Martyr Motahhari, faith
  • Soheila Jalali Kondori *, Mahdieh Kianmehr Pages 31-50
    Abstract James A. Bellami is one of the orientalists thinking that there are some mistakes in Quran`s text; He believes that textual criticism must be applied to the Qur'an to remove it`s corruptions and produce a text the possibly nearest to original text. For example, In the article “More proposed emendations to the text of the Koran”, he claims that There are two major problems in the story of Shuaib, first, the form of his name, and second, the identity of the Ashab al-aykah. Given the existence of oral sources for the Qur'an, Bellami considers the Torah as the only source of the proper name of the "Shuaib" and the identity of the " the Ashab al-aykah ". For this reason, it is only by finding several common features in verses 13 through 17 of the Isaiah:21(the prophecy of Isaiah in Arabic) during the Old Testament and the story of Shuaib in the Qur'an, he claims that, firstly, the story of Shuaib derives from the Isaiah  Prophecy about the Arabs (Isaiah 21: 13-17); secondly, “Shuaib” is mistaken with  “Sh’aia” (spelled with final alif), the Arabic form of “Isaiah” ; thirdly Ashab al-aykah” in the Qur'an is the same  Dedanite merchants in In Isa. 21:13-17. The importance of surveying Bellami’s claims is that the results of them are, at least, the emphasis on the receipt of the Qur'an from the Bible, creating doubt in the realism of the historical stories of Quran and the failure to believe in the non-distortion of the Qur'an. The critique of his interpretive claims can cast doubt on this results. so, in this research, Bellami's views on Shuaib and Ashab al-aykah, as well as his reasons, are examined in five sections. The first part is devoted to Bellami's claim to the word "Shuaib". Bellami claimed that he did not find "Shuaib" in Hebrew and Aramaic languages and ancient Arabic inscriptions, so there was no such name before the Qur'an was descended. Secondly, Shuaib has no suitable etymology and meaning for a man’s name. After examining the word "Shuaib" and its root, it became clear that - contrary to Bellami's claim - the word "Shuaib" has the correct etymology in Arabic, and the absence of the word "Shuaib" and above that the root of the "sha’b" in Hebrew and   Aramic, not only is not evidence of Bellami's claims about "shuaib", but also amplifies that the root of the "sha’b" and the word "Shuaib" are Arabic. Another result is that - contrary to the claim of Bellami - the name "Shuaib" has proper meaning and form for the men's name. Because according to Arab culture from pre-Islam times to now, using of a diminutive form of words and also making names for men from   the root "sha’b"   have been commonplace for men.  Existance of some  men whose name were from the root of the "Sha’b" (like  Ash’ab) and those who had the name "Shuaib", before the Quran descends, can present good evidances  for this claim . Also, analysis the different meanings of the word "Shuaib" indicate that this word has proper  meanings for men. Another consequence is that the absence of "Shuaib" in ancient Arabic inscriptions does not necessarily means that this name is not denied among the Arabs, as evidenced other sources, other than inscriptions, that this name can be found in   pre-Islam Arabs. Even if it is assumed that there is no man named Shuaib before the Quran descends, the Shuaib of the Arabic translation may be the name or the title of this great Prophet, chosen and used by the Holy Qur'an for the first time. Therefore, the lack of this name in the inscriptions can not be a reason for the incorrect transcription of the term. In the second section, the possibility of the wrongfulness of transcription of "Shuaib" was considered. To make this mistake, Bellami considers two hypotheses probable. For Example, his first assumption is that the name "Shuaib" was derived from scriber's mistake during the writing of the Qur'an (In the time of Abu-Bakr or Uthman) and its principle had been "Sh’aia". However, due to several reasons  the incorrect transcription of this word is almost impossible; such as :1- word of "Shuaib"  had been custom at the time of  Qur'an's descent and before that ; 2- The  Shuaib's story and  name had been repeated during the  gradual descent of Quran in the Meccan and  Madnian Surahs; hence Muslims had been reading and repeating It during the gradual descent of the Qur'an; 3- Because  Recitement,  teaching and keeping of the verses had been  common practice, the  Shuaib's story and  name  repeated in the Muslim's ear many times; 4- The Quran had been written in particular manner, in  the presence of witnesses and dictators . In the third section, the feasibility of Bellami's claim for the adaptation of Shuaib's story of "Isaiah's prophecy concerning the Arabs" was investigated. The result is that due to the fundamental differences in the subject, the wisdom and details of the story of Shuaib and Isaiah, such as personality, history, place of residence, ethnicity, type and cause of torment, etc., the oral translation of Shuaib's story of the prophecy of Isaiah about Arab is not logical. In the fourth section, Bellami's claim Based on the similarity of the Ashab al-aykah  and  Dedanite merchants is studied. The result of the study is that although both of them lived on the trade road to Mecca, but there was no justification and evidence to match Dedan with Aykah. In one of his articles on reforming the Quranic vocabulary, Bellami has state his standards. In the fifth part, it was shown that the change of the word "Shuaib" to "Sh’aia" is not consistent with the standards of text correction provided by Mr. Bellami himself. For example, among the Bellami  criteria, the modified text should make a better meaning than the existing one, but changing the word "Shuaib" to "Sh’aia", firstly, eliminates the semantic proportion of the name of the Prophet with his story; secondly, The text and the interpretation of Isaiah's Prophecy on the Arabs  itself has some ambiguities; thus, not only the change of Shuaib to Sh’aia does not  caused   better meaning  maked, but  also it  obscures the explicit and understandable story of Shuaib.  