فهرست مطالب

Research in Applied Linguistics - Volume:10 Issue: 1, Spring 2019
  • Volume:10 Issue: 1, Spring 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 150
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  • Albina Bilyalova, Emma Gilyazeva, Aigul Nurullina Pages 1-9
    The relevance of the study is caused by the continuing interest of linguists to the problem of phraseology as a special – national – sign in the language system, reflecting the national-cultural features of the perception of the world, national mentality, ideological and mental attitudes of native speakers. The analysis of scientific literature showed that the phraseological layer reflecting the national character of a person is rather understudied. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to identify the features of the national mentality of the British based on the analysis of the internal form of phraseological units (PUs), reflecting the nature of a person. In the given study there were analyzed the theoretical works of Russian and foreign linguists on the problems of definition of the term “phraseological unit”; there were analyzed semantic features, sources of origin and figurative bases of the selected PUs; were identified the specific characteristics inherent in the British, based on the frequency parameter of the components of phraseological units. The analysis of figurative sources of PUs, reflecting the national character of a person, revealed a large number of PUs with the following components: zoonyms, somatism, phytonyms and colors (46%); this indicates the national-cultural specificity of PUs, which is expressed in the figurative content of these units and is associated with the cultural and national features of the British. The practical significance of this study is that the results can be used in the lectures and courses of intercultural communication, linguoculturology and lexicology.
    Keywords: Phraseological Unit, National Mentality, National-Cultural Specificity, Figurative Basis, Internal Form
  • Karine Chiknaverova, Alfia Gazizova *, Nailya Mingazova Pages 10-30
    Master`s degree was integrated into the system of Russian Higher Education several decades ago, however, teaching foreign languages at this level still needs further analysis including the postgraduate law students training. The article investigates the principal components of foreign language teaching in Master of laws Graduate Programs (considering the case of the English language) on the bases of various
    methods
    the analysis of related regulatory and standard-setting documents, linguistic analysis of legal texts; content analysis of textbooks and other resources; methods of analysis and synthesis, classification and descriptive methods, theoretical analysis of methodological and applied research literature. As a result of the study the basic teaching content components were revealed, including linguistic and speech material; professional, linguistic, intercultural knowledge; the corresponding reproductive and productive skills. The findings reflect the factors of content-setting of LLM graduate programs   concerning graduates' professional activity (law making, law enforcement, expert, consulting, organizational, managerial, research and pedagogical issues), professional duties; purposes and teaching duration; requirements as for the training output by federal educational standards.
    Keywords: Foreign Language Teaching, Master of Laws Programs, Teaching Content Components
  • Dmitry V. Bondarenko *, Vladimir V. Nasonkin Pages 31-39
    The analysis of the language legislation of all 85 subjects of the Russian Federation shows complete heterogeneity and diversity. Common legal guidelines in Federal law do not exist, because Federal legislation is obsolete and is largely whitespace and conflict. The subjects of the Russian Federation, on whose territory different ethnic groups, both large and indigenous, historically live, solve the problem of preservation and development of the languages of these peoples on their own. This activity leads to the fact that the unique languages of the peoples of the Russian Federation, especially those that do not have a written language, are gradually disappearing and are in danger of complete disappearance. The absence of Federal full-fledged language legislation that would guarantee funding, the possibility of full-scale scientific research of languages, the creation of alphabets for rare non-written languages and a whole range of other measures of state support, leads to the fact that we in Russia today do not even know a clear number of languages of the peoples of Russia. Two now existing law at the Federal level is absolutely not govern the scope of the considered relations. The constitutional consolidation of the possibility of granting state status to the languages of the peoples of the republics that are part of the Russian Federation does not guarantee the preservation of these languages. On the contrary, this situation may lead to the fact that the Russian Federation will have 55 state languages, which will significantly complicate the state structure of our already complex country. In addition, the presence of many state languages is also a cause of ethnic tension. The research conducted by the author allows to formulate a number of conclusions and proposals, among which the main place is the need for a full-scale language reform in the Russian Federation.
    Keywords: Language Legislation, Indigenous, State Language, Disappearing Languages
  • Vilena Borisova Pages 40-49
    The paper deals with the features of teaching of profession-related texts reading in a foreign language to bilingual students in agricultural higher education institution. Article’s purpose was to analyze the technology of intercultural competence formation by means of profession-related texts reading. The method of intercultural competence formation included using the profession-related texts containing intercultural information of native language (L1-Yakut), second language (L2-Russian) and foreign language (L3-English). The conclusion about the importance – when teaching reading to bilingual students, the skills of intercultural reading to be formed while intercultural competence formation process on several levels depending on its components. Revealed teaching reading to bilingual students, ethnic features of bilingual students were taken into account. Discussed in the article technology of intercultural reading skills can be used as a strategy of intercultural competence formation to bilingual students of agricultural higher education institution.
    Keywords: Intercultural Competence, Bilingual Students, Reading Teaching, Intercultural Reading
  • Marina Chashko Pages 50-63
    The aim of the article is to examine the Academic Model United Nations (Model UN) as a context-based integrative educational technique in profession-oriented foreign language teaching (FLT); to point out the context-based integrative nature of profession-oriented language learning and highlight the importance of using product-based educational techniques in FLT for developing students’ future personal and professional autonomy; to identify the ways of integrating Model UN as a format of social mode of teaching. The article provides an overview of an experiment of implementing the Model UN format in the educational process, conducted in 2017 in the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE), which proved that Model UN successfully serves as an “educational laboratory” that engages students in cognitive, research, creative and productive activities while using foreign language as a tool of solving problem-based tasks. The work includes the stages of integrating Model UN format in the educational process; analyzes a number of difficulties that may occur and suggests several ways of dealing with them; involves recommendations for preparing students for the roles of Model UN delegates and the criteria of participants’ written and spoken speech assessment. The results of the research show that Model UN, as a highly flexible interdisciplinary educational technique, can be employed in various formats on different educational levels as a tool of modelling the context of students’ future professional activities contributing to the development of their professional intercultural communicative competence (PICC), as well as their future personal and professional autonomy.
    Keywords: Model United Nations, Context-Based Learning, Integrative Educational Technique, Profession-Oriented Foreign Language Teaching
  • Alexander A. Kharlamov, Maria A. Pilgun Pages 64-79
    The paper considers studying the perception and assessment of media content in the Russian-language social networks, analyzing the causes that affect the perception and distribution of network content. The importance of language learning and communication in Russian-language social networks, and problems of content effectiveness is determined by the growth in the number and activity of Runet users. The material was used the database of the Russian social network VKontakte. The study involved a cross-disciplinary multimodal approach, also psycholinguistic analysis, content analysis to correctly interpret the perception of the content. Formal analysis was performed in stages, combining quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis. We applied TextAnalyst 2.0, Gephi (algorithm Force Atlas 2), Tableau as tools for analysis of empirical material. The results of the study suggest that the perception and effectiveness of network content is determined by a complex of causes. The success of posts (the maximum number of likes, reposts, comments, the achievement of the author’s communicative goal – transferring users’ actions from online to offline mode) ensure a source of distribution (the symbolic capital of the author increases the significance of the text when it is perceived by the network community), the use of features of the current communicative situation and the accuracy of the imperative strategy.
    Keywords: Social Networks, Language Assessment, Perception, Сontent
  • Komarova Elena Valerievna Pages 80-91
    Increasing migration is a vital concern for a globalizing sociocultural environment in today’s world. The UK and developed European countries have become an attractive destination for asylum seekers (labelled as “migrants”) in the past decade. The rapid rise in the number of asylum seekers, which was labelled “migration crisis” (Ruz, 2015), made this topic an integral part of scientific discussion on sociocultural environment. There are different factors underlying the perception of migrants by local population. The given study is devoted to the review of the usage of different linguistic means and its strategies by mass media whilst the escalation of refugee crisis in Great Britain as compared to Russia. We implement situational approach to the non-fiction factual texts, in particular, texts representing a concrete (actual) situation. Today due to the development of neural network technology we can easily define thematic structure of the text, specify the central lexis, the near peripheral lexis and the far peripheral lexis and reveal implicit information. The data of British National Corpus and Russian National Corpus is analyzed using text mining software- TextAnalyst 2.01. The relationships and patterns among key words and their associations are cluster-analyzed and contextual interpretation of semantic core is provided. Associative structures enable us to define the lexical experience of its speakers (White & Abrams, 2004) while the analysis of associative network helps to study public opinion on different social issues (File, Keczer, Vancsó et al., 2018). The data for the text mine is gathered from the website Ruscorpora.ru (data set 1) and British National Corpus (data set 2). The thematic network depicts the structure of the text and the most pertinent information in the data. The semantic network constructs a list of topics and their semantic weights. It is a tree structure of the concepts of the text and identifies the relationships in the text. Just like in data set 1 public attitudes in data set 2 towards refugees and migrants are complex. Representation of migrants and hence public opinion are complicated by predisposition to favor those using legal means to enter a country with national culture, traditional customs, laws and ability to speak the language of the host country being the key factor in integrating migrants.
    Keywords: Text Mining, Media Discourse, Representation of Migrants
  • Liu Bo, Luan Siyu, Tatiana P. Skorikova Pages 92-115
    The article is devoted to the study of language representations of the concept of “woman” in the minds of the Russian and Chinese people based on a comparison of associative experiments of two languages, identifying the dynamics of the concept in the language consciousness of the people, establishing the specificity of the concept in the Russian language picture of the world referring to the Chinese. Due to the specificity of the Russian language, we used the “Russian Associative Dictionary” (RAD) as the analytical material and the free associative experiment we conducted is a survey of modern speakers of Russian and Chinese – university students. The reactions, which characterize women, obtained in the process of the experiment, were examined according to semantic areas in three aspects: social, physical, individual. Experimental data shows that many associations that exist in the minds of native speakers can be influenced by personalities, which predetermines the variability in the content of the concept against the background of stereotypical representations. The materials of the experiment make it possible to reveal both the similarities and differences of the associative fields of the concept woman in the Russian and Chinese language pictures of the world. The linguistic representations of the concept “woman” presented in the experiments make it possible to reveal a specific national vision of the world against a different cultural background. The concept of a woman, reflecting the linguistic consciousness of modern Russian youth, differs from the concept of a woman recorded in the Russian associative dictionary, which was reflected in the 1970s. The differences between them correspond to the potential dynamic nature of the concept.
    Keywords: Concept Woman, Language Picture of the World, Public Consciousness, Associative Experiment
  • Natalia Bozhenkova *, Raisa Bozhenkova Pages 116-136
    The article offers a comparative description of typological mechanisms used in political communicative practice and methods of verbal explication of its axiological and symbolic constituents determining universal mental features of individual/collective consciousness. The research position based on a systemic multilevel analysis of the component structure of discourse facilitates the identification and characterization of linguistic and sociocultural dominants of political interaction organized by a certain language system, with semiotic and literary genre specifics of legitimate communicative acts taken into account. The methodological concept, aimed at modeling institutional interactions in the context of ecological compatibility/toxicity of the transmission of ethno-sociocultural components, allowed the authors to characterize the ways and mechanisms of representation and transformation of the sign structure of political communication and determine the algorithms of verbal and discursive behavior. The combination of methods applied in discourse analysis, linguistic and cognitive projection, linguistic and cultural interpretations and functional-pragmatic consideration of text units made it possible to identify and qualify linguistic and semiotic elements of legitimate/illegitimate political practices and to carry out ecolinguistic typology of basic linguistic components of political communication. The results of the study indicate a special communicative range of Russian political discourse, with language diffusion/re-contextualization, persuasive techniques, semiotic consolidation of institutional reversion, various verbal indicators of social asymmetry (from metaphorization, euphemization, nominalization to the tactics of disintegration and manipulation) as key markers. They not only actualize linguistic and cultural resources of ideologically charged discursive practices, but also significantly expand the area of possible communication risks. Modern political logosphere as a part of the ecosystem, synergetically included in all spheres of human communication, forms new contextual concepts, assessment stereotypes, verbal behavior norms (often restricting norms) for all subjects included in it and communicative traditions of the universe as a whole.
    Keywords: Political Discourse, Ecolinguistics, Legitimate Political Practices, Social, Linguocultural Dominants, Communicative Risks
  • Elena V.Pinevich *, Galina M. Petrova, Evgeny A. Orlov, Nina N. Romanova Pages 137-157
    Problems of theory and practice of the Russian as a foreign language testing for entrants in technical universities are considered. The benefits of test forms for controlling the foreign students’ skills in the Russian language during a hard time limit are presented. The structure and content of the tests, all types of tasks offered on the entrance and final examinations in the Russian language, the requirements to the skills and abilities of students in the types of speech activity - listening, speaking, reading and writing - on the basis of common-literary and scientific styles of speech are described in details. The conducted researches take into account the fact that numerous scientific and methodological researches are devoted to the problems of the foreign citizens testing, classification and selection of texts. The results of text analysis of the Russian textbooks required for testing, two types of tests in Russian as a foreign language for technical direction of training students, future bachelors and masters, are presented. It was found that for control of skills, knowledge, and skills in scientific style of speech should offer on basic science texts, fragments of authentic texts containing grammatical frequency constructions, typical for fundamental science texts in. After analyzing the types of educational texts in relation to the training of future graduate students the authors came to the conclusion that the most frequency texts are the ones of proofs and ones of discourse that were proposed to students when they were having exams in reading and listening. All the tasks were being tested for several years, which ultimately optimized the learning process significantly.
    Keywords: Typical Test_Russian as a Foreign Language_Testing_Tasks_Selection of Texts_Technical Direction of Training
  • Nina N. Romanova, Irina O. Amelina, Tatiana P. Skorikova, Galina M. Petrova Pages 158-171
    In the context of the polyparadigmatic system of higher education, the noospheric psychological-pedagogical paradigm is considered, on its basis a lingvodidactic model is developed for the formation of professional-communicative competence (PCC) in Russian-language business communication among foreign students. The research focuses on the basic principles of the noospheric paradigm, which proclaims the co-development of a person, society and nature, the harmonization of students’ verbal thinking, their personal and professional improvement. The article presents the structural and substantive features of the model of teaching Russian-language business communication based on the principles of noospheric education to foreign students majoring in economics. In the structure of the projected methodological product, three interrelated components are singled out: content-target, organizational-technological and control-evaluative. The content-target component of the model is considered in the totality of social phenomena, processes and circumstances, as well as the basic regulatory documents governing the parameters of the model, its conformity to the needs of society and the attitudes of existing educational doctrines. The organizational-technological component determines the pedagogical tools necessary for the implementation of its content taking into account certain key principles of the noospheric paradigm. The control-evaluative component of the model represents it in the aspect of the levels that differentiate the degree of formation of the PCC in the field of business communication. The noospheric lingvodidactic model allows providing natural conditions for the formation of students’ motivation to learn the language of their future profession, to master effective speech-thinking and speech-behavior strategies of intercultural communication.
    Keywords: Noospheric Educational Paradigm_Professional-Communicative Competence_Business Communication_Lingvodidactic Model_Russian as a Foreign Language
  • Marina B. Serpikova *, Natalia V. Serpikova Pages 172-198
    The article discusses the methodological potential of fiction in developing professional and communicative competencies of Hospitality students based on interdisciplinary approach. The study focuses on the most actual aspects of speech culture and describes the ways of developing professionally oriented communicative competencies and the basics of professional speech training of bachelors in the field of Hospitality. Particular attention is paid to the specifics of the occupational novel, in which special vocabulary is widely used, and various systems and mechanisms are described in detail. Hotel, an occupational novel by Arthur Hailey, can be used in teaching Hospitality students as source material for consolidating knowledge about the status and role-based dynamics between hotel staff, communicative strategies and tactics, types and forms of speech, rules of speech etiquette in business communication, as well as for improving oral (public speaking) and written (creative work) language skills. The content of this novel allows students to gain a better understanding of their future professional activities. The article emphasizes that learning professional communication culture fundamentals goes hand in hand with the development of professional (study subject) competence of a prospective specialist. Hence it is suggested that students have a solid understanding of the hospitality industry, its main areas, forms and methods of working with clients. This paper describes the most effective tasks and the questions aimed at studying situations of business communication presented in the novel text, as well as the national specifics of business and speech etiquette and various strategies and tactics of communicative behavior in the framework of English communicative culture. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the role of literary texts in developing professionally-oriented communicative competencies of bachelors in the field of hospitality.
    Keywords: Communicative Aspect, Competence, Interdisciplinary Approach, Communicative Strategy, Verbal Tactics, Communicative Actions, Fiction Text
  • Tatiana P. Skorikova *, Evgeny A. Orlov, Nina N. Romanova, Elena V. Pinevich Pages 199-214
    The article is devoted to the problem of increasing the efficiency of language teaching for the special purposes of foreign students in studying Russian at a technical university. Particular attention is paid to the training of foreign students in the skills of working with information using the latest computer technology. The conclusions of the work are based on the analysis of the results of teaching Russian language at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University, including various methodological materials, programs and manuals on the scientific style of speech. Due to the fact that information technologies are part of general professional training for all specialties of a technical university, and also provide a wide range of opportunities for language learning and real professional communication, the authors believe that a modern program of the professionally oriented language training should reflect not only traditional integration with special disciplines of students, but also, of course, integration with the disciplines of the Information Technology block. The authors propose an innovative didactic approach based on the integration of language training with information technology courses in the aspect of the formation of communicative-linguistic competence of ​​students in Russian. The structure and tasks of creating a handbook for teaching professional communication in the field of informatics relevant for students of various majors are considered.
  • Solovyev V.D., Ivanov V.V., Akhtiamov R.B. * Pages 215-227
    The paper describes the first stage of a project on creating an electronic dictionary with numerical estimates of the degree of abstractness and concreteness of Russian words. Our approach is to integrate data obtained from several different sources: text corpora, psycholinguistic experiments, published dictionaries, markers of abstractness (certain suffixes) and a translation of a similar dictionary for English. The article describes in detail the method for obtaining data. We provide correlation coefficients calculated using different methods. We pay special attention to cases of inconsistent results obtained by different methods. The statistical model behind the experimental data is discussed. The results of experiments with the Google Books Ngram corpus on the coexistence of concrete words are given. Possible applications of the dictionary are demonstrated on the example of the frequency of using the dictionary in Russian textbooks for high schools.
    Keywords: Abstract Words, Concrete Words, Russian Language, Dictionary
  • Fanuza H. Tarasova *, Elena V. Varlamova, Igor O. Guryanov Pages 228-240
    In this study we analyze texts used in Russian Unified State Exam on English language. Texts that formed small research corpora were retrieved from 2 resources: official USE database as a reference point, and popular website used by pupils for USE training “Neznaika” (https://neznaika.pro/). The size of two corpora is balanced: USE has 11934 tokens and “Neznaika” - 11918 tokens. We share Biber’s point of view that linguistic tendencies are quite stable with ten text samples per genre or register (Biber 2007). We retrieved 20 texts from each resource. This research takes into consideration analysis on syntactic complexity, the main subject of research is the syntactic type of the sentence. The present study focuses on two research questions: RQ1: What sentence types pattern is typical for USE texts? RQ2: Are the materials of the training sites reliable and valid? The methods employed in the study are the identification and manual counting of the sentence types, absolute and normalized frequency calculation. While analyzing the texts, we witnessed greater range of tokens per text (tpt) in unofficial texts for training. For “Neznaika” database the range was 490 - 790 (tpt), while an official USE database texts demonstrated lower variance: 539 – 686 tpt. The number of sentences in “Neznaika” (664) and official USE texts database (670) is almost equal. The number of sentence types in “Neznaika” and official USE texts database also does not extend correlation limits.
    Keywords: Syntactic Complexity, Unified State Exam, Syntactic Pattern, Text Complexity, Quantitative Linguistics
  • Ilyina Olga, Zolotareva Marina Pages 241-252
    The Article is devoted to the applied problem of identifying the linguistic features of engineering texts. The study of Russian-language texts of engineering discourse is usually of an applied nature, in our case, this applied research is caused by the need to teach foreigners who receive professional engineering education in Russia and in Russian language. The object of the research is the Russian-language texts of textbooks and manuals of engineering specialty "Robotic systems". The logical-component features of the engineering texts organization are described. The basis for the study of features can be a dictionary database of engineering texts, namely catalogs of frequency words. The method of creating a catalog of frequency words is presented. The source material for this study were the texts on the engineering specialty "Robotic systems", created for the purpose of teaching students of this profile. In total, about 10 thousand pages of authentic texts were processed. The catalog of frequency vocabulary includes about 2000 units. On the basis of this analysis, the substantive, verbal, adjectival, adverbial groups and the group of service parts of speech were identified. Quantitative analysis allowed to identify the most popular grammatical classes of words that are found in Russian engineering texts, and to describe the features of their functioning in engineering texts. Currently, the results of the research allow us to come to the statement that engineering communication is a special kind of Russian-language speech universe. The method of analysis of texts of engineering specialties, based on the study of the most frequent vocabulary, is not exhaustive in order to see all their specific language features, but makes it possible to track the most striking features inherent in this class of scientific texts. The Appendix contains a catalogue of frequency vocabulary in the engineering specialty "Robotic systems".
    Keywords: Engineering Discourse_Teaching Foreign Languages_Russian as a Foreign Language
  • A. T. Tulebayeva, M. K. Aitimov, G. S. Oralova, G. A. Kamisheva, B. K. Serdali Pages 253-271
    Each nation has its own specific features, national character, moral norms, customs, manners, traditions, and lifestyle. Each nation has its own culture that has developed over hundreds of years and certainly affects the people’s way of life and educational process. The desire to teach descendants progressive traditions and advanced morality, to cultivate their positive qualities is a sign of regularity and foresight. In this work the authors analyze the literary heritage of the prominent Kazakh poets where they expressed advanced ideas in all spheres of social science, including moral education, i.e. in the field of pedagogy, that has been preserved and has reached our days. The close attention is given to the works of poets-zhyrau of the Aral Sea and Syr Darya area that greatly contributed to the cultivation of love for the Motherland in the younger generation, and had a purpose to instill in them the best human qualities. The powerful pedagogical role of these poetic works was thoroughly analyzed.
    Keywords: Tradition, Zhyrau, Alash, Spiritual Education, Values, Poetry, Heritage
  • Marina A. Droga *, Natalia V. Yurchenko, Daria V. Korobkova, Dina I. Romero Intriago, Alexander N. Langner Pages 272-279
    The article is devoted to the study of composite rhyming compounds as a means of word formation games. It explores the place of this category of words in the lexical system and peculiarities of their use in the Russian and English languages. Authors of the article represent compound words as a special lexical subgroup. On the specific publicistic material are revealed the peculiarities of compound words which components are rhymed. Also, in the work the comparative characteristic of rhymed compounds is given, the deep analysis of meanings of these words is carried out for the purpose of establishment of more exact understanding of the text. Rhymed compounds are of great interest to researchers as they are characterized by an extraordinary form, graphic writing and heterogeneity.
    Keywords: Word Formation, Rhyming Compounds, Hendiadys, Language Game
  • Natalia V. Grigorenko *, Larisa V.Tsurikova, Elena V.Kaliuzhnaya, Zhanna A. Bubyreva, Elena V. Lukyanova Pages 280-287
    The paper deals with the rigorous methods used in the research of concepts representing abstract notions like “friendship”, “love”, “hatred”, “conscience”, and “envy”. Concepts of that kind have no visible physical support in the material world except for the sound forms of the words representing them, thus causing additional difficulties in classification, research and analysis as well as stipulating the use of both linguistic and extra-linguistic methods in the process. The language provides access to a concept nominating only its certain part, which may not be the most significant. The study points out the importance of subjective cognition and empiric experience of a person in the process of verbalisation of abstract entities. The cognitive approach, in which certain phenomena are found, allows us to include in the framework of study essential as well as complex linguistic and extra-linguistic knowledge about it, despite the degree to which they are presented in the language. It’s essential to set out the necessity to take into account the social and cultural background of an individual. The authors pay particular attention to the ambiguity and inevitable subjectivity in the study of abstract concepts, due to their formation scheme complexity and vagueness. The combination of linguistic and extra-linguistic procedures allows us to give the fullest and deepest analysis of the investigated event, because in the structure of abstract concepts and in the simultaneous presence of an invariant core there are a huge range of personal associations.
    Keywords: Cognitive Linguistics, Extra-Linguistic Knowledge, Abstract Concept, Mental Process, Denotation, Conceptualisation, Categorisation
  • B. E. Ospanov_A. T. Tulebayeva_G. A Kamisheva_B. K. Serdali Pages 288-305
    In the Kazakh and world literature an important place is occupied by the work of poets, whose works are imbued with religious and educational ideas. Their work is one of the main directions in the history of the formation and development of Kazakh literature. Works of religious content teach humanity and morality through the concepts of religion. The article is devoted to the study religious and educational worldview in the works of poets of the region of Syr and their educational value, the role of Islam in the Kazakh literature, the perception of Islam as well as man as the key dominant subject of Islam.
    Keywords: Sufism, Prayer, Righteousness, Edification, Hadith, Human Essence, Cosmos
  • Kseniya I. Rakova *, Elena N. Morozova, Tatyana A. Perelygina, Elena D. Stolyar, Elena I. Trubayeva Pages 306-316
    The article focuses on the factors that cause linear and vertical sentence extension of multiple complex-compound sentences used in English fictional literature. Considering the sentence structure as a combination of 2 Units – paratactic and hypotactic the authors define the structural peculiarities of paratactic and hypotactic units including the number of clauses and its bonds. The extension of paratactic unit within multiple complex-compound sentences in most cases depends on structural, semantic, contextual factors. The authors introduce the method of combinatorial potential computation of multiple composite sentences to define theoretically possible models and to compare them with probability models.
    Keywords: Paratactic Unit, Hypotactic Unit, Paratactic Expanding, Communicative Tasks, Semantic Factors
  • Jerome Baghana *, Yuliya S. Blazhevich, Olga N. Prokhorova, Elena L. Kuksova, Elena S. Yakovleva Pages 317-323
    The article provides an insight into a problem of lexical semantic change. A short historical outline of the development of semantic studies is given. The authors analyze some of the most important stages in the history of the formation of this field. The existing approaches to dealing with form and meaning, namely semasiological and onomasiological ones are discussed. The authors consider the ambiguous character of the notion “semantic change” and analyze the existing alternative definitions that convey the sense of the semantic processes involved. The reasons of semantic change are touched upon. The traditional classification of semantic changes and its characteristics are also considered. The authors use some examples from African varieties of English and French to illustrate some of the semantic processes considered in the article.
    Keywords: Semantics, Meaning, Semantic Change, Semantic Shift, Semasiology, Onomasiology
  • Elena G. Ozerova, Nikolay F. Alefirenko, Svetlana A. Kosharnaya, Larisa I. Plotnikova, Irina I. Chumak, Zhun, Elena V. Pupynina, Olga V. Dekhnich Pages 324-332
    The article analyzes mental representations of Russian lyrical prose texts. The texts demonstrate collective memory engrams that are defined by cultural and historical legacy of the nation and authors’ creative world perception. In architectonics of a lyrical prose text, sense perception reveals itself in accumulated underlying meanings and wisdom conveyed by expressive means. The author’s intention shows through lyrical dispersion understood here as a synthesis of variation in nomination and expressive resources of the language. Mental representations of the Russian lyrical prose texts emerge out of authentic Russian culture. Linguistic means through which they are revealed demonstrate subjective codes of the author’s mind that are deciphered by readers of lyrical prose.
    Keywords: Text of Lyrical Prose, Mental Representations, Cultural Memory, Author’s Perception
  • Aleksandr I. Zhilenkov *, Victoria V. Kichigina, Marina V. Polovneva, Svetlana V. Poltoratskaya, Elena N. Semykina, Elena A. Shirina Pages 333-342
    The study of the axiological problems in literary studies is a fundamental direction of modern Russian Philology. In this paper, we will first conside, the search process for the orientations of values of Russian writers of the classical period of Russian literature in the 19th century; and second, the spiritual themselves foundations as ideological constants of the writers. The pursuit of Russian writers for a worldview, the appeal to universal categories of life, the aspiration to comprehend their laws and to apply them to the Russian reality defined the specifics of the Russian mentality and gave the world magnificent examples of the literary creativity based on absolute moral values.
    Keywords: Russian Literature, Axiology, Moral Values, Ideological Hero
  • Tatiana M. Pristinskaya *, Natalia N. Kopytina, Irina I. Sinelnikova, Yuri G. Sinelnikov, Elena V. Sherstiukova Pages 343-351
    The article deals with the description of the conceptual and linguistic nature, the modus character and the field structure of the linguistic category of the approximation. It also deals with the analysis of the role of the inherent and adherent approximators as well as the context in the realization of the invariant meaning of the approximation in the German language. Pragmatic potential of the nominations expressing versions of the values of the approximation is revealed in the analysis of the phenomena under study.
    Keywords: Conceptual Signs, Semantic Function, Approximation, Indetermination, Intensity, Comparison
  • Elena S. Danilova *, Olga V. Dekhnich, Olga Yu. Romashina, Vladimir S. Pugach, Oksana V. Markelova Pages 352-362
    The article deals with the characteristics of noun phrases functioning in pre-position. Pre-noun modifiers, or attributive modifiers, are among the high-capacity structures in the contemporary English language, as they enable to devoid of prepositions and to describe objects in a laconic way. The goal of this research was to analyze the way scholars interpret this linguistic structure today, as well as to compare the terms used in defining such modifiers, and to analyze their structural and semantic characteristics.  Findings of Russian and foreign researchers were compared, and semantic, syntactic and categorial ambiguity of pre-noun modifiers were illustrated. The material under study included latest publications in the sphere of design and architecture.
    Keywords: Pre-Noun Modifiers, Attributive Structures, To Denote, Semantic Groups, Lexemes
  • Elena V. Litovchenko *, Nikolay N. Bolgov, Anna M. Bolgova, Elena A. Semicheva, Sergey N. Prokopenko Pages 363-370
    The paper deals with the personality traits of Gallo-Roman author Sidonius Apollinaris (~430–489) who was a representative of Late Roman nobility and clergyman as well. It wasn’t unusual situation for 4th-6th century’s Mediterranean world, when intellectual elite was a fueler for religious leaders. Nonetheless some of them underwent the crisis of identity, others continued to hold old values and way of life. Authors suggest the idea that Sidonius was a unique person who was able to rebuild his world perception, not breaking with the old attitudes associated with the aristocratic life, but at the same time accepting Christian morality with all his heart and becoming its proponent. It is possible if we consider him as a flexible thinking person on the base of achievements of psychology science. Sidonius was a flexible thinking person who react suitable on all changes without breaking, crisis of identity, because he saw the way how to adapt his old values and merits to new world. It means that antique and medieval culture aspects coexisted peacefully in his mind.
    Keywords: Late Antiquity, Sidonius Apollinaris, Fexibility of Thinking, Identity
  • Valeriy A. Cherkasov *, Vera V. Demicheva, Olga I. Eremenko Pages 371-376
    This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the essay by Paktovsky (1901) which concentrates on the works by Chekhov. The urgency of the research is determined by the significance of the literary figure for the history of Russian criticism of the 19th – 20th centuries, the importance of his vision concerning the writing of the authors of Russian literature of the turn of the century, as well as for the history of the BelSU National Research University, since the critic was one of the directors of the Belgorod Teachers’ Institute. The creative heritage of Paktovsky was studied using motivational-descriptive, biographical, historical and literary methods. Addressing the works by Chekhov, the literary critic evaluates his characters as “helpless, miserable and ridiculous” people who are not capable of confronting the fate. He does not cover up for the very man with his misfortunes, but appeals to fight against them, to change inwardly. Paktovsky was one of the first to try to classify Chekhov’s characters, which has cultural significance as the evidence of a contemporary of the social composition of Russian society at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries.
    Keywords: F.E. Paktovsky, A.P. Chekhov, literary criticism, Conceptual Analysis, Motivational-Descriptive Method
  • Marina N. Klochkova *, Ksenia A. Strakhova, Natalya L. Gusakova, Irina V. Sagalaeva, Oksana P. Riadinskaia Pages 377-386
    This article concerns the general functional features of an adjective in modern English, and in particular multistate lexical item “just”, which carries different meanings in different variants of combinatorics. The authors analyze the combinations used with the adjectival lexeme item “just” and reveal the categories that determine the degree of semantic content of each given statement. The need for a detailed study of multistate is due to insufficient knowledge of the categorization features and the functioning of multistate lexical item “just” in English language which has the feature of eurysemy (polysemy) that defines its broad compatibility in syntagmatic aspect.
    Keywords: English Adjective, Multifunctionality, Multistate, Polysemy, Multistate Lexical Item, Lexical Item “just”
  • Galina V. Mironova *, Tatiana G. Voloshina, Natalia A. Sheifel, Svetlana M. Profatilova, Ludmila E. Ostapova Pages 387-395
    The article analyzes the role of presupposition in the compound-complex sentence. The authors examine the types of presuppositions and minimal compound-complex sentence as a field of presuppositions action. The analysis of these types of sentences by the material of the English language shows that several kinds of presuppositions are realized in them – contact or distant, - developing in the retrospective and prospective plans. The whole complex of presuppositions performs a text-forming function.
    Keywords: The Compound-Complex Sentence, The Presupposition, Retrospection, Prospection
  • Svetlana A. Kosharnaya *, Irina I. Chumak Zhun, Larisa I. Plotnikova, Gayane Y. Maltseva, Sofiya M. Boldyreva Pages 396-404

