فهرست مطالب

Horticultural Science and Technology - Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Ameneh Tarakemeh, Majid Azizi *, Vahid Rowshan, Hassan Salehi, Rosella Spina, François Dupire, Hossein Arouei, Dominique Laurain Mattar Pages 151-157

    Narcissus spp. are of great importance to pharmaceutical industries because of biosynthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. N. tazetta with several varieties is a widespread species, native to the Mediterranean region with considerable distribution in Iran. In the present study, calli, roots and bulblets were regenerated from N. tazetta var. Meskin. In order to report alkaloid profile and quantify galanthamine and lycorine, methanolic extract of different in vitro tissues were subjected to alkaloid purification by SPE (solid phase extraction) method, followed by GC-MS analysis. In general, galanthamine and lycorine were detected in all in vitro tissues, while demethylmaritidine was only identified in bulblets. Bulblet was identified as the best source of main Amaryllidaceae alkaloids regarding the highest quantities of galanthamine and lycorine with 15 and 731 µg/g dry weight (DW) respectively.

    Keywords: Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, Galanthamine, Lycorine, Narcissus, Tissue culture
  • Azhar Hussain *, Muhammad Ashraf Sumrah, Attiq Akhtar, Syed Hamza Mahfooz, Muhammad Azeem Tariq Pages 159-165
    This is the first-ever study conducted to standardize the maturity stage of olive fruit for development of olive murabba. Olive fruit was harvested at three different maturity stages including lemon green, semi-ripened and fully ripened stages for postharvest processing. Most prominent quality parameters of the product were studied for all maturity stages. Olive productprepared from semi-ripened fruit gave the best score for the olive appearance (7.00) followed by that from lemon green stage (4.64). Semi-ripened stage also scored top in terms of flavor (6.53) and taste (6.58), followed by lemon green stage with non-significant differences. Highest firmness (14.91N) and shelf-life (372.66 days) were detected in products prepared from the lemon green stage; followed by semi-ripened stage (12.19 N firmness and 263days shelf life). Fruits harvested at fully ripened stage remained at the bottom in terms of all the parameters studied. The product prepared from fruits at semi-ripened stage gained the best acceptability due to having of the best appearance, flavor and taste, which are the main quality attributes in consumer viewpoint. In conclusion, harvesting olive fruit at semi-ripened stage resulted in the best quality of olive for processing to murabba.
    Keywords: Olive processing, FS-17, Murabba, shelf-life, taste, firmness
  • Shima Alaei * Pages 167-175
    Dracocephalum moldavica L. is an annual species of Lamiacea family whose essential oil is widely used in medicinal, food, cosmetic and health industries. Drought stress is a major factor limiting plants growth and yield. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irrigation regime on essential oil content and composition of D. moldavica L. The Irrigation regimes were 100%, 85%, 75% and 55% of field capacity (FC). The results showed that 53 essential oil components were identified in different irrigation regimes. Thirty-six, twenty-two, twenty and thirty components were identified at 100%, 85%, 75% and 55% of FC, respectively. The amounts of identified components were 99.4%, 96.6%, 97.8% and 99.9% at 100%, 85%, 75% and 55% of FC, respectively. The highest of main components were geranyl acetate, geraniol and geranial in all the irrigation regimes. The amount of oxygen-containing monoterpenes of essential oil were 81.6%, 94.5%, 91.8% and 92.0% at 100%, 85%, 75% and 55% of FC, respectively. Our results showed that essential oil content increased significantly by 3.4%, 13.8% and 27.6% at 85%, 75% and 55% of FC, respectively. Furthermore, the amount of oxygen-containing monoterpenes of D. moldavicum increased by 15.8%, 12.5% and 12.7% at 85%, 75% and 55% of FC, respectively, but oxygen-containing sesquiterpenes decreased by increasing the level of drought. In conclusion, our results indicated the advantage of drought for increasing essential oil content and oxygen-containing monoterpenes (OM), especially geranyl acetate, geraniol and geranial in D. moldavica.
    Keywords: Dragonhead, Oil composition, Irrigation, Field capacity
  • Mohsen Azadbakht *, Mohammad Javad Mahmoodi, Mohammad Vahedi Torshizi Pages 177-188
    Nowadays, due to the necessity of increasing quality awareness in the food sector and its health, the non-destructive computed tomography (CT) method, which is one of the most widely used methods because of the ability to detect internal bruise in a non-destructive way, attracted so much attention. By using the non-destructive CT method a total of 81 healthy pears was selected and then subjected to quasi-static and dynamical loading. The experiment was performed on wide edge quasi-static pressure of 70, 100, 130 N and thin edge of 15, 20, 25 N and dynamic load of 300, 350, 400 g and storage period for 5, 10 and 15 days, to investigate the different effects of loading forces and storage periods on the percentage of the bruise and its relation with the qualitative properties such as phenol, antioxidant and vitamin C contents and firmness. The results of the experiments showed that the highest and lowest percentages of the bruise were related to a load of 400 N of 15 days and a 15 N 5-day thin line with values of 47.36 and 0.007, respectively. The highest and lowest physiological values were 15 N load of the 5-day thin edge and the 400 N of 15-day impact. Finally, the highest antioxidant content was 51.5% for 300 g dynamic loading force and 5- day storage, 28.86 mg/100g phenol for loading force of 70 N wide edge and 5 day storage and 7.4 mg/100ml vitamin C for loading force of 70 N wide edge and 5 day storage. Finally, according to the obtained results, there was an inverse relationship between the amount of bruising and chemical properties of pear.
    Keywords: Bruise, Chemical Properties, Loading Force, Pear, phenol
  • Ghasem Esmaeili, Majid Azizi *, Hossein Arouiee, Jamil Vaezi Pages 189-200
    The morphological specifications play a substantial role in classification and breeding programs of various plant taxa. In the current study, some macro- and micro-morphological features of Salvia nemorosa, Salvia syriaca, Salvia frigida and Salvia virgata (three accessions), were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis program. The completely randomized design (CRD) was used to compare the morphological properties (r=4). Macro-morphological and agronomical measurements showed that Salvia species have great potential for cultivation as medicinal and ornamental plants. The cluster analysis suggested that S. virgata and S. frigida located in the same group; on the other side, S. syriaca and S. nemorosa had more similarity. The micro-morphological results showed that glandular trichomes (GTs) and non-glandular trichomes (NGTs) were widely distributed over the leaf and flower surfaces. The peltate GTs with high-density covered sepal and petal and were observed with low density on the leaves. The comparison with different species showed that the highest size and density of GTs belonged to Salvia virgata. The GTs are large and cover a significant portion of the flower surface (3.85-18.45%). The multicellular GTs were observed in S. nemorosa and S. virgata A1 and A2. The uniseriate and multicellular NGTs covered the adaxial leaf surface in different species. Besides, relative variation in GTs was observed in the three studied S. virgata accessions (15.33- 30.58 trichomes per mm2), which indicates the role of environmental conditions in trichomes formation. A wide range of variation in most of the micro- and macro-morphological traits of Salvia genotypes observed in cultivated condition.