Another Bellami's criterion is that the modified word should be in accordance with the style of the Qur'an; however, the change of Shuaib to "Sh’aia" is inconsistent with the style of the Quranic verses in which mentioned the names of the prophets in their historical order. Another criterion is that the word correction should be historically justifiable. To absence of Shuaib's story in the Bible,  Mr. Bellami considers it non-historic. But, this can not be  a  convincing reason  for denial   reality of  Shuaib's story. The existence of the ruins of the "Maghair Shuaib" and "Ayla", which are coherent with the Qur'anic verses in terms of space and time, regarding the people of Shuaib, can be a good historical evidence for the existence of a person called "Shuaib" and his story in reality. In this way, the analysis of Bellami's claims showed that none of his claims was correct.
    Keywords: Shuaib, Isaiah, Ashab al-aykah, Oriental, Quran text correction, Bible
  • Mahdi Pichan, Mahdi Motia * Pages 51-62
    The law of attraction in the philosophy of modern thought is the belief that by focusing on negative or positive thoughts, people can experience positive or negative attitudes. This belief is based on the idea that both people and their minds are made up of pure energy and through the process of "absorbing the same energies," one can upgrade his health, well-being and personal relationships. This theory has been promoting for many years by speakers and writers in the world, and each of them is somehow trying to express the attraction law in accordance with the culture of their audience and stimulate their feelings. One of the promotional methods for promoting and fixing The secret theory in the minds of the audience by its propagandists, especially inside the country, is its religiousization. This theory has been promoting for many years by speakers and writers in the world, and each of them is somehow trying to express the attraction law in accordance with the culture of their audience and stimulate their feelings. One of the promotional methods for promoting and fixing The secret theory in the minds of the audience by its propagandists, especially inside the country, is its religiousization. By some non-scientific interpretation, some verses and narrations try to introduce this theory as an affirmation of religion and, on the other hand, to proclaim verses and narratives that are opposed to this hypothesis, whether deliberately and for personal reasons, or inadvertently And because of their lack of control over religious texts. However, in understanding any text, including the text of the Bible and the traditions of the infallibles, all aspects must be considered, because the fragmentation and separation of some verses and narratives, ignoring the continuous and discursive context, and their interpretation in favor of their own opinion is unnecessary. It was found that according to some verses and narratives like verses 18 and 19 of Surah al-Asra, contrary to the view of the leaders of the law of attraction that demanded the human being as the basis for achieving the demands, the demand of God in both cases was ruled and it The amount of the desires of the human being to which it is sought is also due to the will of God and through his efforts, not for the imagination and imagination. Also, some other domestic propagandists of the Law of Attraction pray for the concept and, in their opinion, they pray for the view that contributes to mental imagery, not because it is a relationship with the Creator, and not to this Because it is the soul, in which spiritual excellence and evolution lies. They say prayer is good because it enables you to visualize your own desires. Therefore, prayer as an introduction to the embodiment and concentration becomes important, not because it is an independent tool for the service of human superiority and servitude. However, according to verses and narratives such as verse 60 of chapter of Ghafir, the purpose of prayer is not just to seek human needs and wants, but to declare slavery and grudge against God and to learn from other goals and results of prayer for Is counted. Also, accuracy in the meaning of our prayers implies that prayer is guaranteed by God, which does not always mean the fulfillment of human wants and wants, as the internal leaders of law are attracted to, but also the means of answering and There is no lack of response from God, which occasionally appears in other forms than the fulfillment of the necessity. Ultimately, the source of absorption theory has to be derived from the humanistic and human-centered view of the West, which accepts this attitude not only as the cultivation of the divine human being as a goal, but also the focus on transcendental tendencies, there is not much room for discussion and discussion. By focusing on the will and desire of man, transcendental and spiritual goals are forgotten, and instead of this world life and experience of pleasure will be at the forefront of man's desires, and as a result, man will most of all lead to the forgottenness of the end and the hereafter. . The law of attraction not only does not invite humans to ethical virtues, but also enhances pleasure and desire, and governs the transcendental areas of the human soul and puts down on the most valuable human powers, ie, the power of reason.
