فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue:5, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Mehdizadeh A. R., Mortazavi S. M. J.* Pages 505-506
  • Chethan K. N., Shyamasunder Bhat N., Zuber M., Satish Shenoy B.* Pages 507-516
    Background

    The hip joint is the largest joint after the knee, which gives stability to the whole human structure. The hip joint consists of a femoral head which articulates with the acetabulum. Due to age and wear between the joints, these joints need to be replaced with implants which can function just as a natural joint. Since the early 19th century, the hip joint arthroplasty has evolved, and many advances have been taken in the field which improved the whole procedure. Currently, there is a wide variety of implants available varying in the length of stem, shapes, and sizes.

    Material and Methods

    In this analytical study of femur, circular, oval, ellipse and trapezoidal-shaped stem designs are considered in the present study. The human femur is modeled using Mimics. CATIA V-6 is used to model the implant models. Static structural analysis is carried out using ANSYS R-19 to evaluate the best implant design.

    Results

    All the four hip implants exhibited the von Mises stresses, lesser than its yielded strength. However, circular and trapezoidal-shaped stems have less von Mises stress compared to ellipse and oval.

    Conclusion

    This study shows the behavior of different implant designs when their cross-sections are varied. Further, these implants can be considered for dynamic analysis considering different gait cycles. By optimizing the implant design, life expectancy of the implant can be improved, which will avoid the revision of the hip implant in active adult patients.

    Keywords: Von mises stress, Hip Prosthesis, Finite element analysis, Static analysis, Total deformation, Femur
  • Guamán Lozada D. F.*, Cabrera Escobar J., GuamánLozada M. D., Romero Rodríguez V., Castro Martin A. P., Rodríguez M. G., Ying Ying H., Zhi Han Y., JiaWei H. Pages 517-524
    Background

    Scoliosis is a health problem that causes a side-to-side curvature in the spine. The curvature may have an “S” or “C” shape. To evaluate scoliosis, the Cobb angle has been commonly used. However, digital image processing allows the Cobb angle to be obtained easily and quickly, several researchers have determined that Cobb angle contains high variations (errors) in the measurements. Therefore, a more reproducible computer aided-method to evaluate scoliosis is presented.

    Material and Methods

    In this analytical study, several polynomial curves were fitted to the spine curvature (4th to 8th order) of thirty plain films of scoliosis patients to obtain the Curvature-Length of the spine. Each plain film was evaluated by 3 physician observers. Curvature was measured twice using the Cobb method and the proposed Curvature-Length Technique (CLT). Data were analyzed by a paired-sample Student t-test and Pearson correlation method using SPSS Statistics 25.

    Results

    The curve of 7th order polynomial had the best fit on the spine curvature and was also used for our proposed method (CLT) obtaining a significant positive correlation when compared to Cobb measurements (r=0.863, P<0.001). The Intraclass Correlation (ICC) was between 0.863 and 0.948 for Cobb method and0.974 to 0.984 for CLT method. In addition, mean measurement of the inter-observer COV (Coefficient of Variation) for Cobb method was of 0.185, that was significantly greater than the obtained with CLT method of 0.155, this means that CLT method is 16.2% more repeatable than Cobb Method.

    Conclusion

    Based on results, it was concluded that CLT method is more reproducible than the Cobb method for measuring spinal curvature.

    Keywords: Scoliosis, Spinal Curvatures, Polynomial, Methods, Cobb-Angle
  • Pakravan A. H., Aghamiri S. M. R., Bamdadian T., Gholami M., Moshfeghi M. Pages 525-532
    Background

    Panoramic imaging is one of the most common imaging methods in dentistry. Regarding the side-effects of ionizing radiation, it is necessary to survey different aspects and details of panoramic imaging. In this study, we compared the absorbed x-ray dose around two panoramic x-ray units: PM 2002 CC Proline (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) and Cranex Tome (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland).

    Materials and Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 15 thermoluminescet dosemeters (TLD-100) were placed in 3 semi-circles of 40cm, 80cm and 120cm radii in order to estimate x-ray dose. Around each unit, the number of TLDs in each semi-circle was 5 with equal intervals. The center of semicircles accords with the patient’s position. Each TLD was exposed 40 times. These dosemeters were read out with a Harshaw Model 4000 TLD Reader (USA). The calibration processing and the reading of dosemeters were performed by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran.

    Results

    The mean absorbed dose in three lines of PM 2002 CC Proline was 123.2±15.1, 118.0±11.0 and 108.0±9.1 µSv, (p=0.013). The results were 140.4±15.2, 120.2±10.4 and 111.6±11.2 µSv in Cranex Tome (p=0.208), which reveals no significant difference between two systems.

    Conclusion

    There are no significant differences between the mean absorbed dose of surveyed models in panoramic imaging by two units (PM 2002 CC Proline and Cranex Tome). These results were less than occupational exposure recommended by ICRP, even at the highest calculated doses.