    Modern text linguistics pays serious attention to the significant structural elements of the text, which carry special knowledge. Such structural elements include the title. In this article, the title is considered as a linguistic and cognitive characteristic and a spatially fixed structural element of the text – «frame», which is located around/before/behind the text, focusing on the importance of the title position in the research of discourse of writer. The titles refer to the elements of the text that carry a special «presuppositional» knowledge, on the basis of which the title as a constructive element of the text requires analysis, mediated by inclusion in the speech-thinking continuum. At that, the title occupies a dominant, but secondary role in relation to the text. In the context of a linguistic and cultural scientific paradigm, the title can be considered as a special text of culture, reflecting the worldview of a particular author and the linguistic picture of the world of the people as a whole. In addition, the header can be comprehended as the object of cognitive linguistics in the aspect of knowledge study about the outer world, carried out by means of language. The duality of the title, on the one hand, is manifested in its «auto semantics», and the independence of this informative unit of the text; on the other hand, its inclusion in the text determines its ontological specificity.  In this regard, the two-pronged approach – linguistic  and cognitive – combines conceptual analysis with discourse and is very productive in relation to the understanding of the structural elements of the text as a whole and titles – in particular – as representations of the individual picture of the world of the author's , resulting in the process of cognition, since the originality of the linguistic picture of the world of an author is manifested in the choice and combination of lexical means in accordance with a certain artistic purpose and author's attitude and it  reflects the general direction of the work and the peculiarities of the linguistic picture of the world of the artist of word.