    Keywords: Law of Attraction, Mystery, Pray, mysticism, Creative Visualization
  • Karam Siyavoshi *, Meysam Khalili, Samira Gholiei Pages 63-80

    The most effective way of expressing and conveying concepts and ideas is to narrate and portray events in the form of a "story" that has several purposes. As one of the most important ways of inducing educational or historical concepts in the light of semiotics, the use of artistic or word-based techniques of narrative discourse is narrative discourse. The arrangement of the elements of a story in the form of art is an important tool for conveying ideas and signs to others. In this regard, this study analyzes the elements of the story of the flood of Noah (AS), which is one of the common stories between the two books of the Torah and the quran, by the method of comparative micro-analysis, and by using partial methods of semiotic-cognitive knowledge , Has analyzed it. The present study seeks to answer the following questions: 1- What are the elements of the story of Noah's Storm in the narration of the Torah (Genesis Journey) and the Qur'an (Surah Hood)? 2. What are the similarities and differences between the artistic structure of this story in the two narratives mentioned? Which narrative is more engaging, effective, guided and exemplary? There has been no similar research in this area so far. The result of the study of the subject under discussion is that: The cause-and-effect relationship of the 'pirang' constitutes both narratives which, in the Torah narrative, are based on the decision to destroy human beings due to regret of creation (cause) and the coming of the doom of the flood (consequence). ) And in the Qur'anic narrative is based on the disrespectful behavior of the people of Noah (as) to the doctrine (cause) and the coming of doom (consequence). Accordingly, both narratives are common at the consequence stage, but there is a profound difference between the two at the stage of the cause of the doom. The angle of view in the Torah narrative is in the unknown and in the Qur'an as a whole. The characters of the story, in the Torah narrative, are mostly based on natural features such as: age, wine, etc. Noah, but in the narration of the Qur'an beyond the various characters of the story, the guiding aims pursued. These goals appear to be expressed in characters such as Noah, Noah's people, and Noah's family. The doom-to-do action is a common occurrence in two stories that take place because of human disobedience. The purely one-sided and varied conversations in the story of Noah (AS), according to the Torah narrative, have been unattractive. In contrast, the varied conversations in the Qur'anic narrative of the story of Noah (AS) have been a factor in making it attractive. The timing of both narratives is linear; but in the Qur'anic narrative it is generally linear; but in the Torah narrative it is linear. The mountain is mentioned in both narratives of the place of the story, but the spatial range is introduced in the global Torah narrative, but the Qur'anic narration is limited to a particular region. In the story of the flood of Prophet Noah, each of the features of the story reflects a specific educational purpose that in the Torah, the worship aspect of this purpose was achieved only for Noah (AS), but in the Qur'an, besides Noah (AS) Each of the characters in the story pursue a specific educational goal that ultimately fulfills the intended purpose of the Qur'an.