    Keywords: X-Rays, Radiation Dosage, Radiography, Panoramic, Occupational Exposure
  • Nadi S., Elahi M., Moradi S., Banaei A., Ataei Gh., Abedi, Firouzjah R.* Pages 533-540
    Background

    Medical use of ionizing radiation has direct/indirect undesirable effects on normal tissues. In this study, the radioprotective effect of arbutin in megavoltage therapeutic x-irradiated mice was investigated using serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and asparate amniotransferase (AST) activity measurements.

    Material and Methods

    In this analytical and experimental lab study, sixty mice (12 identical groups) were irradiated with 6 MV x-ray beam (2 and 4 Gy in one fraction). Arbutin concentrations were chosen 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg and injected intraperitoneal 2 hours before irradiation. Samples of peripheral blood cells were collected and serum was separated on the 1, 3, and 7 days post-x-radiation; in addition, the level of ALP, ALT, and AST were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD test.

    Results

    X-radiation (2 and 4 Gy) increased the ALT and AST activity levels on the 1, 3, and 7 days post- irradiation, but the ALP level significantly increased on the 1 and 7 days and decreased on the third day compared to the control group (P< 0.001). ALP, ALT and AST activity levels in “2 and 4 Gy x irradiation + distilled water” groups were significantly higher than “2 and 4 Gy irradiation + 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg arbutin” groups on the first and seventh day post-irradiation (P< 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Arbutin is a strong radioprotector for reducing the radiation effect on the whole-body tissues by measuring ALP, ALT and AST enzyme activity levels. Furthermore, the concentration of 50 mg/kg arbutin showed higher radioprotective effect.

    Keywords: Arbutin, Liver, Enzymes, Radiation Protection
  • Bahreini Toosi M. H., Zarghani H.*, Poorzand H., Naseri Sh., Eshraghi A., Golabpour A. Pages 541-550
    Background

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate how left ventricular twist and torsion are associated with sex between sex groups of the same age.

    Materials and Methods

    In this analytical study, twenty one healthy subjects were scanned in left ventricle basal and apical short axis views to run the block matching algorithm; instantaneous changes in the base and apex rotation angels were estimated by this algorithm and then instantaneous changes of the twist and torsion were calculated over the cardiac cycle.

    Results

    The rotation amount between the consecutive frames in basal and apical levels was extracted from short axis views by tracking the speckle pattern of images. The maximum basal rotation angle for men and women were -6.94°±1.84 and 9.85°±2.36 degrees (p-value = 0.054), respectively. Apex maximum rotation for men was -8.89°±2.04 and for women was 12.18°±2.33 (p-value < 0.05). The peak of twist angle for men and women was 16.78 ± 1.83 and 20.95± 2.09 degrees (p-value < 0.05), respectively. In men and women groups, the peak of calculated torsion angle was 5.49°±1.04 and 7.12± 1.38 degrees (p-value < 0.05), respectively.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion is that although torsion is an efficient parameter for left ventricle function assessment, because it can take in account the heart diameter and length, statistic evaluation of the results shows that among men and women LV mechanical parameters are significantly different. This study was mainly ascribed to the dependency of the torsion and twist on patient sex.

    Keywords: Echocardiography, Heart Ventricles, Rotation, Torsion, Motion, Algorithm
  • Hashemi S. M., Bahreyni M. H., Mohammadi M., Nasseri S., Bayani S., Gholamhosseinian H., Salek R., Shahedi F., Momennezhad M. Pages 551-558
    Background

    The present study aimed to introduce a rapid transmission dosimetry through an electronic portal-imaging device (EPID) to achieve two-dimensional (2D) dose distribution for homogenous environments.

    Material and Methods

    In this Phantom study, first, the EPID calibration curve and correction coefficients for field size were obtained from EPID and ionization chamber. Second, the EPID off-axis pixel response was measured, and the grey-scale image of the EPID was converted into portal dose image using the calibration curve. Next, the scattering contribution was calculated to obtain the primary dose. Then, by means of a verified back-projection algorithm and the Scatter-to-Primary dose ratio, a 2D dose distribution at the mid-plane was obtained.

    Results

    The results obtained from comparing the transmitted EPID dosimetry to the calculated dose, using commercial treatment planning system with gamma function while there is 3% dose difference and 3mm distance to agreement criteria, were in a good agreement. In addition, the pass rates of γ < 1 was 94.89% for the homogeneous volumes.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results, the method proposed can be used in EPID dosimetry.

    Keywords: Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted, Dose-Response Relationship, Radiotherapy, Algorithms
  • Parande S., Esmaili Torshabi A.* Pages 559-568
    Background

    Medical image interpolation is recently introduced as a helpful tool to obtain further information via initial available images taken by tomography systems. To do this, deformable image registration algorithms are mainly utilized to perform image interpolation using tomography images.

    Materials and Methods

    In this work, 4DCT thoracic images of five real patients provided by DIR-lab group were utilized. Four implemented registration algorithms as 1) Original Horn-Schunck, 2) Inverse consistent Horn-Schunck, 3) Original Demons and 4) Fast Demons were implemented by means of DIRART software packages. Then, the calculated vector fields are processed to reconstruct 4DCT images at any desired time using optical flow based on interpolation method. As a comparative study, the accuracy of interpolated image obtained by each strategy is measured by calculating mean square error between the interpolated image and real middle image as ground truth dataset.