    Keywords: Title, Cognitive Science, Linguistic Personality, Discourse, Text, Presupposition
  • Yulia A. Drygina *, Yulia A. Kuptsova, Igor V. Lyashenko, Elena V. Mashkova, Elena M. Shevchenko Pages 405-411
    The article analyzes the linguistic nature of some nuclear lexemes (power, control, authority, influence) verbalizing the basic concept of the English-language political discourse – the concept of “Power”. The paper reveals the structure of the concept, its conceptual features, as well as the main characteristics of the concept representatives at the language and functional levels.
    Keywords: Concept, Concept Structure, Conceptual Attribute, Anthropocentric Approach, Conceptual Analysis
  • Elza V. Garipova *, Roza A. Ayupova, Elena M. Markova Pages 412-419
    The article is devoted to the study of the evaluative component of the meaning of lexical means used to describe relations between family members in the novel “In Chancery” by J. Galsworthy. The relevance of t &he study can be attributed to the lack of works devoted to this problem. As the results of our study demonstrate, the words of the lexical-semantic group “family” were mainly used to verbalize relations between members of the Forsytes family. The paper analyzes the attitude towards marriage, spouses, parents and children in the studied text. Scientific novelty of the work is the study of the ways to implement the occasional evaluative component of meaning of the aforementioned words in the text of a work of fiction. The relevance of this paper is explained by the lack of studied, which examine the lexical means of describing relations in the family, embodying a typical rich English family of the second half of the 19th century.
    Keywords: Lexical-Semantic Group, Verbalization, Evaluation Component, Pejorative Emotiveness, Ameliorative Emotiveness
  • Olga Iu. Ivanova *, Nataliia A. Kalevich Pages 420-431
    The subject of this research is linguistic (or: language) audit. The term is new and not being widely used so far. Linguistic audit, in particular, is offered as a service of linguistic-consulting agencies’ activities. Modern linguistic consulting, according to the author, is a form of stimulating theoretical and practical development of linguistic ecology, a new branch of applied linguistics, which, in turn, predetermines development of communication ecology as a new direction of integrated humanitarian research. Today, the most representative form of linguistic ecology is linguistic landscape, which, in the space of a certain society, demonstrates the most characteristic visual dialects of that society. Studying visual dialects makes it possible to judge the language situation in a society, the degree of vitality of languages represented in it; levels that its culture, science and education are at. The linguistic landscape has a high level of representativeness as well as a significant impact on the various circumstances of life and activities of a society, including its culture, religion, politics, science, education and even economy. Stability of a particular society as a whole can be determined by the level of linguistic landscape ecology. Linguistic audit is considered by the author from the functional and integrative point of view. Conducted by language means and aimed at studying and evaluating visualized forms of speech activity, linguistic audit (provided its algorithm has been systematically and conceptually developed) can become an effective tool to optimize language and communication ecology. Using the modeling methodology, the author offers and substantiates her own model algorithm of organizing and conducting linguistic audit institutions in the field of restaurant business in Moscow, Russia, to optimize their activities, improve their status and an optimal impact of their names on various aspects of their social interaction.
    Keywords: Language Ecology, Linguistic Landscape, Visual Dialects, Linguistic Audit, Names of Catering Establishments
  • Oleg Aleksandrovich Bunakov *, Yulia Viacheslavovna Terehina, Ramil Vasilievich Kadyrov, Boris Mojshevich Eidelman Pages 432-440
    The scientific article analyzes the potential of the historical and industrial heritage of the Republic of Tatarstan as a recreational resource for the development of industrial tourism. Despite the fact that the practice of organizing and conducting excursion programs to industrial enterprises and factories in Russia and in foreign countries has a long history, nevertheless, this is a new direction for the modern tourism industry. At the moment, this type of tourism in Tatarstan is only at the initial stage of its development, but nevertheless, its potential is very high. The Republic of Tatarstan is one of the largest industrial and economic centers of Russia. The topic of development of industrial tours has not been studied enough, the directions for the development of industrial tourism have not been structured, theoretical and methodological aspects of the topic have not been developed and, moreover, the possibilities and attempts to organize and conduct such tours and excursions at individual enterprises are local and fragmented. In order to effectively develop industrial tours, the potential of the historical and industrial heritage and museums of industrial enterprises of the Republic of Tatarstan has not yet been studied in domestic science. Therefore, the scientific significance of the identified problems requires scientific research on the structuring of the potential of industrial enterprises both from the point of view of studying the historical and cultural industrial heritage, as well as modern industrial potential.
    Keywords: Historical Heritage, Industrial Heritage, Industrial Tourism, Tourist Destination, City-Forming Enterprises
  • Vladimir Anatolyevich Rubtzov, Niyaz Minnahmatovich Biktimirov *, Bautista Espinoza Hugo, Mikhail Viktorovich Rozhko Pages 441-448
    One of the tools of modern marketing research is psychographic methods. They are based on the study of the psychological characteristics of consumers, which are determined by occupation, life positions, interests, values, lifestyle, etc. The article talks about the reasons for the growing attention to the study of psychographic segmentation in various fields of human activity, in particular in the field of tourism. The features of the application of the psychographic factor in determining tourist motivation are determined. With regard to tourism and hospitality, the geographical and sociographic methods used by many researchers do not reveal the "inner" world of a tourist as a consumer of services and do not allow the needs, interests and characteristics of their behaviour to identify in full. Accordingly, the paper considers the features of the application of psychographic classifications in relation to the tourism sector. The advantages of the psychographic method are determined. An attempt was made to use the methodological apparatus in the study of the regional tourism sector in the formation of the "portrait" of a modern tourist. The results of an in-depth interview and questionnaire conducted among the guests of the Kazan city are presented. The paper analyses the experience of using psychographics methods, and considers the possibilities of their use in the strategic planning of regional tourism. Accounting for psychographic research will allow more rational management of regional tourism to carry out.
    Keywords: Regional Tourism, Segmentation, Psychography, Psychographic Methods
  • Gulnaz Mavletzyanovna Galeeva *, Ekaterina Alekseevna Potapova Pages 449-459
    The paper considers world competitiveness ratings, studies in more detail the position of the Russian economy in the world. The article highlights the common features of the countries-leaders of global competitiveness. In particular, they have an almost identical sectoral structure and high investments in R&D. In addition, the most developed industries are those related to the welfare of the population, infrastructure and technological development. This allows us to talk about the strategic importance of these industries and their impact on the global competitiveness of the state. The presented analysis of the state of the Russian economy showed that in general Russia has a high growth potential. At the same time, for further sustainable development of the country, it is necessary to solve many problems that impede the growth of competitiveness of the Russian Federation. The range of identified problems includes poor infrastructure development and too little investment in R&D, insufficient development of innovations and poor development of the financial market. The work noted the need for timely adoption of measures to improve the economic situation across a wide range of problems.
    Keywords: Competitiveness, World Economy, Industrial Policy, Gross Domestic Product
  • Yasar A. Al Jaleeli Pages 460-467

    The process of education for people with visual disabilities is a challenge for the same person, his family and governmental and non-governmental organizations concerned with a particular school for people with visual impairments. Many countries have signed several agreements to provide a suitable environment for the education of visually impaired people. However, the arrangements have not been implemented in most states. Hired because of several circumstances that we will address later. In this paper, the researcher introduces a new method for teaching visually impaired people how to focus on the sense of hearing and the use of information technology bar code and a program of its design for the presentation of audio materials, where users use a pre-prepared template from the design of Braille code and barcode to access audio documents representing lectures or articles Scientific or audio books according to the plans of education in the school or institutes.

    Keywords: Special Education, Braille, Bar Code, Blind, Visually impaired
  • Liliya R. Abdullina *, Anastasia V. Ageeva, Ekaterina V. Artamonova Pages 468-477
    The present article deals with studies and analyzes the lexical innovations of French origin in the Russian literary language on materials of fiction, opinion journalism, as well as etymological, defining, and foreign dictionaries under well-defined criteria of foreign word extraction. Various investigations dedicated to the study of language contacts offer variety of criteria describing the functioning of foreign vocabulary in the Russian lexical system as the result of interaction of various manifestation of language contacts. The article highlights the main principles and potentials of using methods of corpus analysis for studying language contacts from a historical perspective. This study analyzes the gallicisms of the military terminology that came to the Russian language at the end of the 18th and the 19th centuries and were recorded in numerous significant examples of Russian literature. Conducting the diachronic analysis of their functional development using the methods of corpus linguistics allows us to establish and demonstrate some common and particular processes of foreign language vocabulary: the development of the form and the content of foreign vocabulary, the periodization of their maximum and minimum distribution, and the correlation of language data with extralinguistic factors.
    Keywords: Linguistics, Bilingual, Borrowing, French, Russian, Corpus
  • Vasil Timerjanovich Sakaev *, Svetlana Yurievna Glushkova, Federico Zannoni Pages 478-486
    This research is devoted to the specifics of the influence of demographic processes in the Muslim environment of Russia on political processes. Muslim communities are known to have specific demographic characteristics compared to representatives of other faiths (in particular, a growing population, specific gender and age characteristics of the population, especially migration behavior, etc.). It is clear that all this determines the specific course of socio-political processes among the Muslim Ummah, forms peculiar trends in their development. Questions related to the study of demographic predictors of political processes, as applied to the Muslim community of Russia, only partially became the subject of research in a number of works of Russian scientists. Foreign literature has addressed some aspects of this topic only occasionally in studies. The study was carried out on the basis of the analysis of statistical data of Russian organizations, a secondary analysis of materials from published Russian and foreign publications. In the course of the work, ideas were formed about the nature of the main demographic trends in the Muslim community of Russia, including in the regional context. The study of the data obtained made it possible to determine the nature of the impact of demographic processes in the Muslim environment on the socio-political sphere of Russian society. The results obtained are consistent with the conclusions of a number of researchers and expand the existing understanding of the nature of demographic processes among Muslims and the specifics of their influence in Russian society.
    Keywords: Muslim community, demography, Politics, Conflict, Security
  • Karamova Yuliya Yurisovna *, Alikberova Alfiya Rafisovna Pages 487-493
    Historians differ on the issue of the first dialogue between Russians and Koreans. Some researchers recognize the contact that occurred in the XIII century as the first contact between them, while there is also significant research which deems meetings in the XVII century as the first contact. Some Russian historiographers suggest that Russians were the first Europeans to establish dialogue and trade links with Koreans as early as XVII century. This opinion is based on the information from N. P. Krisnits (Christisini) an Italian serving the Russian government and a member of L. V. Late XIX century was important for cultural contacts between the Russian Empire and the Korean state. In Russia, the first Korean language courses and lectures in the history and geography of Korea started at the Saint Petersburg University and the Eastern University in Vladivostok. Notably, the Orthodox Missionary Society in Kazan created textbooks for Russian Koreans. The following methods have been used in this paper: analysis of research literature regarding the subject; case study method for analyzing examples; instrumental observation. Furthermore, this paper uses general scientific methods such as: analysis and synthesis to determine goals, resources and tools of the subject concept, as well as structural approach.
    Keywords: history, Russia, Korea, Relations, Korean Studies
  • Regina Rishatovna Gareyeva, Dmitry Evgenyevich Martynov *, Yulia Aleksandrovna Martynova Pages 494-501
    A study of the British expedition to Tibet by the famous orientalist Colonel F. Younghusband allows us to better understand the place that Tibet occupied in the international politics of various states, in particular, Russia and Great Britain, and the role that the investigator played in this. F. Younghusband left a noticeable mark in the history of the so-called “Big Game”. In addition to the political result, it is difficult to underestimate the important travel notes of F. Younghusband, numerous monographs describing not only the political process of the task assigned to him but also the region of Asia as a whole, nature and people. N. Roerich with his sons, one of whom was an orientalist and another was an artist, implemented many cultural projects, however, in historiography, there are opinions about the political nature of his mission.
    Keywords: history, Great Game, Tibet, exploration, Roerich Pact
  • Valieva Gulnara Firdusovna *, Eremeeva Guzel Rinatovna, Martynova Ekaterina Vladimirovnа Pages 502-513
    The paper is devoted to frequency analysis of English texts and using methods of the analysis in deciphering mono-alphabetic ciphertexts. The relevance of this study is a huge interest in cryptography in recent years in connection with the emergence of cryptocurrencies and the great need to ensure information security of large amounts of data. The aim of the research is to show the possibilities of frequency cryptanalysis and to demonstrate the result of its methods in decoding the real ciphertext. The methodological base of the paper is the studies of cryptographs and statisticians. The result of the research is collected data on the frequency distribution of letters in the texts of different subjects and conclusions made while decoding of the ciphertext. Particular attention is paid to practical algorithms that can help in deciphering mono-alphabetic ciphers. The article is useful for novice cryptographers and mathematical linguists.
    Keywords: Language, Linguistics, Text, Cryptography, Vocabulary
  • Valentina N. Vassilieva *, Artyom V. Drugov Pages 514-524
    The article discusses the integrative use of Tehno-R educational and gaming technology. The authors presented the Techno-R technology for teaching foreign languages, which was subjected to experimental verification and showed an effective result in the formation of linguistic and speech competencies. Experimental studies continue currently and a search is underway for the application of this technology in combination with other technologies, in particular, with gaming computer technologies. The authors developed a methodology for including the game in the process of Techno-R technology and conducted experimental training on Ecology with third-year students of the Institute of Philology and Intercultural Communication of Kazan Federal University using the game - "Luc et son examen d'écologie", developed by a co-author of this article. Due to the fact that the experiential training was aimed at the formation of speech competence in the field of listening, the game was developed in accordance with the methodology of the formation of the ability to aurally perceive foreign language. In particular, the developed game included exercises to understand audio texts reflecting various situations of communication on the topic of "Ecology" on the issues of "Natural Disasters", "Municipal Policy "Clean City", "Measures to Combat Urban Pollution". The results of experimental training showed not only a higher quality of the formed competencies but also a significant increase in educational motivation. The results obtained during experimental training are the basis for continuing scientific research at the level of experiments using mathematical statistics methods to determine the validity of empirically obtained data.
    Keywords: technology, Methodology, Foreign Languages, Educational Computer (Mobile) Game
  • Karamova Yuliya Yurisovna *, Alfiya Rafisovna Alikberova Pages 525-532
    The signing of the peace treaty between Japan and China in 1895 led to the fact that Japan took control of the Korean state and carried out socio-economic reform in this country in its own Japan interests. Russia left unanswered the requests from King of Korea Gojong to the Russian government to send military instructors and advisers. In Korea, Queen Ming, who was brutally murdered by the Japanese in 1895, was a symbol of opposition to the policy pursued by the Japanese state. After these tragic events, King Gojong, together with the heir to the throne, decided to move to the Russian diplomatic mission and continued to remain there until October 1987. King Gojong chose Russia because it bordered with the Korean state and could quickly provide assistance if necessary. To strengthen Japan on its border was also not profitable for Russia. All this has led to the strengthening of the influence of the Russian Empire and the weakening of Japanese and Chinese positions. Attempts by King Gojong and Queen Ming to maintain the independence of the Korean state, as well as the move of the king along with the heir to the Russian diplomatic mission are assessed differently in South Korean and North Korean historiography now.
    Keywords: Russia, Korea, Japan, King Gojong, history, China
  • Karamova Yuliya Yurisovna *, Alfiya Rafisovna, Alikberova Safiulin Ilhat Irikovich Pages 533-540
    Revising the history of Russian-Korean relations in the last years of the XIX century allows us to trace the main stages of the process of a gradual increase in the role and place of Korea in Russia's foreign policy in the Far East, the activities of Russian diplomats in neutralizing the policies of aggressive powers in Korea and maintaining the independence of the Korean state. Studying Korea in Russia has a long and meaningful history, which began in the XVII century and continued to develop intensively already from the end of the XIX century. The first complete and realistic description of the Korean state was given by the Russian traveler and ambassador to China - Nikolai Spafariia. The data collected by N. Spafariia and the works provided to Russian society, in particular, the chapters providing sufficiently complete information about a hitherto little-known country - Korea, were the first works that told about the history, economy, and culture of this country. As well as N. Spafaria, L. Lang made a great contribution to collecting information about the Korean state, in particular about trade.  Until the end of the XVIII century, detailed information about Korean trade collected by L. Lang was a reliable source both for Russian and for Western European researchers.
    Keywords: Russia, Korea, China, International Relations, Russian-Korean Relations
  • Vladimir Nikolaevich Rogatin *, Rinat Ahmetgalievich Nabiev, Elena Sergeevna Rogatina Pages 541-549

    The paper uses the methodology by P. Bourdieu to determine habitus based on the consideration of possible options for the development of religious projects that take place in Ukraine. The following options are distinguished in the religious field of Ukraine: the project of Protestant Ukraine, the project of Catholic Ukraine, the project of Orthodox Ukraine in unity with the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the project of neopagan Ukraine, the project of Islamic Ukraine (Muslim Slavs), the project of Orthodox Ukraine in unity with the Russian Orthodox Church. A careful examination of the views prevailing in these projects revealed that there are two habituses in Ukrainian society: the first which steadily expresses the views of the majority of the population, and is associated with the common history, culture and religion of the bulk of the population in the Russian Federation. The second is a sort of antipode introduced by Diaspora and showing attitudes and opinions of residents of Western Ukraine. The socio-political crisis of 2014 gave some attractiveness to the alternative habitus. This was manifested in religious projects that implemented it in more or less degree. Intervention in religious issues by the state did not bring significant changes to the religious preferences of Ukrainians. Despite pressure from state bodies and nationalist organizations, the largest confession represented by the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate continues to be the dominant religious organization in Ukraine.

