فهرست مطالب

Energy & Environment - Volume:10 Issue:4, 2019
  • Volume:10 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Shaghyegh Farzi Kahkesh, Ali Fattah *, Mohammad Bagher Rahmani Pages 230-234
    In this research, thin films of molybdenum trioxide were deposited on a glass substrate using Doctor Blade method. Ammonium Heptamolbudate tetrahydrate (NH4)6Mo7O24 powder is considered as a precursor to this study. Growth of the samples in three main directions of (020), (040) and (060) showed the formation of a layered structure and also the formation of α-phase of molybdenum oxide. In addition, scanning electron microscope imaging of the samples showed flat micro-capsule like structure. Furthermore, gas sensing properties of the fabricated structure were studied in expose to different concentrations of hydrogen gas. The highest and lowest sensitivities were reported about 16 and 91%, for 100 and 1000 ppm of hydrogen gas, respectively, which shows more sensitivity compare to previous studies. Moreover, the fabricated sensor exhibits good stability as well as repeatability for H2 gas detection.
    Keywords: Blade, H2 Sensor, Metal Oxide Semiconductor, MoO3
  • Md. Nur E Alam *, Nasifa Akter, Shimul Chakma, Kanish Fatema, Abul Kashem Azad, Murshid Jaman Chowdhury, Md. Abu Sayid Mia Pages 235-241

    Keratin is a highly specialized fibrous protein, which is found in feathers, hair, wool and nails. Bioremediation of these waste materials is an issue requiring serious attention regarding environmental concern. In the present research work keratin protein is extracted from poultry chicken feather which is now treated as valueless product of poultry processing plants. Although it contains high keratin protein content, this byproduct is dumped continuously into the environment without further treatment. Millions of tons of chicken feathers are produced every year from poultry industry of Bangladesh which disposed off into environment without any industrial treatment.  This protein rich valuable byproduct can be recycled and utilized effectively which has great economic and ecological importance. In this study, alkali-enzymatic hydrolysis was done for the extraction of keratin protein from feather.  Desired result was found in reflux condensation system which yielded 76.2% protein hydrolysate compared to conventional hot plate hydrolysis which was yielded 52.63%. Detection and concentration of protein were determined by Biuret and Kjeldahl methods respectively.