    Keywords: Storm of Noah (AS), Art Elements, Micro-comparative Analysis, Semiotics, Genesis Journey, Surah Hood
  • Behjat, Sadat Hejazi *, Hadi Poursheikhali Pages 81-92

    Identity issue is one of deep and broad contents that in many humanities. Worthy of discussion and research. Although identity is new and emerging concept, but it's origin can be traced return to centuries and even in pre-islamic times. The spiritual seventh-century peat Rumi based on Quran's interpretation, following the Quran have another interpretation of identity and the concept of home. Identity in Quran is based on self knowledge and back to the divine nature of man; also pay attention to human dignity across the universe. Quran's look to collective identity is more for unified Ummat and alliance between nations and Quran don't address apparent differences because of superiority of men and nation; but introduced it in superiority of virtue, knowledge and jihad in Allah's way. In Rumi's thought, love of Allah's essence and humanity based on cosmopolitan theory wave knocks: so we should not expect that with emphasized to nationalism, limited human and material life of the motherland. In his view, after honoring the divine identity internet and individual, collective identity or transnationalism being important. Rumi has ventured to a kind of semantic de familiar of concept of home in the Masnavi. In this study, pay attention to content analysis of Rumi's Masnavi poems and different aspects of identity are examined. In Quran instead of national identity, emphasized on transnational identity. Quran for reinforcement mentality of transnationalism, discuss correlation of religions until moreover respect and valorize for clientele of other religions, will be provided basis consultation and social interaction between Muslims and Non Muslims. “و لا تسبوا الذین یدعون من دون الله فیسبوا الله عدوا بغیر علم کذلک زینا لکل امه عملهم ثم إلی ربهم مرجعهم فینبئهم بما کانوا یعملون» (انعام/108) And don’t abuse their fetish gods that they invoke besides Allah, lest they may abuse Allah in revenge and out of ignorance. Thus we have made fair-seeming to every folk, their Deeds: and eventually to their creator &Nurturer is their return, so He will inform them of what they used to do[in this world].(108/انعام) Rumi moreover has shown long thoughts and de familiarizations in semantic levels, he has used various methods to influence the verses of the Qur'an in his poems. One of these is the interpretive effectiveness that Rumi has overtaken in comparison with other poets. He reaches new meanings with his intellectual creativity and by interpreting the verses of the Qur'an and some hadiths. Rumi does not have the same interpretation and interpretation of his homeland; rather, in his view, the homeland is the realm of the unseen or the kingdom from which one has fallen and suffered the pain of parting from the truth. As in the case of the homeland habeas, which is also related in the traditions of the Prophet: «حب الوطن من الإیمان», he composed: you must cross of speech “Love of country”, don’t stop/ Because homeland is supernatural, spirit isn’t in this world. If you homeland cross to on the other hand of stream /and this right hadith low sing error. Hence, one should not expect Rumi's Masnavi to address the issue of nationalism, which is, in fact, a kind of restriction of human beings to the motherland and what is attributed to it. In Rumi's thought, the love of the essence of divinity, based on the theory of "cosmopolitan" flows; thus, transnationalism or collective identity, after considering the individual identity, has an intrinsic and divine identity.

    Keywords: De familiarization, Identity, Quran's interpretation, Mathnavi, Nationalism, transnationalism
  • Mahdi Ganjvar * Pages 93-106
    Science of Kalam since its very dawn has undergone through various stages and modes; traditionalism, dialectical method, rationalism, hermeneutics, philosophical Kalam are considered to be among the most important approaches in the course of evolution of Shia Kalam. Having provided a short introduction of the school of philosophical Kalam, the current essay with a descriptive-analytic method seeks to study the Kalam based approach of Ibn Maytham Bahrani and via a set of different evidence from his works and ideas it proves that Bahrani's chosen path in Kalam is rational-philosophical. Deduction and analysis of the features of philosophical Kalam in the thought of Ibn Haytham is also of importance from the perspective that with the emphasis on rationality, argument, free thinking and critical thought it can provide the scholars of Shia Kalam with a methodological pattern.   