    Results

    Final results represent the ability to accomplish image interpolation among given two-paired images. Among them, Inverse Consistent Horn-Schunck algorithm has the best performance to reconstruct interpolated image with the highest accuracy while Demons method had the worst performance.

    Conclusion

    Since image interpolation is affected by increasing the distance between two given available images, the performance accuracy of four different registration algorithms is investigated concerning this issue. As a result, Inverse Consistent Horn-Schunck does not essentially have the best performance especially in facing large displacements happened due to distance increment.

    Keywords: Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography, Radiotherapy, Image-Guided, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Respiratory motion, Deformable Image Registration
  • Asgari M*, Keyvanian SH.S Pages 569-578
    Background

    Lower extremity injuries are frequently observed in car-to-pedestrian accidents and due to the bumper height of most cars, knee joint is one of the most damaged body parts in car-to-pedestrian collisions.

    Objective

    The aim of this paper is first to provide an accurate Finite Element model of the knee joint and second to investigate lower limb impact biomechanics in car-to-pedestrian accidents and to predict the effect of parameters such as collision speed and height due to the car speed and bumper height on knee joint injuries, especially in soft tissues such as ligaments, cartilages and menisci.

    Materials and Methods

    In this analytical study, a 3D finite element (FE) model of human body knee joint is developed based on human anatomy. The model consists of femur, tibia, menisci, articular cartilages and ligaments. Material properties of bones and soft tissues were assumed to be elastic, homogenous and isotropic.

    Results

    FE model is used to perform injury reconstructions and predict the damages by using physical parameters such as Von-Mises stress and equivalent elastic strain of tissues.

    Conclusion

    The results of simulations first show that the most vulnerable part of the knee is MCL ligament and second the effect of speed and height of the impact on knee joint. In the critical member, MCL, the damage increased in higher speeds but as an exception, smaller damages took place in menisci due to the increased distance of two bones in the higher speed.

    Keywords: Pedestrians, Knee Injuries, Finite Element Analysis
  • Said Salman I. H., Jebaii F. A.*, Yusef H. H., Moustafa M. E. Pages 579-586
    Background

    The radiation emitted from electromagnetic fields (EMF) can cause biological effects on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including non-thermal effects.

    Objective

    The present study evaluated the non-thermal effects of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) operating at 2.4 GHz part of non-ionizing EMF on different pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermis). Antibiotic resistance, motility, metabolic activity and biofilm formation were examined.

    Material and Methods

    In this case-control, a Wi-Fi router was used as a source of microwaves and also bacterial cells were exposed to Wi-Fi radiation continuously for 24 and 48 hours. The antibiotic susceptibility was carried out using a disc diffusion method on Müller Hinton agar plates. Motility of Escherichia coli 0157H7 was conducted on motility agar plates. Cell metabolic activity and biofilm formation were performed using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and crystal violet quantification, respectively.

    Results

    The exposure to Wi-Fi radiation altered motility and antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli 0157H7. However, there was no effect of Wi-Fi radiation on antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis. On the other hand, the exposed cells, as compared to the unexposed control, showed an increased metabolic activity and biofilm formation ability in Escherichia coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis.

    Conclusion

    These results proposed that Wi-Fi exposure acted on bacteria in stressful manner by increasing antibiotic resistance and motility of Escherichia coli 0157H7, as well as enhancing biofilm formation by Escherichia coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis. The findings may have implications for the management of serious diseases caused by these infectious bacteria.

    Keywords: Non-thermal Effect, EMF, Wi-Fi, Disc Diffusion, Motility, MTT, Biofilms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus
  • Bevelacqua J. J., Mortazavi S. M. J.* Pages 587-588

    The radiation environment in deep space, where astronauts are behind the shelter provided by the Earth’s magnetosphere, is a major health concern. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are two basic sources of space radiation in the solar system. The health risks of exposure to high levels of space radiation can be observed either as acute and delayed effects. Zhang et al. in their recently published paper entitled “γ-H2AX responds to DNA damage induced by long-term exposure to combined low-dose-rate neutron and γ-ray radiation” have addressed the effects of different cumulative radiation doses on peripheral blood cell, subsets of T cells of peripheral blood lymphocytes and DNA damage repair. These researchers exposed animals to low dose rate 60Co-rays at 0.0167 Gy h−1for 2 h/d and 252Cf neutrons at 0.028 mGy h−1for 20 h/d for 15, 30, or 60 consecutive days. They reported that the mRNA of H2AX increased significantly, and showed a positive correlation with dose. Despite strengths, this paper has several shortcomings such as poor definition of low dose radiation as well as space and reactor radiation environments. Another shortcoming of this paper comes from this point that blood cell studies do not represent the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the total body. Moreover, the effects of the human immune system and DNA repair mechanisms are not included in the study. The role of pre-exposures and induction of adaptive response phenomena in decreasing the risk of radiation in deep space missions are also ignored.

    Keywords: Space Radiation, Gamma Rays, Neutrons, γ-H2AX, Astronauts