    Keywords: Chicken feather, Hydrolysis, Keratin protein, Reflux condensation
  • Sepideh Nasrollahpour, Dariush Yousefi Kebria *, Mohammad Ghavami Pages 242-247
    Phenol and its metabolites are among the hazardous organic compounds, due to their carcinogenicity, toxicity, long term persistence in the environment. The purposes of this study are the synthesis of organoclay as an adsorbent with high physicochemical stability, environmental compatibility and its application for remediation of aqueous solutions contaminated with phenol. In this research, organoclay was synthesized by the combination of sodium bentonite and Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) surfactant with three different Cation Exchange Capacities (CECs). As well as, adsorption capacity of synthesized organoclay was determined during reuse until saturation. The results revealed that the removal efficiencies of phenol at concentrations of 100, 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/L were 68, 84, 82, and 80%, respectively. In general, the use of organoclay can be an alternative to the complex and expensive systems for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions with respect to its simplicity, high performance, and cost-effectiveness.
    Keywords: Adsorption, Cation Exchange Capacities, Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide, Organoclay, Phenol
  • Badrinarayan Rath *, Shirish Deo, Gangadhar Ramtekkar Pages 248-255
    Fly ash and pond ash are two by-products of thermal power stations. These industrial wastes require a lot of landfill area and are also causing harm to the environment. By using locally available fly ash and pond ash as partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate, a green concrete shall be produced. These by-products substantially reduce the consumption of natural lime and sand for sustainable development. Before using them in concrete, a deep study should be conducted on the physical behavior of concrete with these industrial by-products. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of coarse fly ash, pond ash, and fiber on the early age shrinkage behavior of concrete. In this research cement is partially replaced with fly ash and sand is partially replaced with pond ash individually and simultaneously in addition to 0.1% of glass fiber.  Suitability of these materials considering cost is suggested for practical use.
    Keywords: Early Age Shrinkage, Fly ash, Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Pond ash, Strength, Durability
  • Zahra Ghorbani Kharaji, Mohammad Fazaelipoor * Pages 256-259
    In this research five different solutions were used to wash an oil contaminated soil with the initial TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) content of 46 g kg-1 (grams of TPH per kg of dry soil). The solutions were a basal mineral medium (solution I), the basal mineral medium inoculated with petroleum degrading microorganisms (solution II), the basal mineral medium inoculated with a culture of petroleum degrading microorganisms and supplemented with a commercial washing powder (solution III), the basal mineral medium inoculated with the microorganisms and supplemented with Tween 80 (solution IV), and the basal mineral medium inoculated with the microorganisms and supplemented with sucrose (Solution V). Washing was performed by saturation of the soil with the solutions in columns and intermittent mixing. Solutions IV and V performed better than the others, giving more than 90% TPH removal in two months. In a separate experiment TPH removal was monitored as a function of time during washing. Solution V reduced the TPH content of the soil more rapidly than the others, with more than 70% TPH removal in 28 days. Addition of sand particles to the soil for the purpose of better mixing resulted in marginal positive effects.
    Keywords: Bioremediation, Soil, Static Conditions, sucrose, Surfactant
  • Hamideh Faridi, Akbar Arabhosseini *, Ghasem Zarei, Martin Okos Pages 260-268
    The commonly used energy in Iranian greenhouses is provided from gas or diesel fuel. As fossil fuels will be finished in the coming years, the utilization of renewable energies could be quite significant. In this research, the thermal potential of the soil profile was studied in Kouhsar, Alborz province, Iran, for utilizing the shallow geothermal energy in order to supply thermal demands of building like greenhouses. Therefore, the temperature sensors were set at the four depths of 30, 100, 200, and 300 cm as well as at the ground surface. The results showed that the greater the depth, the less fluctuation of the soil temperature as well as the greater the temperature difference of the soil profile against the ambient air temperature. These results suggest that the potential of the earth could be used to warm up or cool down in this location for an agricultural structure like greenhouse. The soil profile temperature behavior was modeled at different depths by two methods as heat transfer and empirical. The empirical model was simpler than the other one. As the possibility of using geothermal energy in this region has not been investigated. This research could be an effective step for using renewable energy for agricultural structures like greenhouses.
    Keywords: Energy Saving, passive, Renewable Energy, Shallow Geothermal
  • Anteneh Belay Kassa * Pages 269-274
    Ethiopia is a land locked country, located in Horn of Africa. The country power generation does not meet the national demand of the people. The aim of the paper is to review a current status, future potential and barriers on development of renewable energy for power generations in Ethiopia. The approaches would be use of primary and secondary data. The structural question is developed and data collected from experts. Secondary data were also collected from national published report, ministries brief and policy guides. The study used predominate renewable energy resource for power generation such as solar, wind, hydro, geothermal and waste to energy. Based on the result, the country utilization of the resources like solar, wind and geothermal with less than 1% with respect to the potential except hydro power which is less than 9% from the national reserve. The paper found that finical, technical, policy and regulation are the main barriers that faced on the development renewable energy. Key measurements are strengthened finical institution, establishing capacity building center, initiation active community participation, organizing institution to support development of renewable energy. This proposed measurements and policy issues were based on the evidence faced the country.
    Keywords: Biomass, Geothermal, Hydro Power, Renewable Energy, Solar energy, wind power
  • Ehsan Fadaei Kermani *, Gholam Abbas Barani, Rasoul Memarzedeh Pages 275-280

    Inattention to water as a key parameter of sustainable development, leads the long-term and planned management for the water to be marginalized. In this regard, proper and optimal utilization planning and management of surface and ground water resources is very important. In this study drought utilization motitoring and management of surface and ground water resources for the Qaryat-Al-Arab watershed, located in Kerman, has been investigated. Kerman is among the regions of Iran that does not benefit enough precipitation. At first the region drought status was predicted and monitored using K nearest neighbor (KNN) model. The present model gave appropriate estimations of drought status for the study area, and reasonable values of the statistical coefficients showed that the present model is efficient and suitable. Finally due to the drought status and classification and also surface and ground water resources condition, the water resources allocation respect to the management modeling were proposed for the study area.