    Keywords: Ukraine, P. Bourdieu, Habitus, Orthodoxy, Neopaganism, Catholicism
  • Karamova Yuliya Yurisovna *, Alfiya Rafisovna Alikberova, Safiulin Ilhat Irikovich Pages 550-557
    In Russia, the study of Korea began in the XVII century from the works by N. Spafariia and L. Lang. A new stage in the study of the Korean state is associated with the name of the Russian navigator, Admiral I. Kruzenshtern. Russian spiritual missions to China played a significant role in the opening of the Korean state. The works and reports of the Russian embassy and Orthodox missions to China in the XVII-XVIII centuries also contained information about Korea.  In particular, the works by N. Bichurin laid a foundation to a scientific study of the history and culture of Korea in Russia. N.Ia. Bichurin is considered the founder of scientific Korean studies in Russia. N.Ia. Bichurin is considered the founder of scientific Korean studies in Russia.  by the end of the 1890s, a special interest in the Korean state is awakening in the Russian Empire in connection with the increasing role of Korea in Russia's foreign policy. This explains the appearance of a large number of works devoted to the history, culture, traditions of the "Country of Morning Freshness". Among the numerous works presented there were quite a lot of works written by non-specialists, so the presented information was not always accurate.
    Keywords: Russia, Korean Studies, Russia-Korean relations, International Relations
  • Tatyana Bessonova *, Albina Misbakhova Pages 558-566
    The article is devoted to the study of childhood as one of the life stages of the development of the family of Kazan philistines in the first half of the 19th century. Given the lack of documents of personal origin, the main sources were family-wide lists of Kazan bourgeoisie, statements, metric books, forensic materials, complaints and petitions deposited in the funds of the State Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan. Based on these sources, issues such as the age limits of childhood, attitudes towards children in philistine families, practices and emotions regarding children in various life situations were investigated. As a result, it was concluded that the attitude towards childhood and children in the middle class is characteristic of a traditional pre-industrial society, childhood has not yet formed into a separately recognized and designated life stage. This was manifested in the practice of getting rid of illegitimate children, the desire to include the child as early as possible in resolving issues of maintaining himself and his family, including removal from the family by way of returning to school or working with strangers. However, the predominance of a rational attitude towards childhood did not exclude a positive emotional color in relation to children.
    Keywords: Philistinism, Stages of Life, Childhood
  • Gorbacheva Nadezda Pavlovna, Khramova Evgeniya Valerevna *, Bolshakov Andrey Georgievich, Tereshina Elena Alexandrovna Pages 567-575
    A number of events that took place in Russian culture around cinematic novelties pushed the authors of the article to study this issue from the point of view of the analysis of social conflict. The article is a presentation of the results of conflict research on an urgent problem in the Russian film industry. This is one of the first works in Russia to analyze the conflict-generating nature of production and consumption of film products. Research materials can become the basis for further research of this kind. The authors made an attempt to reveal the specifics of the influence of conflict genes on the Russian film industry. The developed author’s analysis technique is based on sociological, culturological, media, and conflict theories. The research methodology is conducted in the spirit of qualitative sociological analysis. Materials for analysis were data from open sources in the media. Based on these materials, a number of cases containing the most relevant conflicts in the Russian film culture sphere were analyzed. The analysis was also carried out on the regulatory framework relating to conflict resolution of these cases. As part of the study, an expert survey was conducted using an in-depth interview with representatives of the Russian film industry. The authors were interested in the issues of the formation and functioning of the Russian film industry, its problem and conflict zones, the impact on society, and social interaction within the film community. The article is performed as part of the grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research No. 19-011-31376oпн “Conflictological audit as a system of technologies for influencing ideological youth extremism in modern Russia”.
    Keywords: Russian film industry, conflict generator, conflictogenicity, conflictogenic factors
  • Alsu Nigmatyanovna Makhmutova *, Aliya Albertovna Abdrakhmanova, Gulnara Firdavisovna Lutfullina Pages 575-584
    This paper aims to identify the Present Continuous tense as engaged in realizing direct evidentiality or perception in English. For this, the paper is focused on three research issues. First, the peculiarities of functioning perception verbs in the Present Continuous are given. Second, complex sentences using the Present Continuous predicates to express perception category are analyzed. Third, the Present Continuous as implying perception or direct evidentiality category in certain contexts is considered. The authors of the research set forth the following research hypotheses: 1) direct evidentially is the category implied by the Present Continuous; 2) autonomous functioning of the Present Continuous predicate in simple sentences may be considered as realizing perception category; 3) expressing perception by the Present Continuous depends on different contextual conditions. Theoretical and methodological basis of the research is based on fundamental assumptions of modern linguistic knowledge in evidentiality theory put forward by A. Aikhenvald and V.A. Plungyan. Similarly, the paper applies the methods of component and mental-logical analysis and the descriptive method. The research comprises examples of English websites and data from the British National Corpus. In general, this paper analyzes 12 examples from our 573 corpus. The research showed that although the simultaneity is systemic meaning of Present Continuous, it is not applied to represent the simultaneity of perception situation and perceived situation in complex sentences. It is scale of the objects under consideration, their multiplicity, territorial visibility, verbs semantically implying space localization that permit Present Continuous imply perception in simple sentences.
    Keywords: Linguistics, Corpus, Grammar, Semantics, Perception
  • Olga Gennadyevna Evgrafova, Albina Anvarovna Bilyalova, Emma Nikolaevna Gilyazeva * Pages 585-595
    The article addresses issues related to increasing motivation and shaping the readiness of students of Russian institutions of higher education for future entrepreneurial activities. The authors, having studied the data of sociological surveys of GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) and GUESS (Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students Survey), come to the conclusion that at present in the Russian youth environment there is a lack of knowledge about modern entrepreneurship, and the Foreign Language discipline has a certain potential in terms of forming a number of positive ideas and competencies of future entrepreneurs. On the basis of the experiment carried out to introduce into practice the teaching of new teaching content, methods and forms of educational activity, the authors conclude on the success of the experience gained and share it with the reader.
    Keywords: Student Youth, Entrepreneurship, Teaching Methods, Learning Content, Business English
  • Ilya Nikolaevich Garayev, Dmitry Evgenyevich Martynov *, Yulia Aleksandrovna Martynova Pages 596-602
    This article discusses little-known aspects of the May Fourth Movement of 4 May 1919 in the Chinese province. Traditionally, the May Fourth Movement and the connected New Culture Movement and the Literary Revolution are associated with Beijing and Shanghai. However, one of the most important intellectual centers of China at that time was Hangzhou, a city with close economic links to Shanghai. Radical students in Zhejiang in 1919-1920 were active in publishing, and the New Tide magazine they published was in demand in China's largest cities, and solidified the status of Zhejiang as the vanguard of revolution. Looking closely at this collision, we may easily ascertain that the traditional Confucian society during an opportunistic economic upturn caused by World War I was fueling radicalism and at the same time was the object of their struggle. Anarchism was the key ideology of the May Fourth Movement in Zhejiang. A special role in these events is played by Jing Hengyi (1877-1938) and Shi Cuntong (1898-1970), sons of rich landowners who were able to afford publishing and had spare time for intellectual discourse. Realizing the political immaturity of the masses, the Zhejiang radicals focused on publishing rather than on political manifestations.
    Keywords: May Fourth Movement 1919, Zhejiang, Literary Revolution, Anarchism
  • Galina Abrosimova Pages 603-612

    The significance of the examined problems is caused by the need to improve the functional approach to understanding the link between metacognitive strategies acquisition and their value and impact on foreign language learning. The work contains the comparison of approaches of Russian scientists and foreign researchers on this problem. Also it comprises information about different requirements that authors put forward according to metacognitive strategies, their choice and application; the classification of learning strategies and particularly classification of metacognitive strategies; and research approaches related to the metacognitive strategy development. The leading goal set by the authors was to create a model of metacognitive strategy development during foreign language learning, to identify its principles, methods, approaches to its proper functioning, criteria and indicators which are able to effectively assess the level of metacognitive strategy development and use foreign language as a basis to fulfil created model. Article submissions may be useful in lecture courses on language teaching, developing a curriculum on teaching a foreign language as well as to apply to language lessons either during teaching or learning it.

    Keywords: foreign language, Language-Learning Strategies, Metacognitive strategies
  • Dilyara Gosmanovna Ibatullina *, Alfiya Rafisovna Alikberova, Saodat Abdullayevna Nasirova Pages 613-619
    This study is considered to be relevant due to the dynamic development of the lexical stock of modern Japanese language. Globalization and technical progress have brought changes in all spheres of life, including linguoculturology. The media space is becoming a specific reflection of modern reality, a new kind of socio-political discourse and a source of the origin of neologisms. The purpose of the article is to study and analyze the most popular neologisms in Japanese society in recent years, to compare the main trends in modern Japanese and identify their relationship with key events inside Japan and abroad. The leading approaches to the study of this problem are the system-structural approach and comparative analysis. The main result of the study is the identification of new linguistic and cultural characteristics in the preparation of neologisms, which becomes a reflection of the modern language picture of the world. The study also proved that most of the neologisms of modern Japanese are borrowed words and combined words written in katakana.
    Keywords: Modern Vocabulary, Linguoculturology, Neologism, Internet Slang, Speech Recognition
  • Nina Pavlovna Soboleva *, Marina Nikolaevna Vinnikova Pages 620-628
    The paper discusses methods for rendering metaphors and similes. The practical material under study entails artistic devices and expressiveness used in D. Tartt’s English-language novel "The Goldfinch", translated into Russian and German. The proposed research aims at the comparative analysis of the text in the source language (SL) and the texts in the languages of translation (TL); the study determines the main translation models for metaphors and similes used in the SL text by reference to the stylistic features of the studied literary texts; the given paper pursues to elicit the problems arising in the process of metaphor and simile translation into Russian and German.
    Keywords: Translation, Rendering, Novel, Metaphor, Simile, Trope, Literary Text
  • Aleksandr Olegovich Rychin, Dmitry Evgenyevich Martynov *, Yulia Aleksandrovna Martynova, Elmira Kamilevna Khabibullina Pages 629-635
    The article is devoted to the phenomenon of reception and representation in the culture of China. The identification and separation of these concepts is possible in historiography. The reception in Chinese culture can be considered not only within the framework of certain phenomena, but also within the framework of the historical period image. The nature of reception phenomenon by social orientation can be described as aesthetic and pragmatic. The aesthetic nature of the reception is most often found in the fields of art. The pragmatic nature is specific in that the achievements of the past in the field of history are used to solve the problems of society in a utilitarian manner. The objects of both types of phenomena are most often those characters or events whose image becomes more relevant in the context of contemporary events. The pragmatic and aesthetic aspect is considered in the form of historical and sociocultural reception. The most striking example of reception is recognized as stratagems that can be used in real military activities, tactics and strategy of board games, the plots of works of art and even in the business world.
    Keywords: Novel, Stratagem, Three Kingdoms, Reception, Representation
  • Aida Rinasovna Fattakhova *, Alfiya Albertovna Gimadeeva, Emma Rishatovna Galimova, Timur Akzamovich Shaihullin Pages 636-644
    Socially significant life situations and certain patterns of human behavior reflect the national hierarchy of values. Understanding the phenomenon of culture as a specific form of existence of man and society in the world through the prism of proverbs becomes particularly relevant. The purpose of the article is to define the concept of a "proverb" in Arabic linguistics and the criteria for their classification, to identify the national-specific meaning of Arabic proverbs in the context of the relationship of language and culture. The article provides definitions of proverbs on the basis of the opinions of authoritative philologists, presents the classification of Arabic proverbs. The features of the worldview of the Arabs, manifested in them, are examined too. The materials of the article can be useful in teaching modern Arabic, linguoculturology, cross-cultural communication and also special courses on language and culture. The applied value of the article is determined also by a possibility to use practical material while writing textbooks, manuals and Arabic dictionaries.
    Keywords: Linguistics, Arabic, Proverb, Cultural Fund, Literature
  • Evgeniya V. Gutman *, Vladimir I. Aidarov, Riyaz G. Minzaripov, Anastasiya F. Yudintsev Pages 645-652
    The article is devoted to the psychological and pedagogical characteristics of a person with disabilities, using the phenomenon of loneliness as an example. Using two groups of people with disabilities as an example, the authors analyze the characteristics and style of interpersonal communication. The presence of several approaches to the study of loneliness, as well as the presence in this concept of real scientific content, which is also of practical importance, is shown. This scientific article reveals a number of interesting psychological aspects which require further theoretical and experimental understanding and further research. The article describes the possibilities of socio-psychological and psychological-pedagogical rehabilitation for the social adaptation of an individual.
    Keywords: Psychological, Pedagogical Support, Person with Disabilities, Loneliness, Social Adaptation, Socio-Psychological Rehabilitation
  • Karamova Yuliya Yurisovna *, Alfiya Rafisovna Alikberova Pages 653-660
    After being freed from the Japanese occupation, the Korean peninsula saw the formation of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (under the patronage of the USSR) and the Republic of Korea (with the support of the USA). The Republic of Korea was only officially recognized by the Soviet government in 1990.  The relations between the USSR and ROK improved in 1988, when Moscow decided to participate in the Seoul Olympics. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Korea recognized Russia as the successor of the USSR. As for the relations between the USSR (and later on the Russian Federation), some information suggests that Kim Jong Il and Kim Il Sung visited the Soviet Union 9 times, and according to some other data - 11 times. In the last few decades of the XX century, the relations between Russian Federation and the DPRK have become more active.  As a result, negotiations between Russia and South Korea and between Russia and North Korea started touching upon the prospects of tripartite Russia-ROK-DPRK cooperation in the economic and other areas. Koreans showed a special interest in the culture of Russia and the Russian language in the first years after the diplomatic relations were established. Modern Korean studies began to develop.
    Keywords: Russia, Korea, Korean Studies, USSR
  • Kadriia Azatovna Sakhibullina *, Elena Anatolyevna Andreeva, Elmira Ildarovna Nazmieva Pages 661-667

    The article studies ornithonyms, names of birds in the English and Tatar languages with the purpose of comparative study of their semantic structure. Attempts to compare the semantic volume of ornithonym-words in two languages are made. Studying this lexical-semantic group may help to define associations and symbolic meanings which particular birds are endowed with. At the same time, when studying associations, it is necessary to distinguish those associations which are based on traditional, sociohistorical judgments of the certain realities peculiar only to speakers of this language.

