فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Michael Afighor, Benneth Ben Azu, Abayomi M. Ajayi, Solomon Umukoro* Pages 263-274

    The study evaluated the role of cytochrome C and pro-inflammatory cytokines in memory deficit produced by a commercial solid air freshener (SAF) in male Swiss mice. The animals were culled into 6 groups (n = 7): group 2-6 were exposed to SAF (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days through whole body exposure. Mice in group 1(control) were exposed to fresh air. Memory function was evaluated on day 28 using standard models. Mice brains were then processed for estimation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, cytochrome C expression and histomorphologic changes. The chemical constituents of SAF were also determined using GC-MS.SAF (100 and 200 mg/kg) produced memory decline and increased brain contents of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (p <0.05) but not interleukin-6 (p > 0.05) relative to control. Increased cytochrome C immunopositive cells, reduced neuronal cells and cytoarchitectural changeswere observed in the hippocampus of mice exposed to SAF (200 g). MS GC-profiling showed the presence of 7 major volatile organic constituents in SAF. Increased release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cytochrome C expression might play a role in SAF-induced memory deficit in mice.

    Keywords: Solid air fresheners, Memory deficit, Cytochrome C expression, Pro-inflammatory cytokines, Histomorphologic changes
  • Leila Mousavi, Nur Nadia Binti Razali, Wan Rosli Wan Ishak* Pages 275-282

    This study was attempted to determine the impact of different percentage of tofu on nutritional values and physicochemical properties of sausages development as a non-meat ingredient. The sausages were prepared by adding 25%, 50% and 75% of tofu. The nutritional analysis and physicochemical properties of non-sausages produced were then examined. The percent finding suggested that the 75% added tofu formulation of chicken sausage recorded the highest moisture (61.11%) and ash content. Nevertheless, 25% formulation recorded the lowest fat content (11.28%) among other formulations. The result of protein content displayed that the decrement of the protein content with the increment of tofu levels. The calorific value of the sausages did not show any linear pattern with an increase of tofu levels. Based on the result of the sensory evaluation score, 25% added tofu formulation maintain a higher score on the colour, texture, juiciness, flavour, and overall acceptance attributes as compared to the other formulations. In conclusion, the formulation of sausages with different level of tofu was shown to affect the nutritional composition (proximate value and calorific value) and physicochemical properties (cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention).

    Keywords: Sausage, Tofu, Nutritional value, Physicochemical properties
  • Bahareh Kashefi*, Seyed Fardin Hassani Shariatpanahi Pages 283-292

    Salvia is a medicinal plant native to Iran with pharmaceutical and healthcare importance. We aimed to assess the compatibility of four Salvia species (officinalis, sclarea, nemorosa and limbata) in Semnan, Iran climatic conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plantlets were planted in the main field and evaluated in early, mid and late-growth seasons. The studied characteristics included plant height, leaf and flowering traits. The active ingredients of the plant were obtained in various phenological stages and measured by GC-MS. Results showed that the maximum and minimum plant height and number of leaves were observed in officinalis and limbata species, respectively. Maximum leaf length and diameter were observed in sclarea and nemorosa species, respectively. The leaf growth process was increased with the development of growth season, such that maximum leaf length and diameter were obtained in the post-flowering conditions. Depending on the species, Salvia flowers are formed in different growth years, such that in the four species studied in this research, sclarea and officinalis started flowering from the first and second years, respectively. According to the comparison of flowering traits measured in these two species, the number of florets, height of main flowering spikes, height of lateral flowering spikes, and height of the post-flowering plant were higher in sclarea than officinalis. However, the number of lateral flowering spikes was higher in officinalis. Moreover, the number of active ingredients was higher in officinalis than other species. Conclusively, sclarea was the best species in growth indices and officinalis species had highest active ingredients yield.

    Keywords: Active ingredients, Compounds, Growth indices, Morphological properties, Salvia species
  • Sebastian Komi*, Comfort Monago Ighorodje, Ogechukwu Ezim, Idongesit Archibong, Kelechi Nwauche, Justice Osuoha Pages 293-301

    This study was carried out to investigate the potentials of Commelina erecta and triton X-100 in remediating glyphosate polluted soil. Humus soil sample was collected from a vegetable garden in Alakahia community in Rivers State, Nigeria and was subsequently divided into different treatment groups I-VI each containing 2 kilograms of the soil sample mixed with 50ml of glyphosate in a polypropylene bag. The different treatment groups were incubated at 28-30 oC for 60 days and thereafter analysed for pH, conductivity, heavy metals, mineral elements, organic ions, total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (TON) contents of the soil. The least pH value (7.01) was recorded in group III while the highest conductivity value (4173.33µs/cm) was observed in group IV. Copper, nickel and cadmium levels in all the amended groups were reduced when compared with the control. Generally, the mineral levels were increased in the amended groups when compared with the control. The TOC and TON contents of the amended soil did not exhibit significant difference when compared with the control except for group IV

    Keywords: Commelina erecta, Glyphosate, Heavy metals, Triton X-100
  • Razzagh Mahmoudi*, Sasan Khezri, Peyman Ghajarbeygi, Ata Kaboudari, Mohammad Panahzadeh, Shaghayegh Mousavi, Behnaz Familsatarian Pages 303-309

