فهرست مطالب

Veterinary Research Forum - Volume:10 Issue:4, 2019
  • Volume:10 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Keyvan Tadayon *, Ehsan Mostafavi, Afshin Hajizadeh, Rainak Ghaderi, Parham Tadayon Pages 271-275
    Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI) turned 95 years old in 2015. Majority of the animal infectious diseases such as rinderpest and anthrax that used to frequently strike the historic Persia are now gone for good or under control owing to the pioneering researches conducted at the institute in the early-mid 20th century in the field of vaccine manufacturing. The earliest such scientific contributions, were truly made by the French eminent veterinarian Dr. Louis Pierre Joseph Delpy who joined the institute in 1931. In his 18 year-long directorship tenure he taught his colleagues fundamentals of vaccinology, basics of modern epidemiology, essentials of infectious disease control disciplines, the art of scientific writing and much more things that changed the institute for ever. This paper reviews the events and turning points in the first 25 years of service of the institute in a chronological way and remarks Delpy’s principle involvements in all of these on the occasion of the 120 anniversary of his birth. At the entrance of the institute headquarter building where his bronze bust is placed, visitors can see a memorial etched plate that reads “... The architect of Razi and founder of Archives De L’Institute Razi (Archives of Razi Institute) was an enthusiastic scientist with a creative mind. … For the Razi community, Dr Delpy is gone but not forgotten.”
    Keywords: Archives of Razi Institute, Iran, Vaccine, World Health Organization
  • Rahim Hobbenaghi *, Sadat Ghafarzadeh, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard, Amir Abbas Farshid, Mehdi Imani Pages 277-284
    Crocin is a plant-derived carotenoid and bears potent antioxidant property. Ranitidine (a histamine H2 receptor blocker) is used for peptic ulcer treatment. The present study was planned to investigate the effects of crocin and ranitidine on indomethacin-induced ulcer in small intestine of rats. Animals were randomized into two major groups including indo-methacin (10.00 mg kg-1, ulcer group, 48 rats) and normal saline (1.00 mL kg-1, intact group, 48 rats) groups. Each of these two major groups was subdivided into eight subgroups for intra-peritoneal (IP) injections of normal saline, crocin (2.50, 10.00 and 40.00 mg kg-1), ranitidine (5.00 and 20.00 mg kg-1), crocin (2.50 and 10.00 mg kg-1) plus ranitidine (5.00 mg kg-1). Indomethacin induced intestinal ulcer was characterized by bleeding, inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia and crypt loss. This non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin decreased goblet cell number and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased small intestine weight, organo-somatic index (OSI), malodealdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and caspase-3 contents of intestine. Crocin resolved all the above-mentioned parameter changes induced by indomethacin. These treatments produced no significant effects on the above-mentioned parameters of intact group. The results of the present study showed tissue protective and anti-ulcer effects of crocin on small intestine by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Ranitidine alone showed no effect; however, in combination with crocin it exerted recovery effects. It is recommended that crocin, be considered as a therapeutic agent for NSAIDs-induced intestinal damage management.
    Keywords: Crocin, Indomethacin, Ranitidine, small intestinal ulcer
  • Amin Paidar Ardakani *, Mohammd Mehdi Oloumi, Alireza Farsinejad, Reza Kheirandish Pages 285-291
    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of platelet growth factors and periosteal mesenchymal stem cells on bone healing process, radiographically. Forty male White New Zealand rabbits in five equal groups were used in this study. A 2 mm full thickness bone defect was made in left radial bone of each animal. In group A (control) the defect was left with no medical intervention. In group B the defect was covered by a fibrin membrane. In group C the defect was covered by a fibrin membrane plus platelet growth factors. In group D the defect was covered by a fibrin membrane plus periosteal mesenchymalstem cells, and in group E the defect was covered by a fibrin membrane enriched with platelet growth factors and periosteal mesenchymalstem cells. Radiological evaluation was done immediately after surgery (week 0) and then at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks after operation. At the end of the eighth week, bone samples were taken to evaluate the histopathology. The radiological and histopathological observations showed a superior bone healing in the groups D and E, after eight weeks in comparison with the groups A, B and C. According to this study, it could be concluded that the platelet growth factors and periosteal mesenchymalstem cells could promote bone regeneration in long bone defects in a rabbit model.