Introduction Following the emergence of different ideological problems and intellectual disputes among Muslims a science started to take form that due to its inclusion of beliefs it was given various names like "science of beliefs", "science of articles of faith", "jurisprudence the great", and "science of monotheism and divine attributes". But the most renowned title used for this science is Kalam which became popular at least from the second century of Hijrah and it refers to a science that discusses religious beliefs based on a rational and traditional method and not only deduces the beliefs from its sources rather it also explains and proves religious beliefs and answers the doubts and objections of the opponents. The advantage and strength of the aforementioned definitions lies in the fact that it simultaneously contains the subject matter, method and end of the science of Kalam. However, examination and articulation of the science of Kalam and discussion of methodological issues are among the necessary premises of the methodic Kalam. Regardless of the diversity of methods and approaches which have existed in the science of Kalam since its very inception, one can still distinguish between three distinct general approaches in the explanation of ideological issues in the domain of Shia Kalam; first, traditional method and emphasis on religious texts and inattention to reason and its function in the understanding of Kalam issues; second approach is hermeneutical and esoteric method that not only underlines the authority and credit of reason and its role in the acquisition of knowledge and understanding of religious doctrines, it also considers the discovery of meanings and esoteric secrets from the words of Holy Book and Tradition impossible without the assistance of reason; third approach is the philosophical rationalism method in which the Kalam scholar struggles to explain the problems of Kalam using ontology and resorting to philosophical rules and judgments and with a philosophical style he discusses the divine truths and religious beliefs including monotheism, resurrection, prophecy and the secret of revelation of divine verses. It seems that the method of philosophical Kalam did not exist in the era of Imams (peace be upon them) but in the early days of the Great Occultation Nobakhti scholars of Kalam took advantage of this method for explication of ideological issues. Although some of the scholars, based on the orthodox theory, have traced the emergence of philosophical school of Kalam back to Khajeh Nasir Al Din Tusi in seventh century of Hijrah, current essay suggests that the use of philosophical Kalam method is of longer history and its roots can be sought for in the ideas of Nobakhti scholars of Kalam and Khajeh Nasir and his pupils later built it into its great heights. Among these philosopher-Kalam scholars the role of Ibn Haytham Bahrani the Shia thinker of seventh century and the author of Qawaed Al Maram fi Elm Al Kalam is of paramount importance in making the methodology of Shia Kalam philosophical which has been less studied by the scholars in this area indeed. Accordingly, the present essay is an effort for introduction and explanation of the role of this Shia Kalam scholar in the growth and evolution of Shia Kalam particularly in the completion and advancement of the philosophical Kalam.   Introduction of "Philosophical Kalam" Approach In the current essay the term "philosophical Kalam" is used to denote a method according to which the goals of science of Kalam are justified based on philosophical criteria and the Kalam scholar owes his own required tools for fulfillment of his own professional mission to Islamic philosophy and wisdom and by using ontology and philosophical terms and rules he proceeds to infer and explain the Kalam issues. Therefore, "philosophical Kalam, methodologically speaking, belongs to the domain of philosophy and from teleological perspective; it is part of the area of science of Kalam". Features of the Method of Philosophical Kalam in the Thought of Ibn Maytham The approach of philosophical Kalam in the thought of Ibn Maytham particularly in the book entitled Qawaed Al Maram fi Elm Al Kalam comprises of certain constituents and features the recognition and introduction of which not only is of a strategic role in the study of course of historical evolution of science of Kalam it is of high importance in the methodology and analysis of the ideas of the founders of this Kalam school. Among the most important features of philosophical Kalam in the thought and method of Ibn Maytham which is intended to be assayed and analyzed in this essay one can refer to the following: discussing philosophical problems including physics, general ontology and the problems related to being and nothingness, substance and accident, body and …, in the introductions of Kalam works; application of theosophical principles and philosophical notions like the principle of causality, essential contingency, the criterion of the need to cause, the principle of posteriority of existence to the necessity, and so on and so forth, in the explanation of ideological issues; insistence on rational arguments and keeping with logical proof and deduction in the explication of principles of religion and its Kalam corollaries, dominance of rationality over obedience and traditional and dialectical method in the explanation of religious claims.