    This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of Ziziphora cliniopodioides on the physicochemical and microbial properties of Iranian traditional cow milk butter. The Z. cliniopodioides essential oil (EO) was extracted by Clevenger. The EO constituents were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Three butter samples with concentrations of 300, 600, and 900 ppm were prepared from the EO. The variation of physicochemical and microbial properties of butter was evaluated on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 at 4°C. Based on GC-MS analysis results, the major EO compounds were Carvacrol (40.1%), Linalool (8.30%), and Isoborneol (4.90%). The results of the microbial evaluation showed that the amount of microbial load is significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of EO and the maintenance time of the butter. The logarithmic reduction of the total count of bacteria, Escherichia coli, and the total number of mold and yeast were 3.68, 1.76 and 3.83 (log10 CFU/mL) at 900 ppm, respectively. The peroxide and acid values of butter samples were also decreased significantly. Additionally, the sensory evaluation showed that the EO had acceptable desirable sensory acceptance at 300, 600, and 900 ppm, and the lowest sensory acceptance was observed at 900 ppm. Considering the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Z. cliniopodioides EO, as well as improving the organoleptic properties of various foods such as butter and its abundance as a native plant in the country, it can be used as a natural preservative and flavoring agent instead of chemical ones

    Keywords: Butter, Essential oil, Improvement of health quality, GC, MS, Ziziphora clinopodioides
  • Seyyedeh Sepideh Feyz, Farhad KhamchinMoghaddam* Pages 311-320

    The water scarcity crisis and water pollution are among the key issues both in the current century and in the future. Several different techniques have been introduced for the decontamination of water pollution, among which using the nanotubes is one of the most influential. In this project, the single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were employed to test the possibility of removing heavy metal ions, such as Fe2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ and Ni2+. The effects of three factors including carbon nanotubes, ions’ initial concentration, and contact time were tested. According to the difference rate of nanotubes’ adsorption diagrams, the maximum differences in the performance of single- and multi-walled are obtained as 30 percent for the initial solution concentration and around 5 percent for Nano adsorbent concentration. The results showed that in the different initial concentrations of metal ions, multiwalled nanotube had a better performance, while in case of changing the amount of adsorbent; the single-walled nanotube had a higher adsorption. And if the time changes, multi-walled carbon nanotube can have a higher adsorption

    Keywords: Single-Walled Nanotube, Water Pollution, Carbon Nanotube, Nano Adsorbent
  • Md. Kamrul Hasan, Md. Bayazid Hossain, Palash Kumar Dhar*, Md. Rezaul Haque Pages 321-329

    Edible oils are an essential component for cooking. Presence of an elevated amount of cholesterol in edible oil might cause several diseases. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate the amount of cholesterol in fourteen branded (BVO) and unbranded (UVO) commercially available edible vegetable oils in Khulna, Bangladesh. Besides, to ensure the quality of the oils, iodine value, saponification value, acid value, insoluble impurities and peroxide value were determined. Quantitative analysis of cholesterol was performed by Liebermann-Burchard method and the result indicates UVO black cumin oil has highest (525.49 ± 0.67 mg/L) cholesterol content whereas BVO sunflower oil contains lowest cholesterol content (145.36 ± 0.73 mg/L). The ascending order of the cholesterol content in various vegetable oils is sunflower oil (BVO)<olive oil (BVO)<mustard oil (BVO)<olive oil (UVO)<palm oil (UVO)<soybean oil (BVO)<coconut oil (BVO)<sesame oil (BVO)<coconut oil (UVO)<soybean oil (UVO)<sesame oil (UVO)<mustard oil (UVO)<black cumin oil (BVO)<black cumin oil (UVO). A survey report was prepared by collecting edible oils consuming data among 300 families in Khulna region, Bangladesh. Majority of the people are consuming BVO soybean oil and UVO palm oil. This study reveals that there are no cholesterol-free oils in the market which is a matter of concern and health implication. Therefore, the vegetable oils in industries manufacturing and marketing are arising in confusion with labeling their products as "cholesterol-free" among the people. They should mention the quantity of cholesterol present in their vegetable oils.

    Keywords: Edible oils, Cholesterol, Iodine value, Peroxide value, Saponification value, Bangladesh
  • Mitra Tohidi, Majid Ramezani*, Ali Mehramizi Pages 331-344

    A rapid, simple, precise, accurate, and environmentally friendly spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Sacubitril and Valsartan in their combined dosage form, using continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and zero-crossing techniques without using organic solvents and the timeconsuming extraction step. Initially, UV spectra of two pure components in water were processed via various mother wavelet families. Then, applying zero-crossing technique, the optimum points were found to obtain appropriate calibration curves for each point. The calibration curves were linear for both Sacubitril and Valsartan. The validation of these methods was investigated by analyzing several synthetic mixtures with known concentrations. Applying oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Fisher pairwise comparisons, the following were found to yield the best results Discrete Meyer (dmey) wavelet functions with scaling factor of 61 at 232 nm and Symlet5 (sym5) with 48 at 232 nm for Sacubitril and Meyer (meyr) with 50 at 272 nm, meyr with 59 at 247 nm, Daubechies (db5) with 53 at 237 nm, and sym5 with 59 at 226 nm for Valsartan. The mean recovery values in synthetic mixtures were between 99.09% and 101.16% using the proposed methods, where relative standard deviation (RSD) not more than 1.23% proved to have good precision. The obtained results from the commercial tablets, applying the developed methods, were compared to those yielded by HPLC method by one-way ANOVA test. According to the results, they were in good agreement and showed no significant differences, thereby suggesting successful determination in accordance with green chemistry.

    Keywords: Continuous wavelet transform, Zero-crossing technique, Sacubitril, Valsartan, Simultaneous determination, Environmentally friendly spectrophotometric method