    Keywords: Breeding, Diversity, Morphology, Salvia, SEM, Trichomes
  • Marzieh Etehadpour *, Iraj Tavassolian Pages 201-215
    Endemic yarrow (Achillea eriophora DC.) has been widely used in folk medicine for centuries. The impact of climatic and edaphic conditions was investigated on essential oil (EO) yield and compositions of different yarrow ecotypes, native to Kerman province in southeast of Iran. The aerial part of plants was collected from 13 naturalhabitats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed a significant variation in EO yield and compositions among ecotypes. 116 components were identified from 13 regions. EO extraction yields fluctuated from 0.71 to 5.83% (v/w) in KP12 and KP02 regions, respectively. The predominant components were L-borneol (0-45.93%), bornyl acetate (0-22.45%), bornyl ester (0-10.46%), (E)-α-ionol (0-28.77%), 6βBicyclo [4.3.0] nonane5β-iodomethyl-1β-isopropenyl-4α, 5α-dimethyl (0-12.14%) and eucalyptol (0- 3.96%). For the first time, the presence of hexadecenoic acid, 6β-bicyclo [4.3.0] nonane and 5β-iodomethyl-1β-isopropenyl-4α, 5α-dimethyl were reported in A. eriophora. EO yields and compositions were affected by the ecological factors. Among them, soil pH and latitude showed the most significant impacts.
    Keywords: Achillea eriophora, Chemical variability, Correlation analysis, L-borneol
  • Arezou Forouzi, Azim Ghasemnezhad *, Reza Ghorbani Nasrabad Pages 217-236
    Soil salinity and water deficit are major problems for development of agricultural production. In this study, effects of growth promoting microorganisms (inoculation with Piriformospora indica and two isolates of Streptomyces sp.) on the leaf yield and absorption rate of some elements in leaves and roots of stevia plant was investigated under salinity conditions for two consecutive years (2016-2017). The fresh and dry weights of the leaves were significantly affected by microorganism and salinity. High salinity level led to sodium accumulation in the root and leaf; while the amount of potassium and K+/Na+ ratio decreased in both root and leaf. The accumulation of phosphorus in both leaf and root was significantly decreased in 3 ds m-1 salinity. Plants exposed to Piriformospora indica and Streptomyces strains, showed lower sodium content in their leaves and roots. In contrast, an increase in the content of potassium and phosphorus was observed in the growth stimulator microbes-treated plants. However, the K+/Na+ ratio in the growth stimulator microbes-treated plants was to some extent lower than its ratio in control plants. In conclusion, P. indica and Streptomyces strains improved the biomass formation of the stevia plant under salinity conditions by controlling the uptake of potassium, phosphorus and sodium.
    Keywords: Bacteria, Endophyte, Mycorrhiza, salinity, Stevia
  • Amin Reza Jamshidi *, Ahmad Ghazanfari Moghaddam, Ahmad Reza Ommani Pages 237-246
    Aeroponic planting is proved to be the one of the most efficient growing environments for many vegetable crops. In this technique, plants are cultivated in absence of soil and the required nutrients are directly supplied to the roots through a fogging system. In modern sprayers, water is atomized by means of ultrasound waves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ultrasound waves on the nutrient solution and on yield and some yield components of tomato grown in a vertical aeroponic planting system. The investigation was conducted using a 3×3 factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design. The considered factors were ultrasonic frequency at three levels of 50 kHz, 107 kHz and 2.1 MHz and the fogging duration at three levels of 10, 15 and 20 min. The results indicated that, at frequency of 50 MHz, the nutrient solution had the lowest EC equivalent while the pH of the nutrient solution reached its highest value at 2.1 MHz. Generally, both EC and pH value of the nutrient solution were elevated by increase in the wave frequency, but they did not show a definite trend by changes in fogging duration. The ANOVA indicated that the interaction effect of the ultrasound frequency and fogging period had significant effect on the plant height, root weight and length, fruit weight, fruit length, plant yield and system performance. In general, the measured yield components decreased as frequency of the waves increased and the best results were obtained at 50 kHz frequency and 15 min fogging period.
    Keywords: Aeroponic planting, Ultrasonic Atomizer, Greenhouse, Tomato, yield
  • Tahereh Raiesi *, Bijan Moradi, Javad Fatahi Moghadam Pages 247-257
    Kiwifruit requires a high quantity of nutrients that must be supplied through fertilization to obtain an optimum yield on a sustainable basis. This research was conducted to evaluate different fertilization methods including broadcast application (as control), deep placement of the fertilizer and fertigation, alone or in combination with foliar application and their effects on the yield, leaf mineral contents, and some quality properties of kiwifruit (A. deliciosa cv. Hayward). Results showed that fertilization methods had a significant effect on yield and the highest level of yield (76 Kg tree-1) was obtained in the combination of fertigation with foliar spray. In addition, foliar application significantly increased leaf mineral contents of kiwifruit in all treatments. Furthermore, the fertilization method had significant effects on phenol, ascorbic acid contents, and antioxidant capacity of fruits. The highest levels of antioxidant (70.9%), phenol (103.6 mg 100g-1), and ascorbic acid (54.2 mg 100 g-1) in fruits were recorded in ‘soil application’ method. Total soluble carbohydrate and starch contents of the fruits were reduced following foliar nutrition in all treatments. However, foliar nutrition significantly increased fruit crude protein. In conclusion, based on obtained results, fertilization method directly influenced the yield and leaf mineral status and indirectly influenced the fruit chemical composition of Hayward kiwifruit. In fact, the supplemental foliar application reduced some fruit quality attributes (lower antioxidant activity and carbohydrate content) but enhanced the yield of kiwifruit.
    Keywords: antioxidant capacity, Carbohydrate, phenol, starch
  • Fatemeh Roshani Bakhsh, Gholam Reza Sharifi Sirchi *, Davood Samsampoor Pages 259-272