    Keywords: Linguistics, Lexical-Semantic Group, Ornithonyms, Symbolic Meaning
  • Tatyana Vladimirovna Marsheva *, Natalia Albertovna Sigacheva, Svetlana Mihajlovna Peretochkina, Ekaterina Vladimirovna Martynova Pages 668-676
    The relevance of the research is determined by the importance of intercultural and cross-language studies in order to identify similarities and differences in language systems. The aim of this study is to consider different translations of idioms from English into Russian comparing different time translations of the D.K. Jerome’s novel "Three Men in a Boat (to Say Nothing of the Dog)" with the English original novel. Materials of the article can find application in the development of lectures and practical lessons on general and comparative linguistics, country studies, special courses in translation theory and intercultural communication theory. The research materials may be used in the practice of the improving the techniques and methods of translation from English into Russian.
    Keywords: Linguistics, Translation, Idiom, Lexical Gap, Associative Gap
  • Firdaus G. Vagapova *, Adelya Sattarova, Larisa N. Donina, Inna I. Sokolova, Rafael M.Valeev Pages 677-685
    In the modern world, the appeal of researchers to the study of the genesis of national cultures is one of the conditions for solving the problem of preserving monuments of spiritual and material culture. In the article, for the first time, an attempt was made to identify and substantiate the handwriting styles of the Arabic script, which were developed in the traditional culture of the Kazan Tatars. The penetration of Arabic graphics into the territory of the Middle Volga region was carried out from the middle of the 8th century thanks to diplomatic and trade relations: Kufic dirhams and ceramics and toreutics with epigraphic ornamentation entered the caravan route to the territory of the Bulgarian state. In the article can be traced the process of learning a stranger and developing his own culture of calligraphy in connection with Islamic art, developed on the territory of Transcaucasia, the Black Sea region, Khorezm, Iran, Asia Minor, the Middle East.
    Keywords: calligraphy, Handwritten Book, Arabographic Writing, Artistic Metal, Epigraphic Ornament, Jewelry Art
  • Karamova Yuliya Yurisovna *, Alfiya Rafisovna Alikberova Pages 686-693
    An examination of the history of Russian-Korean relations in the last years of the 19th century allows us to trace the main stages of the process concerning a gradual increase in the role and place of Korea in Russia's foreign policy in the Far East. In the second half of the XIX century, the first Russian-Korean dialogue took place on the territory of Korea, in which the squadron of Admiral Evfimy Vasilyevich Putyatin participated. Admiral Putyatin wanted to establish trade relations with the Korean state. However, the attempts of Putyatin to establish trade relations with the Korean state were unsuccessful due to the outbreak of the Crimean War. When writing this work, the following methods were used: analysis of the research literature on the topic under study; the method of specific situations (case method) in the analysis of examples; and also instrumental observation. When writing the work, such general scientific methods were also used: analysis and synthesis in determining the goals, resources and tools of the concept under consideration, as well as a structural approach. In 1854, the expedition of Putyatin to the Korean state visited the islands of the Comundo archipelago located to the south of the Korean Peninsula, and also explored the east coast of Korea and the South Ussuri Territory. Thus, for the first time, Korean shores were surveyed by a European vessel. Participants in the expedition of Admiral Putyatin left a lot of interesting information about Korea and the inhabitants of this country.
    Keywords: history, Russia, Korea, Expedition, Relations
  • Olga Vladimirovna Proshkina *, Oksana Ilinichna Efremova Pages 694-702
    The article describes the phenomenon of professional burnout. The study revealed that this phenomenon can be cyclical in nature. Almost any employee in the social sphere can experience the phenomenon of professional burnout, as well as by workers in other professions. However, the phenomenon of "burnout" described in traditional literature, as a rule, is limited to a one-time characterization of the stages of burnout, ending in the destruction of the personality. The traditional approach assumes that burnout is unidirectional in nature, moving from stage to stage, and, at best, ends in remission. However, observations and research on this phenomenon show that a person can experience several cycles of emotional burnout for life. It was established that these cycles can be repeated not only at the same job, but also with a cardinal change in activity. The article shows that the degree of emotional stamina increases with the level of professionalism and age. The growth of professional skill over the years allows you to better cope with periods of decline. It is proved that the alternation of complete devastation with recovery is the natural and normal rhythm of professional life. The scientific novelty of the study consists in substantiating the basic principles of the concept of cyclicality of professional burnout, which consists in a sequential change in the stages of burnout and restoration of personality, which can be repeated throughout life. In contrast to previous concepts, the concept of cyclicity (repetitions) of burnup phases is used here. The significance of the study lies in the fact that knowledge of the cyclical phenomenon of the syndrome will enable many people to facilitate the passage of phases of professional burnout and accelerate recovery. The application of the concept will contribute not only to improving the population, but also to the professional and, consequently, economic growth of the country, which is certainly a priority at the present time. The article is of a scientific and practical nature and is intended for a wide range of specialists in the field of psychology, sociology, economics, pedagogy, and healthcare.
    Keywords: Burnout, Burnout Syndrome, SEB, Professional Burnout, Cyclicity, personality
  • Karamova Yuliya Yurisovna *, Alfiya Rafisovna Alikberova, Elmira Kamilevna Khabibullina Pages 703-710
    Both domestic and foreign historiography often describes the same historical events in different ways. The reasons for such disagreements and different descriptions of the same historical events are insufficient information, the influence of some states on others, and deliberate distortion in order to create a negative image of participants in historical events. This study considers the events of the XVI-XVII centuries, namely the Albazin war with the participation of Korean soldiers in 1654 and 1658, as well as the expedition of Admiral E. Putiatin to Korea as the examples. The article mainly gives a look at the above events of the South Korean historian-researcher Park Tae Geun. He was one of the first scholars in the historiography of South Korea who began to study the issue of early Korean-Russian relations. This study used the following
    methods
    analysis of the research literature on the topic under study; the method of specific situations (case method) in the analysis of examples; instrumental observation. Also, the study used such general scientific methods as analysis and synthesis in determining the goals, resources, and tools of the concept under consideration, as well as a structural approach.
    Keywords: Historiography, Korea, Russia, Relations, Paper Tiger
  • Ainur N. Shuinshaliyeva, Nailya G. Mingazova, Mohammed El Miloud Belhamiti Pages 711-717
    The paper discusses insincerity, as well as the types and methods of its manifestation. Details reflect the characteristics of a lying person and his manner of behavior in an insincere atmosphere. The paper is aimed at explaining the linguistic mechanisms underlying the expression of insincerity, and developing a general theoretical understanding of the role of insincerity in verbal communication. Insincerity is understood as a discursive strategy of a linguistic personality, aimed at the intentional expression of false propositions and their corresponding linguistic design. The research discusses a set of types associated with the separate consideration of falsity as properties of propositions, that is, such knowledge of some possible world, which contradicts the objective picture of the world, and insincerity as a characteristic of the speaking subject related to its communicative intentions and features of the communication situation. The linguistic representation of insincerity is revealed.
    Keywords: Sincerity, Insincerity, Linguistics, Discourse, Verbal, Non-Verbal Means of Communication
  • Liliya Featovna Khabibulina *, Gulnaz Rinatovna Fakhrutdinova Pages 718-724
    The study examines the current state of the tourism industry of the Republic of Tatarstan, analyzes the range of tourist services offered by local travel agencies. As an extension of their assortment, they offer the project of the tourist and excursion route “Kazan literary and memoir”. The work used various methods of scientific research. Among them is the historical-systemic method, which allowed to reconstruct the Kazan history of the following period: from the 80-ies of the XIXth century to the 20-30-ies of the XXth century, the hermeneutical method, with which it became possible to study and understand the meaning of literary works and texts of memoir content. In the process of this project development, they used the literary works, diaries, memoirs, letters and autobiographies by F.I. Chaliapin, M. Gorky, G. Tukai, A.M. Rodchenko, and the memoirs by Z. Mavlyudova. After the analysis, the authors come to the conclusion that currently the tourism industry of Kazan feels the need to develop new thematic excursions that would be distinguished by an original selection of objects for display.
    Keywords: Domestic Tourism, Tourism Carrying Capacity, Thematic Tours, Excursion Project
  • Yuliya N. Shatalova *, Svetlana V. Kryukova, Olga A. Kurilkina, Irina V. Mikulina, Anton A. Popov Pages 725-734
    The article is devoted to the analysis of the fictional characters used in the advertising text, which are an effective means of implementing communicative function. As a fictional character is considered an element of the advertising text - an image that embodies an action, experience or statement and is in a variety of relationships with the object of advertising. The article presents the typology of fictional characters: based on their nature and formal characteristics, as well as based on the role that the characters play in plot construction of the advertising text.  Fictional advertising characters, being a link between the brand and the consumer, can perform various communicative functions. The most important of them is the function of attracting attention (attractive). Advertising characters allow capturing the addressee's attention and highlight an advertisement among competitive texts. The informative function is realized by notifying the advertising information by a fictional character. The function of emotional “contagion” is implemented through the transfer of emotions that a character is experiencing to the target audience. The revealed features allow speaking of advertising characters as effective elements of advertising text and advertising communication.
    Keywords: Advertising, Advertising Text, Fictional Character, Brand Character, Communicative Function
  • Guzel Rinatovna Eremeeva *, Ekaterina Vladimirovna Martynova, Amina Aidarovna Khakimova, Liliya Ernstovna Ilikova Pages 735-744
    This article is devoted to comparison of various approaches towards sentiment analysis (polarity classification) of the English financial news. The purpose of the work is to check, weather higher quality English texts would have higher classification quality and the links between quality of polarity classification and the architectures of the chosen systems. The approaches, presented on SemEval-2017 competition in the appropriate category of tasks, are taken as the basis. A specially collected dataset is used as the source of English financial news. In the end, a conclusion is made about the relationship between the quality of the source of English financial news and the quality of the news data sentiment analysis, made by the compared systems.
    Keywords: Linguistics, Text, Sentiment Analysis, Polarity Detection
  • Aida Marsovna Kazantseva *, Tatiana Gennadievna Bochina, Izanloo Hasan Pages 745-752
    The article is dedicated to the advertising texts for children and teenagers, its influence on their speech culture and presents some evidence for the existence of such a special advertising texts. Advertising has deeply penetrated in modern life having become not only a part of commercial sphere but of culture and life in general. “The peculiarity of advertising is that it is located on the border areas between science and art, Economics and politics” (Borisov, 2001). That is why, of course, it influences (both negatively and positively) on children and teenagers psych and worldview. In recent years, psychologists are actively studying the way advertising influences on children and teenagers and their undeveloped psych and worldview. From a linguistic point of view, we can mention the following means used by the advertisers to attract children and teenagers: 1) Occasionalisms. 2) Youth slang. 3) Advertising text containing verbal and non-verbal components. The use of graphics makes printed advertisement closer to be loved by children TV advertisement. Jargonisms (or slang) are not literary norm of language, but, watching them in the media children might be confused about their stylistic identity. This phenomenon makes a negative influence on youth speech culture that is why it is needed to lessen the number of jargonisms in advertising texts for children and conduct educational work concerning the stylistics of such words at home and at native language lessons. Creative (non-standard) advertising solutions are often criticized. Thanks to such texts children learn language game, understand the system of native language, analyzing word-formation models. This increases the motivation to learn the language, its’ spelling and morphemic.
    Keywords: Advertising, influence, Speech Culture of Children, Youth Slang, Occasionalisms
  • Guzel Zabirovna Khabibullina *, Alfira Mazitovna Akhmedova, Sergey Vladislavovich Makletsov, Liliya Emitovna Khairullina, Khafizova Ajgul Raisovna Pages 753-761
    One of the main problems of the education system is to improve the training quality of the younger generation for professional activities in the information society. At the present stage of higher education development, many methodological innovations are associated with the use of IT-based teaching. One of the areas of computer technology use in education is e-learning tools that help to better and more quickly master the most difficult sections of a particular subject. The use of computer-based teaching programs in the educational process, in particular, the Photoshop Graphic Editor program in the Delphi programming environment, allows the teaching process to differentiate, contributes to increasing the motivation and motivational readiness of students to apply acquired knowledge and skills in real life. The authors single out a comparative analysis of pedagogical literature as one of the leading methods in the study of this problem. It was revealed on its basis, that the study of the Adobe Photoshop graphics editor within the school curriculum is not considered, and attention should be paid to the pedagogical experiment that justified the use of the Photoshop Graphic Editor program in the Delphi programming environment when studying basic disciplines. The main result of the research is the development of the Photoshop Graphic Editor teaching program in the Delphi programming environment. The significance of the results obtained is in solving such a major scientific problem as the development of basic competence in the field of computer graphics by future teachers in the natural science cycle. The research results fill in the existing gaps in the theory of higher education and also contribute to the solution of questions on the motivation in learning computer sciences by students of pedagogical departments of universities.
    Keywords: Computer-Based Teaching Program, Graphics Editor, Training Goals
  • Victor Evgenevich Tumanin, Marat Zufarovich Galiullin, Albina Marselevna Imamutdinova, Natalia Aleksandrovna Zakharova Pages 762-771
    The article deals with the problem of gaining independence of the principality of Serbia in the Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878. In modern literature the war between the Russian empire and its allied Balkan states, on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire, on the other, is viewed from the point of view of the main participants. It was the war caused by the rise of the national identity of the Christian citizens of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans. Brutality, the April Uprising of 1876 in Bulgaria was suppressed with, caused sympathy for the position of Ottoman Christians in Russia and became a trigger for glorious pages of the young states’ Balkan history. The article considers the events with the Serbian participation in the liberation war through the pages of the Russian press. It describes all the vicissitudes of gaining Serbia’s independence from the Ottoman rule.
    Keywords: history, The Russian Empire, Milan Obrenovic, Russian Press
  • Elena Vorobeva *, Svetlana Baksheeva, Albina Imamutdinova, Ekaterina Plakhova Pages 772-780
    When studying the initial stages of house-building structure of the Forest Volga region Finno-Ugric population, the works of Russian researchers of the late XVIII- early XX centuries are of considerable interest. In the late XVIII - early XX centuries the archaeological surveys observed on the territory of the Forest Volga region had a random, episodic character. However, it should be noted that the problem of building long-term structures on the given territory was also of interest to geologists, natural scientists and ethnographers. The result of archaeological discoveries on the territory of the Forest Volga region was the opening and work of the IV Archaeological Congress in 1877 in the city of Kazan, which decided to publish the annual scientific journal "News of the Society of Archeology, History and Ethnography (IOAIE)". The pages of the journal did not only provide the information about newly discovered archaeological artifacts and objects, but also contained a scientific discussion on the possibility of developing house-building among the population of the Forest Volga region.  In this regard, the purpose of the article is to analyze the scientific works of late XVIII - early XX centuries devoted to the study of the origins and development of house-building among the population of the Forest Volga region in the era of primitiveness. The leading approach to the study of this problem is the historical-comparative and structural-systematical method. The analysis of the researchers’ works of the late XVIII - early XX centuries makes it possible to state that archaeological researches and ethnographic realities represented in the evidence of the late XVIII-early XX centuries have eternal source-study value in the study of various life aspects of the Forest Volga region most ancient population. The materials of the article can be useful to journalists, local lore specialists, those who deal with problems of house building and the oldest history of the Forest Volga region population.
    Keywords: Housebuilding, Bronze Age, Forest Volga Region, Researchers, Finno-Ugrians
  • Aida Marsovna Kazantseva *, Hasan Izanloo Pages 781-788
    The article is dedicated to the advertising texts for children and teenagers and precedent texts in it. In spite of the growth of precedence in advertising discourse it doesn’t refer to advertising for children. The authors of advertising texts aimed at children and teenagers do not often appeal to precedent, which can be explained by the age features of advertising for children addressee. As it is known, the advertising text will have an impact if it is well understood by the majority of recipients, and children, due to their age don’t have a number of texts meaningful to them. Thus, one cannot be sure that they recognize the text and understand it right and one needs to be careful appealing to the precedence in advertising. Nevertheless, we should point that advertising for children uses precedent as an expressive means carefully. Precedent starts working only in case of being well-known. So such examples as citations from popular films and cartoons, children’s stated speech formulas, some speech “clichés” are found in advertising.
    Keywords: Advertising, Precedent Texts, Citations, Speech “Clichés”
  • Tatyana Alexandrovna Gimranova, Elena Ivanovna Kolosova *, Anastasija Sokolova, Li Mengyi Pages 789-796
    In this article, the questions of speech impact in political discourse are analyzed. It is an accepted fact that political discourse is, unsurprisingly, a discourse made for politicians. The main function of the political text is the function of speech impact. Linguists that study political discourse are interested in how exactly language tools are used by the author to express different political statements. The subjects of study are, in this case, those language tools that can be used to influence the conversationalist. Antithesis is, as commonly known, a figure of speech, which is built on contrast of comparable concepts. In terms of creation, antithesis can be represented by two words or two groups of words that are related to each other by the lexical and contextual antonymy. The article is focused on how modern Russian politicians are using antithesis in their speeches. The main method of this research is the conceptual analysis, which can produce detailed analysis of text fragments, where antithesis is used, and analyze the dependency of meanings of the words that create antithesis itself in terms of context. In a study, the continuous sampling and linguistic observation and description methods were used. The article analyzes speeches of such prominent Russian politicians as V.V. Putin, S.V. Lavrov and V.V. Zhirinovsky. Particular emphasis in this study has been placed on the antithesis usage by politicians. Certain conclusions related to the usage of antithesis in Russian political discourse have been made. Antithesis is a powerful persuasive tool in the political discourse. The main features of current research and the collected factual material can be interesting to the specialists in the discourse field and also can be used while creating training courses for communication and special courses for researching of political discourse specificity in the modern Russian society.
    Keywords: Communication, Speech Impact, Antithesis, Political Discourse
  • Olga A. Chupryakova *, Svetlana S. Safonova, Irina A. Votyakova Pages 797-805
    The article is dedicated to the research of syntax phrase models with a modal component in the context of Chekhov’s artistic and epistolary prose. Actuality of the undertaken research is attributable to the fact that sentences with idiomatic structure are insufficiently researched: in particular, the issue of their function in discursive space is not resolved. Due to this fact, phrase models with a modal component that possess syntactic bivalency, which are common for Chekhov’s idiomatic style, are considered in this article; they are analyzed by their variety by “intensity” and “confirmation/denial” scales, as well as a “many/few” opposition.  The specificity and objectives of the studied material required the usage of complex of research
    methods
    descriptive, component, structural-semantic and statistical methods; text and distributional analysis of phrase models that express modality. The author’s modality is a very important text category, the studying of which is the most productive in terms of text fragments of bigger and shorter extent. In the Chekhov’s discursive space, the paragraph often either starts with the studied phrase models, which are unraveled in the following sentences, or ends with them, creating a summarizing judgement. The studied phrase models are also followed by the explicative and argumentative component, and are established by emotional and expressive units and question marks. The mental space of Chekhov’s works is filled with both relevant vocabulary and grammar structures (e.g., phrase models with modal components), which are oriented to relational meanings in the field of semantic of dependency. Meanwhile, the conditionality category includes not only typical units with meanings of target, cause and effect, but also similar meanings that are followed by the modal and evaluative component.
    Keywords: A.P. Chekhov’s Idiomatic Style, Modality, Phrase Model, Expressiveness, Semantic of Dependency, Functionality
  • Aliya Albertovna Abdrakhmanova *, Anastasiya Mikhailovna Mubarakshina, Gulnara Firdavisovna Lutfullina Pages 806-814
    This article is dedicated to the linguistic perceptual space. Of great interest in cognitive science is the relationship between linguistic and perceptual ideas about space. There are different approaches, some of them explore aspects of linguistic coding of space, which are closely related to the functioning of the visual system, and some of them are aimed at exploring the differences between linguistic and visual representations of space. Linguistic studies show that the presence of two main types of demonstrative points, near and far, characteristic of most languages, is evidence that language differences are derived from sensory ones. However, they are independent of each other. It is noted that the main characteristic of linguistic perceptual space is its deictism. At the present stage of development of linguistics, the following types of deixis are distinguished: primary, secondary, textual, social and cognitive. The authors come to the conclusion that the perceptual space is identical with the concept of the deictic field, which is defined by three parameters — temporal, spatial, and personal.
    Keywords: Language, Linguistics, Space, Perception, English
  • Nina Pavlovna Soboleva *, Anastasia Viktorovna Fakhrutdinova, Olga Stanislavovna Zubkova Pages 815-824
    The study discusses multi-aspect correlations of the categorial domains of professional metaphor and aims at determining the factors that influence individual signification practice in medical colloquial speech. Within the framework of the research a natural experiment was conducted. The nomothetic technique was used to study groups in two private clinics in Boston and New York, two private clinics in Paris and Lyon and two in-patient medical institutions in Kursk. The given method was applied under the conditions of “a double-blind experiment”. Having analyzed the resulting scripts and texts, professional metaphors were identified that produce a new meaning in the spoken speech of medical workers. Professional metaphors that function in spoken medical communication implement meanings created on the basis of dynamic interpretants in individual signification practice. The result of the identifying reference within the framework of the individual signification practice is the formation of a dynamic interpretant speaker / observer as a kind of illusion of clarity of meaning, on the basis of which communicative interaction is then constructed and manifold linguosemiotic correlations of professional metaphor are manifested. The individual signification practice is influenced by the characteristics of the subject-in-process of creating and restructuring the sign form of the object from material obtained from external influences or produced by the speaker himself.
    Keywords: Language, speech, Professional speech, Speaker, Linguistics, Metaphor, Semiotics
  • Aliya Albertovna Abdrakhmanova *, Anastasiya Mikhailovna Mubarakshina Pages 825-833
    This article is dedicated to the numerals that function as a part of evidential semantics. The numeral expresses the abstract mathematical concept of a number in the objective function. In the attribute function, the numeral denotes the quantitative attribute of the subject. The main feature of numerals is that they are like nouns perform the function of subject, complement, nominal part of the predicate and as the determiners actualize a noun. The main aim of the article is to show that the representation of the category of perception by quantitative numerals is limited by the capacity of perceptual space – the possibility of simultaneous observation of a limited number. Perceptual space is identical to the concept of the deictic field, which is defined by the temporal, spatial and personal parameters now, here, I = the perceiver. The main differences in perceptual space are in the interpretation of the subjective element, i.e. finding the status of the perceptor by the narrator, in its spatial-temporal concreteness, deterministic extralinguistic limitation of visibility in a specific time interval.
    Keywords: Language, Linguistics, Grammar, Numerals, Quantification
  • Olga A. Chupryakova *, Irina A. Votyakova, Svetlana S. Safonova Pages 834-842
    The article is dedicated to the research of metaphorics of advertising discourse, which differs by its focus not on a product, an extralinguistic object, but its image and its qualities which are important from pragmatic point of view and are highlighted by the communicator. Actuality of the undertaken research is determined by the importance of the role that expressive and figurative component of advertising discourse plays not only in terms of its organization as a special publicistic genre, but also in terms of its perception and impact by the addressee. In the process of this research, we referenced the existing experience of studying of language units in the field of publicistic discourse, including advertising. The fundamental works in the fields of advertising and metaphor theories were used as a theoretic and methodic base. The studied material specificity and objectives required the usage of complex of research
    methods
    method of continuous sampling; method of statistics; descriptive method; method of component analysis; structural and semantic method and distributive and conceptual analysis of language units. In advertisement of cosmetics and perfume, the correlation person (woman) – subject (product) is dominating, while the embodiment is done with the help of positive characteristics, and the product is correlated with the person by function: functions of protector and helper. Metaphorization in advertisements is usually created by verb components, since verb has a hidden dynamic and can carry a strong motive power compared to the nominal parts of speech. Author, realizing the modern person’s world of values, quite often conceptualizes the natural phenomena in the cosmetics and perfume advertising. Emphasis is placed not only on the value of advertised product, but also on ways the product can change person’s emotional, physical and moral and psychologic conditions.
    Keywords: Communication Studies, Metaphorization, Imagery, Expressivity
  • Ekaterina Gennadievna Shtyrlina *, Liana Mikhailovna Akhmetzyanova, Yetzaneth Del Valle Díaz Pages 843-851
    The article is devoted to the disclosure of the peculiarities of the individual author's perception of the past, the present, and the future with the purpose of understanding the poetic creativity of Joseph Brodsky. The specifics and representation of the main modes of time in the poet's idiostyle are determined based on the identity of their semantic volume, and it is addressed their role in the language picture of the poet’s world. It is given a complex description of temporal designations affected by multiple semantic transformations, reflecting the individual author's vision of the world. The factual features of the temporal units as well as the hidden connotative elements of meaning that create a difficult semantic complex are revealed, which is the language embodiment of the idea of time in the works of J. Brodsky. In the process of studying, the following methods were used: descriptive-analytical method, method of contextual analysis of the text of literature, method for interpretation of the literary text, method of continuous sampling.
    Keywords: Time, The Past, The Present, The Future, J. Brodsky
  • Margarita Andreevna Mikhailova Pages 852-860