    Keywords: bone healing, fibrin membrane, platelet growth factor, Rabbit, Stem Cell
  • Farhad Hashemzade *, Mansour Mayahi, Abdolhamid Shoshtary, Masoud Reza Seyfi Abadshapuri, Masoud Ghorbanpoor Pages 293-297

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in turkeys may result in immunosuppression, and inability of turkeys to resist nonpathogenic or less pathogenic organisms. A total number of 120 day-old commercial male turkeys were purchased and blood samples were collected from 20 day-old turkeys, remaining 100 were divided into four equal groups and kept in separated rooms. Groups 1 and 2 were infected with 104 CID50 of IBDV via intra-bursal route on day 1; Groups 1 and 3 were each infected with 106 EID50of AIV (H9N2) via the oculo-nasal routes on day 30. All groups were vaccinated against Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV). Detection of avian influenza virus H9N2 in trachea and cloaca swabs and in the tissues, was confirmed by Real-time polymerase chain reaction. Anti- NDV–AIV and anti-IBD titers were measured using HI and ELISA tests, respectively. The present study showed that infectious bursal disease changed the pathogenesis of (AIV) H9N2 by affecting AI virus replication and resulted in an increase shedding due to prolonged duration of sever clinical signs. The extent of shedding and virus replication need further study.

    Keywords: Avian influenza, Infectious bursal disease virus, Real time PCR, Turkey
  • Mehdi Fathollahi, Majid Aminzare, Mehran Mohseni, Hassan Hassanzadazar * Pages 299-305
    This study aimed to evaluate the composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial effects of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica (baneh) essential oil on some important bacteria in food safety. Essential oil was derived using hydro-distillation method of the baneh fruits. Essential oil composition was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiaziline-6-sulfonate; ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods were used to evaluate antioxidant activity and Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine total phenolic content of essential oil. The antibacterial effect of the essential oil against six pathogen bacteria was determined using minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and disc diffusion methods. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were main compounds of total identified constituents in the essential oil (approximately 93.50% and 5.45%, respectively). The main compounds were α-pinene, myrcene, limonene, β-pinene and γ-terpineol, respectively. The mean concentration of essential oil providing 50.00% inhibition was 7.54 ± 0.01 mg mL-1. Dose-dependent and scavenging activities were seen in DPPH and ABTS tests and total phenolic content within test range of concentrations (0.0625 to 4.00 mg mL-1). The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (48.67 ± 0.84%) was seen at a concentration of 4 mg mL-1. The responses of essential oil concentrations to ABTS assay were quite similar to the DPPH reaction, especially in higher concentrations. Both antimicrobial methods demonstrated that the essential oil had broader antibacterial effects against the Gram-positive bacteria than the tested Gram-negative bacteria. Essential oil of Pistachia atlantica subsp. kurdica can be one of the performing essential oils to be used as a preservative in food industry to increase food safety and reduce food pathogens risks.
    Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Disc diffusion, Radical scavenging activity, Minimum inhibitory concentration
  • Leila Zarei, Rasoul Shahrooz * Pages 307-313
    Methotrexate (MTX) as a chemotherapeutic agent, has adverse effects on reproductive organs by enhancing oxidative stress. In this study, the protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) against MTX side effects were evaluated. Forty-eight mature male NMRI mice were divided into six groups: group 1 (control) received 0.10 mL per day of normal saline intraperitoneally (IP), group 2 received MTX (20 mg kg-1 per week, IP), group 3 received MTX along with CMFE 250 mg kg-1 per day by oral gavage, group 4 received MTX along with CMFE 500 mg kg-1 per day by oral gavage, group 5 received MTX plus 1000 mg kg-1 per day of CMFE by oral gavage, and group 6 received 1000 mg kg-1 per day of CMFE extract, orally. All animals were treated for 35 consecutive days. Thickness of testicular capsule and germinal epithelium and diameter of seminiferous tubules were measured. Intra-cytoplasmic levels of carbohydrate, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and alkaline phosphatase were assessed. Serum level of testosterone and testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were also evaluated. The results demonstrated that MTX administration caused morphometrical parameters except the thickness of testicular capsule were significantly different in comparison to control group and decreased cytoplasmic concentration of carbohydrate in the first three layers of germinal epithelium and increased the UFA levels. Contrarily, CMFE ameliorates the condition. Moreover, CMFE increased testosterone level and increased the MTX-reduced TAC level. In conclusion, it was revealed that CMFE decreased the cellular atrophy by controlling the energy substrate utilization based on lipids and carbohydrates via provoking the testicular antioxidant status.
    Keywords: Cornus mas, Histochemistry, Methotrexate, Mice, Testis
  • Maryam Dadar *, Saeed Alamian, Ali Mohammad Behrozikhah, Freshteh Yazdani, Armin Kalantari, Afshar Etemadi, Adrian Whatmore Pages 315-321
    Brucellosis is a costly contagious disease of human, domestic and wild animals. It is a serious health problem in Iran causing significant economic losses therefore, control approaches to prevent its spread are of great importance. In Iran, the species and biovars of virulent Brucella species are still under-reported due to the inadequate diagnostic protocols and insufficient laboratory facilities. The objective of this study was to characterize Brucella isolates obtained from passive animal and human surveillance in Iran from 2011 to 2018 in order to understand the current epidemiological situation of the disease. A total of 419 samples (milk, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, abomasum content and aborted fetus tissues) were collected from 65 cases/case series (human and animals) and examined bacteriologically. The initially identified Brucella isolates were further characterized using phenotypic and molecular approaches. All recovered isolates were either B. abortus or B. melitensis. The infection in sheep appeared to be exclusively associated with B. melitensis, but both B. abortus and B. melitensis were common in bovine samples. Samples from one sheep and one goat were confirmed to be infected by the B. melitensis vaccine strain Rev1. In spite of B. abortus burden in animals (14 cases in cattle and camel), brucellosis in human was predominantly associated with B. melitensis (15 cases). The results confirmed that B. melitensis biovar 1 and B. abortus biovar 3 remain the most prevalent biovars in Iran. This report builds a picture of the significance of different Brucella species in different hosts in Iran and provides applicable information for the healthcare professionals about the public health risks of brucellosis and relevant preventive strategies.
    Keywords: Brucellosis, Bruce ladder, PCR, Brucella species, biovars
  • Mohammad Naser Nazem *, Negin Amiri, Shima Tasharofi Pages 323-331
    Early development of the digestive tract is crucial for achieving maximal growth and development of chickens. This study examined the effects of in ovo (IO) feeding of 0.70 mL of dextrose (10.00% and 20.00%) or amino acids solutions into the yolk sac at day 14 of incubation on small intestine histomorphometry and histomorphology, intestinal development, hatchability, body weight, and liver glycogen reserves in newborn chicks. Results showed body weight in amino acid fed hatchlings was higher than control and dextrose groups non-significantly, but hatchability was lower in amino acid group than others. Also, diameter of glycogen vacuoles in all IO treatment groups was more than control. Administration of exogenous dextrose and amino acids solutions into the yolk sac enhanced intestinal development by increasing the size and surface area of the villi and changed villi shape as well. It seems that dextrose or amino acids solutions could improve the intestinal villi development, while they did not affect finger-like villi in jejunum.