    The grape berries due to containing organic acids, sugars, aromatic compounds, phenolic compounds (including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, stilbenes (resveratrol)), tannins, and oil in the pulp, skin, and seed have numerous health benefits for human health. In this study, we investigated genetic and phytochemical characteristics of four famous grapevine cultivars (Shiraz, Sirch, Panje Arous, and Yaghouti) at the maturity stage in 10-20º Brix on a cultivar basis. This research was performed at university of Hormozgan in 2017. The results indicated that Sirch cultivar had the highest total anthocyanin content (2733 mg kg-1 FW), total phenolic content (1666 mg kg-1 FW) and total carotenoid in the skin. High correlation (R2 = 0.951) was observed between cultivars skin’s total anthocyanin and total carotenoid contents. The highest quercetin content (1593 mg kg-1 FW) among the studied cultivars was obtained in Panje Arous cultivar (a pink grape) and Sirch cultivar had the highest delphinidin specific anthocyanin content (65.03 mg kg-1 FW). Among the studied cultivars, Shiraz had the highest total soluble sugar (%19.90) and amount of vinegar (950 ml Kg -1 grapes). Analysis of GC-MS results of vinegar, indicated that the highest rate of ethanol (%98.442) was found in Panje Arous cultivar. DNA sequencing and alignment analysis of F3H, UFGT, DFR, and MybA1 gene sequences showed that there was high homology (>%99) among the studied cultivars, therefore it can be concluded that they are derived from a common ancestor.