    The paper presents the results of the complex analysis conducted to describe common and specific linguistic features at the verbal-semantic and thesaurus levels in the structure of the Russian and English photographer’s linguistic personality. The illustrative and practical parts of the study introduce the Russian-speaking and English-speaking discourse of photographers, based on texts posted on the websites of the Russian photo forums “KлубFoto” and “ПентаКлуб” from 2015 to 2018 and the American photo forums “PhotoNet” and “Digital Photography Forum with a smile” from 2015 to 2018 on the following topics: Weddings and Events, Beginner Questions, Medium Format, Large Format, Travel, Macro. In the present study, the typologization of the Russian-speaking and English-speaking professional language personality of a photographer is based on the identification of linguistic signs studied at the verbal-semantic and thesaurus levels of the structure of the linguistic personality. The article studies the volume of text messages is 540,889 word usages in the Russian language and 610,035 word usages in the English language. The research is based on 864 units of the Russian language and 820 units of the English language of photographers, used by people engaged in photo industry: professional photographers, assistants of photographers and amateur photographers.

    Keywords: Linguistic Personality, Verbal-Semantic Level, Thesaurus Level, Codified Lexemes, Non-Codified Lexemes
  • Zilya Ravilevna Abulhanova, Liailia Ihsanovna Mingazova, Gelyusya Faridovna Kayumova, Aigerim Tarbinovna Ibrayeva * Pages 861-869
    In the 19-20th centuries the most progressive Tatar intellectuals and writers in one way or another kept in touch with Turkey and Istanbul, in particular. They also expressed their thoughts and feelings regarding this country in their fictional works and memoirs. In this respect, along with the works by Sh. Marjani, G. Iskhaki and I. Bikkulov, the ‘Möhäžirlär’ (Immigrants) story by M. Galyau is one that deserves attention as well. Despite the geographical distance, the Tatar-Turkish literary and cultural relationships, as well as economic, trace back deep into the history. Some extant documents prove that the Golden Horde, later the Kazan Khanate, and the Ottoman State were connected on a political-diplomatic level, as well as cooperated in business and trade back in the early 15th century. Speaking of cultural, academic and literary relationships between the peoples of Turkey and Tatarstan, the authors of academic research works primarily refer to the 19 – early 20th centuries, the time when Istanbul was known as a cultural and academic centre and home for publicistic, academic literature and literary fiction. The relevance of this paper can be explained by how poorly this topic – representation of Turkish realia in literary fiction, publications and travel writing of the 20th century Tatar academics and writers – is explored. The literary, publicistic and travel writings of Sh. Mardjani, G. Iskhaki, M.Galau, K.Bikkulova have given us materials proving the close relationships between two kindred nations, Tatars and Turks, in the late 19– early 20th centuries.
    Keywords: Tatar Literature, Prose, Memoir, Travel Writing, Turkey
  • Oleg Vyacheslavovich Bodrov, Almaz Vasilovich Zakirov *, Izmail Ibragimovich Sharifzhanov Pages 870-879
    Tom Hayden (11.12.1939–23.10.2016) was a leader of the “New Left” organization “Students for a Democratic Society” (SDS) and an author of their main document the Port-Huron Statement (1962), an anti-war activist, a defendant in the case of “Chicago Seven” in 1968, a lawmaker with 18 years of experience and an initiator of major social, interracial and economic programs, a university professor and an author of more than 20 books of articles, a member of the Advisory Council of the “Progressive Democrats of America”, belonging to the left wing of the US Democratic Party. Hayden began journalistic activities early. Among the “New Left” editions of the 1960s – 1970s, which he collaborated with, were Radical America, New Left Notes, New Weekly, and Research Left. In the 1990s - 2000s. Hayden began publishing in influential editions such as the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, the San Francisco Chronicle, Boston Globe, Denver Post, Huffington Post, Harvard International Review, Chronicle of Higher Education. In 2009, Hayden became a member of the editorial board and columnist for the magazine the Nation.
    Keywords: Tom Hayden_New Left_Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)_Port Huron Statement_Anti-War Movement_Hayden's Law_Harvard Professor_Magazine the Nation_Progressive Democrats of America (PDA)
  • Azaliya Rishatovna Gizatullina *, Tatiana Yulievna Tameryan Pages 880-890
    Regional Russian literary texts are a valuable source for study of both appellative and onomastic vocabulary. Their material is important for a wide scope of humanitarian and social sciences including historical lexicology. At present the work of inventory, registry, study and description of regional sources data are among the most current interests in Russian historical lexicology and lexicography. The article in view presents the results of a multi-aspect vocabulary study on the basis of a corporate database of more than 880 official texts of the Kazan region dated XVI-XVII centuries (containing over 1 million word usages); it also outlines the strands of lexical research of the texts, shows the regional character of the material, describes the historical linguistic informative value of the documents, as well as the potentials of the findings in other researches of various kinds. The results confirm the value of the regional material for identifying common appellative lexical units including those that served as prototypes for onomastic lexical units. The body of the Kazan regional official texts allow to update current historical dictionaries, deepen the chronology of appellative words, and identify lexical units, meanings and variations that are not yet shown in Russian historical dictionaries.
    Keywords: Russian Language, Kazan Region, Official Documents, Lexical Descriptiveness
  • Guzel Nurutdinovna Karimullina *, Valentina Grigorevna Gavrilova Pages 891-898
    The article is devoted to the linguistic situation in the Republic of Tatarstan reflected in mass media. Adoption of the Law “On languages of the peoples of the Republic of Tatarstan” in 1992 facilitated the developed of a legal basis for implementing the language policy aimed at parity progress of the state languages. Given the importance of preserving the native language in Tatarstan, the conditions for maintenance and versatile development of the Tatar language are being created. It is well known that mass media, including the regional ones, have been acquiring the role of a public opinion moderator, thus becoming a rich source of empirical material for monitoring various ethno-political processes. It can be relevant to consider the regional mass media of the Republic of Tatarstan in order to find out the attitudes towards the language policy implemented at both regional (Republic) and federal levels. In general, the analysis of the Republic informational space shows that the language policy of the Republic of Tatarstan government, the issues of preservation and development of the Tatar language are still topical. Despite the 25th anniversary of adoption of the Law “On state languages of the Republic of Tatarstan”, the coexistence, functioning and development of the two state languages in the Republic is still not represented in mass media as equal; the Russian language continues to prevail in all aspects of “statehood”.
    Keywords: Bilingualism, Mass Media, State Language, Russian
  • Albina Ramilevna Kayumova *, Rimma Abel’Chaerovna Safina, Lubov Arkadjewna Nefedova Pages 899-907
    This article discusses current problems and trends in the field of phraseodidactics (the art of teaching phraseology). Phraseodidactics is an evolving field of research in the Russian Federation. Most of studies have been undertaken by European linguists, phraseologists and educators. However, a substantial part of research lacks unanimity of opinions and systematization; there is some dispute on the necessity of introducing phraseological units to foreign language students as well as on the volume of phraseological optimum, a set of phraseological units to be studied by students. Therefore, there is a need to carry out a review of the literature on phraseodidactics. Fifteen papers addressing phraseodidactics and phraseological competence have been selected and analyzed. The purpose and contribution of this paper is to offer a clearer picture of the modern state of affairs in the field of phraseodidactics, to identify current trends and problems, and to offer possible solutions.
    Keywords: Phraseological Unit, Phraseodidactics, Phraseological Optimum, Phraseological Competence
  • Gulshat Nailevna Galimova, Alfiya Shavketovna Yusupova, Gulnaz Rinatovna Mugtasimova *, Mustafa Oner Pages 903-910

    This article presents an analysis of the semantics of zoonyms that function as components of the proverbs of the Tatar and Turkish languages. Such proverbs are interesting in that they reveal the features characteristic of animals, which a person transfers to himself and translates with their help certain positive, neutral or negative emotions. The names of animals in all languages have in the lexical meaning emotional expressive-evaluative features that serve as the basis for the formation of metaphorical nominations. Zoonomia components of Proverbs are defined as cultural phenomena. The purpose of the study is to identify the cultural connotations of animal names in Tatar and Turkish proverbs.  The main methods used in the work are the methods of contextual analysis and linguocultural interpretation. The material for our reasoning was the Tatar and Turkish proverbs extracted from dictionaries, which include the names of animals. The results of the study of proverbial sources indicate a high particular designation of animals as structural components of proverbs. The frequency of animal names in the proverbs is explained extralinguistically, since animals played an important role in human life, the habits of animals served as the basis for the emergence of many proverbs in the Tatar and Turkish languages. The study of zoonyms, which are part of the Tatar and Turkish proverbs, contributes to a deeper understanding of their national-cultural specifics.