    Keywords: Amino acid, Broiler, dextrose, In ovo feeding, yolk sac
  • Amir Khaki *, Atefeh Araghia, Mehdi Lotfi, Alireza Nourian Pages 333-341
    Artificial insemination is a well-established and widely used method for genetic improvement in cattle breeding industry. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in the cryoprotective effects of minerals and antioxidants on semen. Previous studies on calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), two main macro-minerals, have mainly investigated their roles in mammalian spermatogenesis and fertility. In addition, the experimental data examining the semen content regarding these minerals and antioxidants from different animal species are rather controversial and there is no general agreement about their associations with semen quality. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the seminal plasma concentrations of Ca, Mg and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in first and second ejaculations of dual-purpose Fleckvieh bulls and to link them to the sperm characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Sperm progressive motility after thawing was used to classify the data into three groups: < 40.00%, 40.00 to 50.00% and > 50.00%. The measurements of two minerals and TAC were carried out using spectrophotometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. The results showed that there were significant differences in several parameters of semen quality between first and second ejaculations. No significant differences were also found on Ca and Mg concentrations and Ca/Mg ratio. The TAC level was significantly higher in the first ejaculation than the second one. The findings of this study suggest that TAC is a potential marker for bull semen quality assessment in the frozen semen production industry.
    Keywords: Calcium, Magnesium, Repetitive ejaculations, Semen quality, Seminal plasma
  • Sara Golshan, Rasoul Pirmohammadi, Hamed Khalilvandi Behroozyar * Pages 343-350

    Whole soybeans serve as one of the main sources of protein in ruminant nutrition. Different processing methods have been employed for ruminal protein protection. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of microwave irradiation [900 W; 2, 4 and 6 min] on quality, ruminal degradability and estimated in vitro intestinal digestibility of availability soybean crude protein. This experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with seven treatments including control (no processing), along with 2, 4 and 6 min of microwave irradiation on whole and ground soybeans. Protein and carbohydrate fractions were determined according to Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS). Triplicates of the samples were incubated in the rumen of three cannulated Holstein steers for up to 48 hr. Microwave irradiation increased neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen, metabolizable protein content and resulted in a lower effective rumen degradability and in vitro gas production. Nevertheless, longer processing time led to higher unavailable protein and carbohydrate fractions. In the main, microwave irradiation of ground samples for 4 min increased metabolizable protein content, without negative effects on protein and carbohydrate availability.

    Keywords: Heat treatment, Metabolizable Protein, Undigested crude protein
  • Christian Okorie Kanu *, Daniel Edet, Patrick Aba, Onyinye Okorie Kanu Pages 351-355

    This study investigated the toxic effects of dried pulverized Caloncoba echinata leaves on the hematology, blood biochemistry and vital organs of male albino rats. Twenty adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each. Groups A, B and C were fed 25.00%, 15.00% and 5.00% of pulverized C. echinata leaves in feed respectively while group D was given normal feed for a four weeks period. Blood samples were collected at two weeks intervals for hematological and blood biochemistry analyses. Results showed a significant reduction of packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration and total red blood cell counts in group B from week two to the end of the study. There was also a reduction of body weight and leukocytosis in groups A and B from week two to the end of the study. There was a significant reduction of albumin in group B when compared to the other groups after two weeks and a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration in group A after two weeks of the feeding of the leaves to the end of the study. Discrete areas of degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes were observed in the rats of groups A and B and testicular atrophy in group B rats. It was concluded that feeding the rats with the pulverized C. echinata leaves led to a significant reduction of body weights and erythrocytic parameters, leukocytosis, hepatic and testicular injuries in the albino rats.