    Keywords: Water Resource Management, Drought monitoring, K Nearest Neighbor Model, Standardized precipitation index
  • Arega Abetu Genetie *, Dejene Boja Beyene, Adisu Kebede Befekadu Pages 281-287
    The main objective of the study is to analysis sustainability of water supply and distribution system of Asossa town. While conducting this research, both primary and secondary data were collected and software such as water GEMSV8i, ArcGIS version10.4.1 and GPS Garmin72 were used. The water supply source of the study area yields 46.1 l/s but only 23.6 l/s of water used. The simulated result of extended period simulation showed that the performance of hydraulic parameters were pressure 21.05 % for pressure value <15 m, 72.8 % for pressure value 15-60 m and 6.15 % for pressure value >60 m head and the velocity of pipe flow showed that 84.86 % for velocity <0.6 m/s, 15.14 % for velocity range 0.6-2 m/s. Based on the simulated result, reliability value 0.728 and 0.151, vulnerability value 0.251 and 0.538 and resiliency value 0.322 and 0.1 were obtained for both pressure and velocity, respectively. The overall sustainability index was 0.375 but 0.19 for velocity and 0.559 for pressure. Therefore, sustainability of existing water supply and distribution system of Assosa town is not sustainable.  It is mandatory to redesign the Assosa town water supply and distribution system in order to make it sustainable.
    Keywords: pressure, Sustainability, Velocity, Water Demand, WaterGEMS V8i
  • Mohammad Amin Mirrezaei * Pages 288-295
    In this study, in 2011 for the duration of two months, the dispersion of a major air pollutant, sulfur dioxide from gas flares of an oil field, in Iran, was investigated. Due to the complexity of meteorological parameters in modeling area, California Puff (CALPUFF) model was used in this study. CALPUFF is a more advanced model than AERMOD which considers the effects of meteorological parameters in coastal areas, which was applied with meteorological and geophysical parameters produced by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the selected days of modeling period to investigate the impact of these parameters on modeling results. Since there is no option in the model for flares, flare parameters including emission rate and effective height and diameter were calculated based on EPA method to simulate better the real condition of flaring. Simulation results revealed that CALPUFF model could adequately express the effect of meteorological condition on results of modeling in each hour of the simulation period. The results of the simulation showed that low-height flares have the most impact on the ground level concentration of air pollutant on the island. The effects of elevated flares were at a far distance from flaring activity and mostly occurred outside of the island. CALPUFF model showed excellent compatibility with meteorological data produced by WRF and could properly account for the effect of meteorological and terrain parameters on dispersion modeling.
    Keywords: California Puff Model, Flares, Meteorological data, Oil Field, Simulation, Weather Research, Forecasting
  • Bashir Brika *, Abdul Aziz Omran, Naji Greesh, Abubaker Abutartour Pages 296-300
    Libya is currently experiencing a major challenge in water supply due to reduction in the groundwater, especially around the coastal region. This problem is likely to create challenges for drinking water supply and the agricultural sector. Environmental desalination technology and wastewater treatments could provide a solution to the problem. In Libya, there are approximately 21 operating desalination plants, with a total capacity of 525,680 m3/d. The Tajoura desalination plant is one of the oldest reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants established on the west coast of Liby. It has been under operation for three decades with no significant attention to these systems. Membranes used in Tajoura plant were not regularly checked or replaced on time. This paper reviews the history of membranes used in Tajoura plant since its installation, specifically storage methods and the number of damaged membranes. Finally, alternative options for reuse of used membranes are proposed. It was found that a couple of reuse options are possible for some membrane elements. Converting the fiberglass of the outer casing into small pieces or powder for other production is highly recommend, while polypropylene spacers provide good opportunities for domestic and agricultural applications.
    Keywords: Desalination Technology, Reverse Osmosis, Membrane Material, Environment