    Keywords: Tatar, Turkish, Proverb, Zoononym, Semantics
  • Guzel Minnezufarovna Nurullina *, Landysh Giniyatovna Latfullina, Liliya Abrarovna Usmanova Pages 908-916
    The article is devoted to the study of words of Turkic origin as a means of shaping students' value attitude to the vocabulary of the Russian language, educating students of the aesthetic perception of words-Turcisms. According to the authors of the study, the borrowed words from the Turkic language culture form a significant layer of the vocabulary of the modern Russian language, allowing to realize the formation of the value potential of the students' personality. Turkic words form the value potential of a person in case that they are included in the structure of a person’s worldview and are brought into use. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to study various words of the Turkic origin, in which the history of our people is reflected in different eras. Thus, the authors of the article examine in detail various groups of Turkic borrowings. In addition, the scientific article presents an analysis of the dictionaries of Turcisms in the Russian language, which allows us to trace the phonetic, morphological, lexico-semantic changes that Turcisms was undergone changes during the transition to Russian. From the linguistic and methodological point of view, according to the authors of the study, the study of vocabulary of Turkic origin expands the vocabulary of students; develops communicative and linguistic and cultural competence of students, the formation of the value potential of the individual students. The study of borrowed words from the Turkic language culture allows the teacher to reinforce students' knowledge of the Russian language vocabulary, to expand the vocabulary of students; contributes to the development of their speech, logical thinking; instills love for the Russian language; arouses interest in its study.
    Keywords: Borrowing, Turcism, Original Turcism, Historical Turcism, Linguistic Methodology
  • Alexander Gadomski *, Nataliya G. Nikolaeva, Anastasiya V. Yaparova, Anton V. Yermoshin Pages 917-924
    The teaching of the Latin language and medical terminology in universities of medical profile presupposes the formation students’ main cultural competencies that help them navigate in the increasingly complex world, reveals their creative abilities and readiness to self-development, and contributes to formation of their clear worldview coordinates. The paper deals with the problem of rather poor language skills of students, and proposes some ways of its solution. The article also provides a historical digression to compare this situation in relation to the pre-revolutionary time and today. The authors have developed and presented methods and techniques of learning of the Greek terminological elements in the Latin medical terminology in the situation when students have not got any knowledge of classical languages. The developed method can be used also in the implementation of educational programmes in other Humanities because of similarities of the situation with linguistic knowledge and because of the main tasks of training not only highly qualified specialists, but also well-rounded individuals.
    Keywords: Medical Latin, Greek, Etymology, Common Cultural Competence, Pedagogical Techniques
  • Anastasiya Mubarakshina *, Aliya Abdrakhmanova, Nailya Fattakhova Pages 925-933
    The history of cinema in comparison with the thousand-year history of music, painting or theater is short. Cinema is one of the youngest and at the same time one of the most popular arts. Naturally, it attracted the attention of sociologists, aesthetics, art historians, cultural theorists, linguists – everyone who is interested in the problems of artistic creativity and its perception, the dynamics of public attitudes, etc. Drawing up the title of the movie is a very complex and multi-tasking process. It is necessary to create a competent heading structure for a film of a particular genre affiliation and select, if necessary, stylistic figures. It is important to create an attractive, concise title that will attract the attention of the viewer. In addition, the title should be translated keeping the link with the content. This study is devoted to the particular qualities of the nomination of feature films of world cinema of the 20th and early 21st centuries, as a reflection of socially significant cultural concepts. In order to achieve the goals, we achieved the following tasks: to present the classification of the titles of movies; define the functions of movie titles and identify the basic techniques and strategies of composition.
    Keywords: Russian Language, Nomination, Cultural Linguistics, Feature Film
  • Liliya Radikovna Sakaeva *, Marat Aidarovich Yahin, Evgeniya Vladimirovna Kuznetsova, Ibragimova Venera Latipovna Pages 934-941
    As globalization and intensification of informational and communicative interchange become very important functional languages begin to play a significant role in a contemporary society. The language of advertising is included into a number of functional languages. The language of advertising doesn’t represent only certain stylistic features as some philologists write. The language of advertising is a language for special purposes of special type that realizes all the functions of the language. The researchers distinguish some features of languages for special purposes. Firstly, functional languages are based on ethnic languages and have the same phonetic and morphological system as ethnic languages. Secondly, languages for specific purposes of one sphere of using and of different origin are very close to each other. Thirdly, any functional language can have different layers. The authors analyze features of the language of advertising as one of the functional languages and represent separate linguistic elements of advertising texts and TV commercials at lexical, semantic, phonetic, graphic, phraseological, syntactic levels. The analysis is illustrated by examples from some media at local, regional and federal levels. The language of advertising is based on a certain ethnic language. The authors note that when we translate advertising texts from one language into another, advertising in this case is not just translation and transposition.  The addressees have to understand not only the main sense of the message, but also all its shades including extralinguistic. The results of the research can be used in other investigations in the sphere of advertising and in the process of teaching students to translate from Russian into English and from English into Russian.
    Keywords: Language, The language of advertising, Communication, Organizational tool
  • Karina A. Bashkirova *, Gulnara I. Galeeva Pages 942-950
    The article considers the distinctive features and specificity of the style of French novelist master Guy de Maupassant. By conducting a deep analysis of the novel “Pierrot”, the writers had set a goal to demonstrate how psychological realism and subjective attitude to the surrounding world are reflected in the author’s work. The writer manages to emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of the natures of his characters via lexical means. In the novel “Pierrot” Maupassant emphasizes the description of the psychological profiles of the characters. The relevance of the topic of the article is attached by the fact that at the present time there is a lack of research in the field of linguopsychological analysis of the works of French literature of the XIX century. In philology, one of the significant problems is the issue of understanding and interpreting texts. The research was conducted as part of areal linguistics — the sphere of the dynamically developing scientific direction. The main method used for the selection of practical material was the linguistic method of continuous sampling. Apart from that, the conceptual analysis of lexicographic sources was used.  The way of reconstruction of the human lexicon, the analysis of lexical and grammatical structures, which the writer uses when describing the images and actions of characters, allow the authors to open the lexical and semantic connections existing in the consciousness of the person. The forms and methods of linguopsychological analysis of the work of art considered in the article allow to better understand the meaning of the author's text. They also contribute to the transfer of the author's vision of reality, the reconstruction of the images of his characters and the atmosphere in which the actions unfold. The objectives of the study are to establish some basic concepts for French culture and to analyze linguistic and stylistic language tools.
    Keywords: Social Aspect, Psychological Profile, Rhetorical Figures, Moral Aspect
  • Evgeniy Aleksandrovich Chiglintsev *, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Il’Ichyov, Alik Olegovich Kudratov, Evguenia Alexandrovna Belyaeva Pages 951-959
    The article is devoted to the study of the ancient heritage reception in modern culture. In the last decades the media environment, in which the antique knowledge representation is in hands of authors – non-professionals in ancient history, has become a major source of historical perceptions in society. Many figures of antiquity have been turned into media characters attributed with features and notions at the athors’discretion and in mass audience interests. A famous Greek philosopher Socrates appears such a personality in contemporary media space. The article offers the analysis of some cases of the Socrates’ image usage in socio-cultural practices – education and performance. The educational sphere is represented by a current trend “Philosophy for children”, which applies the principles of Socratic dialogue as a basic teaching method. And the reconstruction of Socrates’ trial, held in New York and Athens in 2011-2012 accordingly, is taken as an illustration of performance practices. The author has arrived to the conclusion that all the described examples have to do with “adaptive interpretations” (Wojciech Wrzosek), characteristic not only of professional historiography, but of mass historical perceptions in modern society as well.
    Keywords: history, Antiquity, Reception, Media knowledge, Socrates
  • Irina Valeryevna Erofeeva, Luiza Ilgizovna Gimatova *, Ekaterina Vjatcheslavovna Sergeeva Pages 960-971
    The present study focuses on the functioning of an international German lexeme Intellekt in comparison with its Russian equivalent интеллект. The significance of the study derives from the fact that when studying this linguistic phenomenon, the lexemes were reviewed on the material of the latest works of Hermann Hesse - the novels ‘Steppenwolf’, ‘The Glass Bead Game’ and their translations into Russian, which led to the conclusion about some peculiarities of the writer's individual style. The method of a comparative analysis allowed us to identify the author’s individual and national-specific features of the word components’ implementation in two compared languages. With the help of a quantitative method one determined the relative usage frequency of the studied lexemes in the Russian-speaking and German-speaking discourses. One undertook a sequential study of the etymology, the semantic structure of the borrowed lexemes in lexicographic literature and online dictionaries of the German and Russian languages. With the help of the Google platform Ngram Viewer that demonstrates the dynamics of a certain word usage and its combinations in the texts of books placed in the Google Search Engine one determined the assimilation level of the considered lexemes in the Russian-speaking and German-speaking discourses of the mid-20th century. With the reference to the obtained data one drew the additional conclusions about the reasons for the absence of the lexeme Intellekt in the dictionary of Hermann Hesse's works’ language. The study was undertaken within the framework of research for intercultural communication and is meant for the foreign languages teachers and translators.
    Keywords: Discourse, Individual Style, Semantics, Online Dictionaries, Translation
  • Tatyana Alexandrovna Lukankina *, Tatyana Yuvenalevna Shchuklina, Karina Muratovna Amirkhanova, Thilo Zinecker Pages 972-980
    The article is devoted to study of word coinage of the Russian science-fiction writer Yu. Petukhov. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study were the work by Yu.N. Karaulov devoted to the theory of language personality; ideas of E.A. Zemskaya, scientists of Kazan Linguistic School, who present a description of Russian word-production mechanism. The purpose of the study is identifying ways of creating word-building occasionalisms in the novel “Angel of Retribution”, which has not yet been a subject of a special study, and to present creativity as a product, process, ability and personality property. The study showed that word-building is an important component of Petukhov's idiostyle whose neologisms play a significant sense-forming role, contribute to revealing linguistic consciousness type of the writer's personality, his values system. The novel presents the following productive ways of occasional derivation: semantic fusion, morphological addition, prefixation, clipping of the producing basis, affixoid word formation, substitutional derivation. The most common among the occasionalisms are composites created by words fusion and word stems addition. Occasional nouns are most often used in Petukhov’s novel which, on the whole, correlates with general tendencies specific to occasional word formation. The main reason for occasionalisms creation is the need to give names to futuristic objects or phenomena. Their abundance proves that the writer's word-coinage is often experimental, his use of prototype-words and adherence to certain patterns testify to conscious nature of text-creation. The work is topical in terms of clarifying scientific ideas about occasional word formation as a phenomenon of linguistic personality its results contributing to solving problems of lexical derivatology, lexical semantics, neology, language stylistics. Work on the topic seems promising as a further study of word-formation aspects of fiction will allow us to investigate the functional and pragmatic potential of the word-forming resources of modern Russian language.
    Keywords: Word Coinage, Occasionalisms, Means of Occasional Derivation, Language Nomination, Language Personality
  • Olga N. Prokhorova, Tatiana G. Voloshina *, Oksana V. Markelova, Elena A. Zueva, Emilia A. Bocharova Pages 981-990
    The spread of English across the Globe and its status as an official language in many countries, such as the Gambia, India, Cameroon, Canada, Kenya, Malta, Nigeria, the United States, South Africa, has determined its role and impact on a huge number of language versions of modern English variations. Due to the dominant influence of English on the spread of language diversity and the consolidation of its official status, the language policy of many countries, such as India, Pakistan, Nigeria, is carried out in line with the provision of education in English. The role of the English language in the development of the language policy in many countries is activated by both domestic and foreign policy of the state. The aim of domestic policy includes the solution of problems such as the preservation of the status of indigenous languages and strengthening their role in all spheres of society, the promotion of educational programs. However, in practice, this role is played by the English language, as a universal means of academic communication in schools and universities. Foreign language policy is aimed at preserving the status of the English language and is a set of language measures aimed at maintaining the structure of the language and its various forms of existence (Baghana et al., 2014). In our study, we analyze the linguistic, cultural features of such English language variation as the Nigerian English language. Nigeria is one of the largest countries in West Africa today, presenting the mixture of up to 250 language ethnic groups, where English, having the official status, has the role of uniting all ethnic variations as the means of communication. The official language policy of Nigeria is implemented in the promotion of English in all social spheres, such as education, politics, economics, diplomacy, jurisprudence, media. English is the main languages used in modern media and communications in Nigeria, namely television, Internet, etc. Each of the 36 States of Nigeria has its own radio station, which informs residents about the latest development in the country and in each state in English (Cruse, 1998). The English language has exerted a great influence on Nigerian culture, the results of which are the processes connected with losing a part of Nigerian cultural identity.
    Keywords: Language Variation, Linguistic Cooperation, Nigerian English, Cultural Identity, Indigenous Languages
  • Evguenia A. Belyaeva *, Vladimir I. Aydarov, Riyaz G. Minzaripov, Kadria A. Sakhibullina Pages 991-998
    The role of synergetic approach to psychological and pedagogical optimization of the quality of life of individuals with disabilities is studied by the athors of the article. Synergetic approach acts as the integrator of the two scientific perspectives - sociocentric and anthropocentric concepts. The system of psychological-pedagogical and socio-psychological rehabilitation of persons with disabilities in conditions of hospital treatment is perceived as a self-organizing and self-evolving social phenomenon. The capacity of diverse systems for self-development not only under the influence of external causes, but also due to the use of their internal capabilities, proves conceptual and methodological novelty of the ideas of self-organization. As a result, it increases rehabilitation potential and improves the quality of life of individuals with disabilities The use of synergetic approach justifies the need for integration of elements of various concepts into psychological and pedagogical optimization of the quality of life of disabled people, affirming polyparadigmatic character of modern scientific thought.
    Keywords: Individuals with Disabilities, Pedagogical Support, Synergetic, Sociocentric, Anthropocentric Approaches, Optimization of the Quality of Life
  • Emma Nikolaevna Gilyazeva *, Gulnur Mannurovna Polkina Pages 999-1008
    The article is devoted to the analysis of the internal form and functioning of phraseological units with the toponymic component in the German, English and Russian languages. The relevance of the study is due to the focus of modern linguistic research on the study of the cultural factor in the language. Toponym as a component of a phraseological unit is one of the universals of culture and performs the function of storing and transmitting traditions, history, and culture of a people, that is why it is a special linguistic sign. The problem of the national-cultural component of the toponym meaning helps to reveal the peculiarities of the phraseological world-image of the ethnic groups of the analyzed languages. The scientific novelty of the work is that it studies the culture-bound features of phraseological units with the toponymic component from the standpoint of the linguocultural approach to the study of collocations. This approach allows to reveal the historical and cultural nature of the toponymic component and to identify the peculiarities of the formation of these units, which contain culturally significant information. In addition, in this paper, based on the classification proposed by V. P. Zhukov, the studied phraseological units are divided into subgroups according to their motivation.The theoretical significance of the work is in a detailed study of phraseological units with the toponymic component, which contributes to the further development of onomastic phraseology. The practical significance of the work is determined by the opportunity to use the materials of this study in lectures and seminars on lexicology, linguoculturology, intercultural communication.
    Keywords: Phraseological Unit, Toponym, Internal Form, motivation
  • Khanif Fakhretdinivich Makayev *, Alfiya Rafailovna Baranova, Natalya Albertovna Sigacheva Pages 1009-1018
    Improvements and changes in all the fields of today’s world civilization lead to making new discoveries, developing new technologies and products that have a great impact on the human mind, contribute to development of languages which reflect all the new phenomena and serve for fixing and transferring the just appeared knowledge. As a result, there appear so-called specialized vocabulary (terms) in all the fields of science, particularly in such physics fields as medical physics, physics of perspective materials, distributed intellectual systems, quantum devices and radio photonics, and others, the central part of which being terminology. Some part of the vocabulary contributes to enlarging of common language lexical units’ number as well. Emergence of such a large number of vocabularies requires their being regulated and ordered as there appear many versions of their writing and necessity of defining common scientific principles of their formation. The relevance of all the ideas mentioned above defines the purpose of the article, which is to consider the ways of forming professional lexical units in different fields of physics from the point of view of their structure and semantics and their influence on the increase of common language vocabulary. The article outlines the opportunities of how to define the ways of word forming as well as its models in multi-field physics. The leading approaches to the study are methods of structural, contextual, word forming analysis, descriptive method, comparison and generalization of word forming ways in multi-field physics, models of these ways, the development of criteria for determining the direction of derivation and the corresponding methodology for analyzing word-formation relationships for substantivation. The results of the research conducted can be used in higher school practice of English lexicology courses, as well as in making dictionaries on language for special purposes in multi-physics fields. The results also showed a sharp increase of special terms the number of which even exceeds the common vocabulary number due to two main ways: substantivation and conversion. Considered is compounding and eponym terms’ contribution to enlargement of physics fields’ vocabulary as well.
    Keywords: Semantics, Linguistics, learning, Learners, Teachers
  • Gulfiya Kamilovna Khadieva *, Gulshat Raisovna Galiullina, Khalisa Khatipovna Kuzmina, Aigul Airatovna Abdrakhmanova Pages 1019-1025
    The language of any people is the most important means of expressing the national distinctness, and one of the basic features, which store the unique world-image of the people. Each language reflects the elements of material and intellectual culture – the historic past of the people. Being part of the vocabulary of a language, toponyms attract the increasing attention of researchers, for analyzing place names provides insight into a number of problems of history, culture, and the language of the people. This article reviews such metaphoric terms as tamak, arka, bash, ayak, kash, kabak, bil, yöräk, boryn, mangay, syrt, kultyk, tel, and others in toponymic units, which play an important role in increasing the sphere of functioning and demonstration of semantic potential of words. The analysis results show us, that the basis of metaphorization is represented by the associated perception of the reality by the members of the language and ethnic community, which through national mentality and national world-view actualize the particular nature of their world-image in language units. The research reveals that the toponymy of the Tatar people uses quite often the transfer of the name of one object or event to another on the basis of their similarity.
    Keywords: The Tatar Language, Toponym, Metaphor, National World-View
  • Natalia S. Andrianova *, Olga F. Ostroumova, Raushaniya R. Mingazova, Elena A. Vanchikova Pages 1026-1034