    Keywords: Blood biochemistry, Caloncoba echinata, Hematology, Histopathology, Rats
  • Arezo Moghtaderi, Ahmadreza Raji *, Saeid Khanzadi, Abolghasem Nabipour Pages 357-360
    Nowadays, the consumption of meat and meat products has been increased with modern manufacturing techniques. Due to the economic value, the likelihood of using unauthorized tissue is possible in meat products. The aim of this study was to apply morphological methods for detection of unauthorized tissues in meat sausage. In this study, a total number of 20 samples of different types of sausages were randomly collected from markets, in north-east of Iran. Each sample was divided into three equal parts and three paraffin-embedded blocks were prepared from each part (180 blocks). Then the sections were stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Periodic acid- Schiff/Alcian blue and Verhoeffe/Van Gieson. A total number of 720 slides were observed using a light microscope. This research showed the use of unauthorized tissues in the sausages which was detected by histological methods. We observed authorized tissues like skeletal muscle fiber (100%), fat tissue (100%) and plant material (97.70%). A wide range of unauthorized tissues were detected including dense connective tissue (6.66%), cartilage (28.30%), bone (8.30%), skin (51.60%), smooth muscle (1.66%) and blood vessels (11.66%). The results of this study confirmed the use of unauthorized tissue in meat sausages in Iran and concluded that the histological methods especially Masson’s trichrome staining are a practical technique for routine assessment of authenticity and quality of sausage to protect the consumers from adulteration.
    Keywords: Histology, sausage, Unauthorized tissues
  • Mohammad Reza Esmaili Nejad, Rana Vafaei *, Majid Masoudifard, Seyed Mahdi Nasiri, Atena Salimi Pages 361-364
    Canine osteosarcoma (OS) or osteogenic sarcoma is an aggressive tumor of the skeletal system, associated with a rapid progression and guarded prognosis. The osteosarcomas, mostly arise from the appendicular skeleton while axial OS (osteosarcoma of flat bones) are less reported in the majority of large breeds. This report describes complete para-clinical investigations of an aggressive chondroblastic OS involving facial flat bones with highly metastatic characterization in a large mix breed stray dog. Radiographic and computed tomography findings demonstrated an amorphous and active new bone formation, associated with the severe lytic areas in the left maxillary, orbital and zygomatic bones. Also, lots of nodular densities were distributed in all lung lobes. The cytological examination of the mass revealed individualized oval to spindle-shaped pleomorphic mesenchymal cells exhibiting many criteria of malignancy such as marked anisocytosis, anisokaryosis, prominent and multiple nucleoli. The punctate cytoplasmic vacuoles were obvious and bi-nucleated cells were frequently observed. These cells were seen in the background of an eosinophilic matrix. Histopathologic evaluation of the mass exhibited areas of osseous differentiation within the mass containing bony spicules and wavy bone formation along with the vast areas of cartilaginous differentiations with chondroblasts in lacunar spaces. Ultimately, chondroblastic OS with severe lung metastasis was confirmed and the animal was euthanized.
    Keywords: bone, Chondroblastic osteosarcoma, CT-Scan, Dog, Radiography
  • Sara Shokrpoor, Amir Asghari, Azam Yazdani, Jamshid Razmyar * Pages 365-367
    Budgerigar is a common name for a colorful Australian native bird belonging to the Melopsittacus undulatus species. It is a very familiar pet around the world and its breeding has been grown in Iran. This study was conducted on a 2-year-old budgerigar with a nodular mass on the left wing. Physical examination revealed a firm, round and well-circumscribed mass approximately 1.70 cm in diameter. Radiographs showed a soft tissue mass with no involvement of bony structures. Fine needle aspiration was performed and the sample was cultured. In cultural examination, Klebsiella spp. were isolated in pure culture. Genus and species of the bacteria were confirmed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The mass was surgically excised and it was mainly composed of numerous, large lipid-laden macrophages containing abundant vacuolated cytoplasm, extracellular acicular cholesterol clefts and large number of multinucleated giant cells (especially multinucleated Touton giant cells) in the dermis. Finally, a diagnosis of cutaneous xanthogranuloma was made based on histopathological findings.
    Keywords: Budgerigar, Histopathology, Polymerase chain reaction, Radiology, Xanthogranuloma