    Keywords: Ibn Maytham, Kalām al-Imāmīyya, Philosophical Kalam, Theological Methods
  • Mazaher Ahmadtobi * Pages 107-120

    Criticism of the theological opinions of the Islamic sects is one of important discussions in some of the Qur’ānic commentaries. To survey these critques causes to be clarified more own commentator’s ideas. The mystical Commentary of Kashf Al-Asrār Wa ʿUddat Al-Abrār (“The Unveiling of the Mysteries and the Provision of the Pious”) by Abu al-Faḍl Rashīd Al-Dīn Maybudī is one of the commentaries that have discussed the theological opinions of the Khawārij‚ the Jahmiyah‚ the Mu’tazilah etc. This article, which is written in descriptive and analytic way, because of Maybudī’s special attention to the Jahmiyah‚ deals with critiquing and surveying the thological opinions of this sect, and mentioning Maybudī’s view of each of criticized subjects‚ according to this commentary. Maybudī considers the Jahmiyah as innovators. Maybudī considers the false symbolic interpetation as more important innovations of the Jahmiyah. In Meybudi’s view, the false symbolic interpretation means to turn away from external meanings of the verses and the traditions and to turn to the symbolic meanings of them. Maybudī thinks the interpretation of “ ‚”استوی علی العرش“is firmly established on the throne”‚ to “domination and conquest” as one of the false symbolic interpretations of the Jahmiyah. Of course‚ Maybudī himself speaks about the true hermeneutics. It is to interpret the verse and the tradition to meaning that is possible and is agreement with the Qur’ān and the tradition. The true hermeneutics can be achieved by man’s effort and divine grace. Maybudī quotes some of the commentators that they interpret the verses ”إن الله لا یستحیی…“ (البقره: 26)‚ “Surely Allah is not ashamed…” (The Cow/26) to ”لا یخشی“‚ “does not fear” and”و تخشی الناس و الله احق ان تخشاه“ (الاحزاب/37) ‚ “and you feared men, and Allah had a greater right that you should fear Him” (The Confederates/37) to ”تستحیی“‚ “was ashamed”. For “”استحیا‚ “to be ashamed” means ”خشیت“‚ “to fear”‚ and on the contrary. Also Maybudī describes the belief in being God ‛in essence’ in any place and with any one‚ but not being He on the Throne‚ in other words‚ the rejection direction and place for God‚ as another of the Jahmiyah’s innovations. In Maybudī’s view‚ God is ‛in His essence’ in one place‚ namely the heaven and the Throne‚ and in ‛His knowledge’ in any place and with any one‚ in other words‚ in all places. Also Maybudī considers the denial of God’s eternal attributes and their false symbolic interpretation as another of the Jahmiyah’s innovations. They interpret symbolically God’s eternal attributes to hinder from His similarity to the creatures and to keep from His transcendence. In Maybudī’s view‚ both anthropomorphism and transcendence make way for blasphemy. According to Maybudī‚ God has the eternal attributes (the denial of transcendence), but according to the rule “to have one name does not invole to be one”‚ we should not apply the same meaning used in human to God (the denial of anthropomorphism). Morevere‚ they should not be interpretered symbolically. In Maybudī’s view‚ their external meaning should be heared and accepted‚ and their internal meaning should be surrenderd to the Truth. Among this Jahmiyah’s innovation‚ Maybudī mentions the rejection of describing God as “thing”‚ and the denial of the attributies of self and hand for God and their false symbolic interpretion. Also Maybudī considers the belief in accompanying God’s Makr (plan) and Keid (plan) with corruption and betrayal and deception as another of the Jahmiyah’s innovations. According to Maybudī‚ God’s Makr and Keid apply only to the best interest without corruption and betrayal and deception. God and man’s Makr and Keid are the same in name‚ but they are differences in meaning. Also‚ Maybudī considers the Jahmiyah’s belief in being created the Qur’ān‚ and or according to some others of them the absence a thing of the Words of God on the earth‚ and or according to some others of them the belief in being created our letter and reading in reciting the Qur’ān as another of the Jahmiyah’s innovations. In Maybudī’s view‚ these untrue ideas of the Jahmiyah result from the fact that‚ according to them‚ the Words of God are not an expression that depends on a letter and a sound‚ but they are His knowledge which subsists in the essence of Him. In Maybudī’s view‚ the Qur’ān is not an expression of the Words of the Truth‚ but it is the very Words of the Truth. It is not seperate from God‚ but it is connected upon Him and subsists in Him. The Qur’ān depends on a letter and a sound and any letter of it is not created. Our letter and reading in reciting the Qur’ān are nor created neither among our works. It truly exists on the earth and we read it by tongue‚ hear it by ear and know it in heart. Also‚ Maybudī considers the describtion of Imān as affirmation by the heart without confessing by the tongue and acting by the members of body‚ as another of the Jahmiyah’s innovations. According to Maybudī‚ Imān consists in confessing by the tongue; affirming by the heart; acting by the members of body and property; and following the Sunnah. Also‚ Maybudī considers the independence of man from God in hindering him from sins and the annihilation of the bounties of paradise as another of the Jahmiyah’s innovations.

    Keywords: innovator, the Jahmiyah, untrue symbolic interpretation, Maybudī, Kashf al-Asrār