    Keywords: Grape anthocyanin, Phenolic content, Antioxidant activity, HPLC, GC mass, DNA sequencing
  • Atefeh Safaei Far, Abdolhossein Rezaei Nejad *, Feizollah Shahbazi, Sadegh Mousavi Fard Pages 273-282

    Non-chemical control of plant growth is an important goal for the production of ornamental pot plants. In the present study the effects of simulated vibration on plant height and some physical and mechanical properties of Coleus stem were investigated. The study was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Vibration stresses were performed using a laboratory vibration simulator and the effects of vibration parameters such as frequency and duration on the stem characteristics of Coleus plants were examined. Vibration frequency included three levels of 7.5, 10 and 12.5 Hz and vibration duration included three levels of 0 (control), 5 and 10 min. Based on the obtained results, vibration stress caused significant decrease in the height and surface area of the stems. Vibration frequency of 12.5 Hz with 10 min duration caused 31% decrease in plant height in comparing to the control samples. Mechanical properties of stems including modulus of elasticity, bending force, and bending stress were reduced by increasing vibration frequency and duration when compared to the control samples. In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that vibration stress on Coleus decreased plant height while increased the elasticity and resistance to the fracture caused by mechanical forces of the stem.

    Keywords: Bending stress, Deflection of stem, Modulus of elasticity, Plant height, Vibration stress
  • Zahra Shahbazi, Amin Salehi *, Saeid Hazrati, Mohsen Movahedi Dehnavi Pages 283-298
    The application of organic fertilizers alone or in combination with bio-fertilizers is important for sustainable agriculture, healthy agricultural production and restoring soil quality. Compost, vermicompost and mycorrhiza amendments could improve soil quality and plant yield. However, little is known about their impact on yield and quality of European borage (Borago officinalis L.). To evaluate the effects of vermicompost, granulated compost, and mycorrhiza on qualitative and quantitative traits of B. officinalis an experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete block design arranged in a factorial experiment with three replications. Organic fertilizers in five levels (0, 5 and 10 t/ha vermicompost and 3 and 6 t/ha granulated compost) and mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae) in two levels (with and without) were considered. It was shown that the effects of organic fertilizer and mycorrhiza application on nitrogen content were significant in such a way that the maximum nitrogen content was obtained by 10 t/ha vermicompost and mycorrhiza inoculation treatment. The main effects of organic fertilizer and mycorrhiza on phosphorus and potassium contents were also significant. The maximum values were obtained when 10 t/ha vermicompost and mycorrhiza were applied together. Total chlorophyll content, flower-bearing branches, mucilage, and phenol were measured in all three harvests. The results indicated that the interaction effect of harvesting time, organic fertilizer, and mycorrhiza was only significant on chlorophyll content. The maximum chlorophyll content (0.958 mg g-1 freshweight) was detected in the third harvest when 10 t/ha vermicompost and mycorrhiza were applied. Maximum mucilage content (4.23%), phenol content (5.07%) and flower-bearing branches (57.45 g m-2) were obtained by 10 t/ha vermicompost treatment. The results suggested that chemical fertilizers could be replaced by organic fertilizer and mycorrhiza to reduce soil and water contamination in the agroecosystems.
    Keywords: Biofertilizers, Mucilage, nutrients, vermicompost, yield