    An integrated approach to describing the adaptation of borrowed vocabulary from the initial stage of its functioning in the receiving language to its complete assimilation by the receptor language is one of the key stages in the analysis of diachronic changes in the lexical system of the language. The main method of such a study is the diachronous descriptive method, which allows us to trace the evolution of a borrowed lexical unit on different synchronous sections of the receptor language and the donor language. This article is devoted to the analysis of the process of semantic adaptation of foreign language lexical units in the lexical system of the Russian language. The object of the study is borrowings of French origin that were part of the Russian language from the 18th to the 20th centuries. The semantic mastery of gallicisms by the host language is considered in the aspect of the diachronous process of semantic archaization and innovation. The semantic development of borrowing within the framework of the dynamic processes of the lexical system of the Russian language leads to archaization, historicization, actualization of the meanings of borrowing, as well as to the emergence of innovations (new meanings) and homonyms in the borrowed term on the basis of the receptor language. These changes indicate the activity of the following processes in the lexical system of the Russian language: semantic archaization, derivation and secondary borrowing on the basis of the host language, the conversion of polysemant borrowing into homonyms.
    Keywords: Archaization, Historization, Secondary Borrowing, Gallicism
  • Natalia S. Andrianova *, Olga F. Ostroumova, Raushaniya R. Mingazova, Elena A. Vanchikova Pages 1035-1043
    In the context of world globalization and international integration, a high level of knowledge of foreign-language communicative competence is an essential component of the professional competence of a modern competitive specialist. This goal leads to the search for innovative technologies of professionally oriented teaching of foreign languages, among which an important place is occupied by the method of educational discussion, the effectiveness of which is associated with the creation of problematic situations that contribute to unlocking the creative potential of students. This article substantiates the importance and appropriateness of the use of educational discussion in the classroom on the practice of speech in a language university, as the most effective method of forming spontaneous speech of students in the framework of creative learning, and also considers the criteria for the selection of educational materials that can be used as the basis for the development of unprepared students' speech and discussion skills. The authors emphasize that one of the most important characteristics of a secondary linguistic personality capable of intercultural communication is the possession of a free, clear and logically constructed foreign language speech. In general, in the course of the study, it was found that the method of educational discussion is one of the most effective means of developing foreign language communicative competence, the development of spontaneous speech, informational, analytical and creative skills of students, as well as increasing motivation and interest in learning a foreign language.
    Keywords: Academic Discussion, Creative Learning, Secondary Language Personality, Spontaneous Speech
  • Anton Afanasev *, Tatyana Breeva, Jury Domansky Pages 1044-1052
    The article is devoted to the consideration of the gender symbolism of the cycle of Alexander Blok “Faina”. Despite the fact that the work of the largest Russian poet has attracted the attention of researchers for more than a dozen years, you can still find incompletely explored areas of his poetry. These include one of the cycles of the second volume of Fain's block lyrics. It was he who became the material of research. The focus is on the gender aspect of the motivational structure of the cycle. Through the prism of a gender approach, literary criticism examines images-symbols of fire (the Dionysian basis of the world) and light (the Apollonian constructive principle) and their possible modifications that help to illuminate one of the stages of the Block meta-plot. When developing the team of the creative interest of A. Blok, the main methods were the historical and literary method that helps to identify the existing relationships within the lyric cycle, as well as the analysis of the mythopoetic level of the poet’s lyric texts, which made it possible to read symbolic images through the prism of gender. It is concluded that the complexity of the interaction of the feminine self and their relationship with the lyrical hero is explained by the peculiarity of the lyrical plot of the cycle, on the one hand, which becomes the logical result of the development of the meta-plot of the second book as a whole, on the other, which receives a psychoanalytic justification associated with a love triangle A.A. Block - A. Bely - L.D. Mendeleeva and relations A.A. Block with N.N. Volokhova.
    Keywords: Russian Poetry, Alexander Blok, Faina, Gender Symbolsm, Motive Structure
  • Anton Afanasev *, Tatyana Breeva, Olga Osmukhina Pages 1053-1060
    The "Trilogy of Incarnation" by Alexander Blok is a unique phenomenon not only of Russian, but also of world poetry. “The novel in verses”, structured by the poetic meta-plot of the path, became the embodiment and reflection of the spiritual experience of the poet himself. And if the path as a super idea of the Blok trilogy has repeatedly been the subject of research interest, then the meta-plot of individual poetic cycles is not fully considered. So, for example, without proper scientific understanding of the problem under consideration, the “Crossroads” cycle, which ends the first volume of the lyrics, remains. The noted state of affairs in block science reveals the scientific novelty and relevance of this article. The special nature of the time led to the specifics of the representation of both the lyrical hero and his experience, including the mystical one. In this case, the authors use the following
    methods
    comparative-typological method, linguistic analysis of the poetic text, historical and literary. As a result of the study, the authors conclude that the “Crossroads” cycle represents the development of the final points of “Poems about the Beautiful Lady”: the myth of Eternal Femininity, the Soul of the world does not decline, but its implementation is increasingly questioned. Correspondingly, the system of relations between the lyrical hero and the addressee of the cycle is complicated, which ultimately changes the general characteristics of the picture of the world as a whole.
    Keywords: Russian Poetry, Alexander Blok, Crossroads, Lyrical Character, Faust
  • Magdalena Akhmadeeva *, Gulshat A. Hayrutdinova, Tao Yuan Pages 1061-1068
    The article deals with the problem of aesthetics of the category of Russian substances, which is relevant for modern linguistics. The author's position on this issue is presented. The main attention is paid to the imagery of the literary text, which is achieved through the implementation of the aesthetic possibilities of the grammatical gender. The close connection of the problem of imagery with the development of the question of the semantic organization of the category of gender is noted. Given its own interpretation of the semantics of the grammatical gender of nouns. The results of the analysis of the imagery of the text are presented taking into account a number of stylistic techniques, which include masculine and feminine nouns. The material for study was the works of art included in the “National Corps of the Russian Language” (http://ruscorpora.ru/search-poetic.html). In the course of the study, the means of context were identified that contribute to the actualization of the inanimate substances of the quasidenotative component of the gender value. The indicated means include: a) nouns containing in their grammatical meaning the gender of the denotative component; b) words characterizing the appearance of a male or female person; c) personal names; d) verbs indicating a certain aspect of the relationship between males and females; e) designation of tools; f) the names of animals, differentially designating a sign of sex; g) elements of the metalanguage of linguistics. The research materials confirm the following thesis: when studying the figurative use of linguistic units on the material of languages with developed morphological structures, it is important to take into account not only the objective properties of objects, phenomena reflected in the text, semantics and stylistic features of lexemes, but also the originality of the morphological categories of language systems.
    Keywords: Aesthetics of a Language_Imagery of a Literary Text_Category of the Gender of Nouns_Semantics of a Grammatical Gender
  • Khalisa Khatipovna Kuzmina *, Gulfiya Kamilovna Khadieva, Gulshat Raisovna Galiullina, Dilianur Ramilevna Akhunzhyanova Pages 1069-1077
    The 20th century was marked by the dramatic changes in all the spheres of mankind activity including culture. One of the manifestations of culture is the literary language, which is a historical category: the degree of its processing and normalization may not be the same in different periods of its development. The twentieth century is characterized by the rapid development of national literary languages, including Tatar. The development of the Tatar national literary language in the twentieth century must be regarded as a holistic historical-literary and historical-linguistic cycle that has certain periods. The end of the twentieth century allows us to try to see this cycle in a comprehensive manner and to determine the processes that guided its development. This article considers one of the fundamental problems of studying the functioning and development of the artistic style of the Tatar literary language in the twentieth century ˗ the question of its periodization. We have revealed that compared with the previous centuries the Tatar literary language of the twentieth century, underwent significant changes that affected all levels of the language state. Given the extra- and endolinguistic factors the authors propose four periods of its development in the order of the working hypothesis. The study showed that in the twentieth century it is possible to single out the periods where the lexical-stylistic changes appearing most clearly in the language of works of art. Each period is marked by socio-economic and political conditions that have influenced the development of the language design of the artistic style of the Tatar language. At the same time, the development of the Tatar literary language in the twentieth century to some extent confirms the hypothesis that the pre-crisis state of society promotes the flowering of culture.
    Keywords: Tatar Literary Language, Periodization of Literary Language, History of Language, Language of Tatar Fiction
  • Kamilya R. Babko, Nadezhda O. Samarkina *, Zulfiia Kh. Fazlyeva, Charles Carlson Pages 1078-1085
    A real psycholinguistic meaning of a word can be realized as a well-ordered unity of all semantic components connected with the its sound in a mother-tongue speaker’s linguistic consciousness. The paper under study presents the analysis of a real psycholinguistic meaning of a word and metaphorically reinterpreted component correlation based on phraseological units related to phraseosemantic field “Musical Knowledge” in the English language. As a result of this analysis it was proved that there is a disparity and in certain cases even a contradiction between a real psycholinguistic meaning of a word and the meaning of the phraseological unit. It can be explained by the fact that associations underlying phraseological units are based on some prototype situations and their meaning is easily predicted from such situations. The analysis has also shown partial and complete correlation between a real psycholinguistic nominative meaning of a word and the seme actualized from the meaning of the phraseological meaning itself. However, our analysis has revealed only several of such cases.
    Keywords: Metaphorically Reinterpreted Component, Phraseological Unit, Prototype Situation, Seme
  • Wang Mo, Juliya Viktorovna Ageeva, Lin Mei Pages 1086-1094
    Currently, non-linguistic majors have begun to attract more and more international students who come to Russia to receive higher education, including in the area of ​​International Relations. In this case, studies of the Russian language as a means of mastering the chosen university major is a prerequisite for the educational process. The paper provides evidence for importance of teaching the language of the university major to international students (non-linguists); the object and subject of the study are denoted; research methodology is described; the purpose, goals and novelty of the study are presented. A scientific literature review resulted in the summary of general principles and methods of teaching Russian as a language of the university major to international students. Having studied a number of educational materials, the authors set forth the features of the best workbook for future experts in international affairs, such as a clear structure of units, a variety of activities, visibility of the learning material, and, most importantly - the connection of language materials with the students’ major. The paper shows the structure, purpose, and advantages of the sample unit "International organizations" designed on the basis of these criteria. Examples of assignments are given, principles adopted by authors in designing the unit and objectives of different assignments are explained. The results and summary are presented in the conclusion. Prospects for further research in this area are outlined.
    Keywords: University Major’s Language, International Relations, Academic Speaking
  • Wang Xiaoxu, Gulshat A. Hayrutdinova, Zhang Xinxin Pages 1095-1103
    The article is devoted to the urgent problem for grammatical stylistics - the study of the aesthetic resources of the morphological categories of the gender and number of nouns. The aim of the work is a comparative analysis of the aesthetics of the categories of gender and the number of Russian substances in the aspect of the reflection of the comic. The following methods were used as the main ones in this scientific work: descriptive-analytical, semantic-stylistic, distributive and the method of component analysis. The material for the study was the texts of literary works included in the "national corpus of the Russian language". In the process of research, an analysis was made of nouns used in a literary text with the aim of creating a funny one. It has been established that the aesthetic resources of categories of the gender and number of nouns, considered in the indicated aspect, are realized thanks to the following
    methods
    convergence of words (word forms) that have sound similarities, the use of synonyms, polysemants, grammatical means representing a deviation from the norm, playing out the semantics of the analyzed categories, varieties of language units. The most significant number of methods is associated with updating the aesthetic potential of the grammatical gender. However, aesthetic resources of the gender category are not realized when polysemants are used. In relation to another category - the number of nouns - examples of the use of synonymy were not found, not all varieties of grammatical deviation were presented, as well as one of the cases of playing homophony. A generalization of the results of a comparative analysis of the aesthetic potential of the gender and the number of substances indicates the wider possibilities of the grammatical the gender in reflecting comic phenomena.
    Keywords: Aesthetic Resources of a Language_Category of Comic_Gender_Number of Nouns_Ways to Create a Comic Effect
  • Leysan Ravilevna Vasilova, Zubayda Albertovna Biktagirova *, Natalya Anatolyevna Deputatova, Zulfiya Hanipovna Fazlyeva, Olimjon Habibovich Kasimov Pages 1104-1111
    The article identifies and analyzes stereotyped images and standards of beauty. The concept of beauty is one of the most important values of society. Plenty of linguistic researches are dedicated to the study of various aspects of beauty. This is quite natural, since it is one of the most important, meaningful concepts of aesthetics. The study presents the description of linguistic means of expressing beauty of environment in English Literature of XVIII-XIX centuries as beauty is one of the most important concepts of our life. The colors of nature in the English literature have a wide color range. English writers idealize beauty; they do not tolerate any errors.  Images of nature in the present paper have been subdivided into four groups: the sky, the Earth, water and seasons. Special attention of English writers is paid to the eternity, immensity and mystery of the sky. They express their inexplicable love of flowers. Water element is compared to a human being. And every season is beautiful in its own way.
    Keywords: Nature, Writers, Sky, Earth, water, Seasons
  • Svetlana Yur&#, Evna Glushkova, Yakov Yakovlevich Grishin, Dmitry Evgenyevich Martynov *, Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich Shagalov Pages 1112-1121
    On August 21, 1937, a non-aggression agreement was concluded between the USSR and China for a period of 5 years, with an extension of 2-year periods, unless one of the parties declares its desire to refuse to extend it. Signed at a difficult time for China, the treaty helped to improve its international position. The Soviet Union provided direct material assistance to the country fighting the Japanese: the provision of two loans, the supply of large quantities of weapons, ammunition, fuel, etc. More than 3,500 Soviet military specialists (1939) contributed to the struggle against the Japanese invaders. Soviet Russia consistently defended China, publicly condemned Japanese aggression and issued a series of warnings to it. The comprehensive support of China by the Soviet Union meant a lot to the liberation struggle of the Chinese people. However, since 1939, the volume of supplies of Soviet aid has been declining, and then they cease, while maintaining contacts between the two countries. This will be discussed in this article. It gives an analysis of Soviet-Chinese relations in 1940 and the first half of 1941, i.e. on the eve of World War II. It is based on documents of the USSR foreign policy.
    Keywords: Kuomintang, Chinese Communist Party, Chiang Kai-shek, Sino-Japanese Conflict, Vyacheslav Molotov
  • Zhanbolat M. Zhetibay, Radif R. Zamaletdinov *, Gulnara F. Zamaletdinova, Fanuza H. Gabdrakhmanova Pages 1122-1131
    As you know, no literature exists without the mutual enrichment of translated literature. And thanks to this we have a wonderful opportunity to get acquainted with the work of not only Russian, but also foreign writers. As a result, translated literature is read in every region. According to many researchers, it was in the twentieth century that the subject of translation studies as a science was formed. Such formation gave a huge impetus to the growth of translated works and improvement of translation skills. It cannot be said that Tatar literature was actively translated into Russian. But even if translated, it is not always far successful. Before the 1917 revolution, there were practically no translations into Russian. Translations of Tatar literature into Russian took a systematic character only from the 30s. We came to the conclusion that in the twentieth century, Tatar literature experienced a kind of Renaissance, which affected not only its literature, but also in translation activities. Translation science as a science was not very planned in nature - this was mainly due to the influence of social factors. The development of the translation of literary prose in Tatarstan in the 20th century was not uniform, the pace of development was not very intensive, but despite this, the translators were able to achieve their goals - to familiarize Russian readers with Tatar literature, raise Tatar literature to the world level and improve the quality of translation.
    Keywords: Translation Studies, Literary Translation, Tatar Language, Tatar Literature
  • Vilena R. Gagarina *, Olga V. Shelestova, Dina P. Sheinina, John R. Leake Pages 1132-1141
    The article is devoted to the topical study of adaptation of the English language in intercultural political discourse. It highlights the existing approaches to the study of political discourse and gives accent to its characteristics and functions. The characteristics of this concept are formulated from the position of the linguoculturological paradigm, the center of which is the language. Discourse acts as a “living language”, applied or “in the process of application” (Van Dijk, 1993), while the language itself can remain a language even if it's unclaimed or inapplicable. The research mechanism of this work is determined by the dynamic nature of the English language as an adaptive and self-adjusting system that reacts to the modification of the linguocultural space, social and informational environment in accordance with the communicative needs of society, in particular the need to express the foreign linguocultural lexicon. In modern intercultural communication, preference is given to the English language, which is used as a “lingua franca” as a means of describing contacting figures. Therefore, adaptation of the English language for implementation of the function of transfer of the political lexicon is due to the instability of the political situation, which is reflected in the image of the political world and is fixed in the linguistic image of the world and in contacting languages.
    Keywords: Political Discourse, Linguoculturology, Adaptation, culture
  • Viktoriya Jurevna Garaeva *, Leyla Agdasovna Mardieva, Anatoliy Prokopievich Chudinov Pages 1151-1159
    The article discusses the ways of media personality nominations. It has been established that the typical linguistic forms of personality representation in newspaper texts are the proper name (anthroponym) and its contextual equivalents, which are secondary nominations.  The modifications of proper name, lexeme identifiers and periphrases can act as the contextual equivalents of official anthroponyms. The latter can be either evaluative or evaluative neutral. Evaluation periphrases create a publication character image, form the public perception of a media personality necessary for a message sender. Periphrases neutral in terms of evaluation, help the reader to identify the media personality in terms of professional activity, social status, age, the place of residence and other parameters. A special group of contextual equivalents of the name are the periphrases that have become case-law and / or are correlated with the case-law situation, which is actively discussed in the media. The systematization of periphrases by the degree of correlation with a particular referent made it possible to distinguish the following types of them: a) the periphrases correlated with the referent in context exclusively; b) the periphrases assigned to the referent in a limited time period; c) the periphrases assigned to the referent regardless of time and context; d) stable periphrases of a metaphorical nature that do not have a clear assignment to the referent and appear in the text as evaluative elements. The study allows us to argue that contextual equivalents are the means of text coherence provision, avoiding repetition, additional information provision about the media personality, the creation of certain image of him and a powerful means of public opinion development.
    Keywords: The Media Language, Anthroponym, Nomination, Secondary Nomination, Periphrase
  • Elzara G. Gafiyatova, Dina Z. Gaynutdinova, Albina T. Galiakhmetova, Mariya B. Kazachkova, Regina R. Gabdrakhmanova Pages 1160-1168
    To comprehend an academic text is one of the main tasks for pupils of both elementary and secondary schools. Developing of reading skills is viewed as one of the most important questions for teachers, scientists and is a cause for concern to schoolchildren's parents. The aim of the present research is to investigate the dynamics of text complexity in the textbook “Environmental studies” (written by A. Pleshakov, 2012) for pupils of the second grade of comprehensive schools. The textbook consists of two parts, with twelve texts in Part I and sixteen texts in Part II. The corpus compiled for the research comprises twenty-eight texts from the stated textbook. The academic year of second class pupils is divided into four quarters. Consequently, the first part of the textbook, that is 12 texts, is studied in the first two quarters – from September to December. The second part – 16 texts - in the third and fourth quarters: from January till May. The texts differ in syntactic structure and length. Syntactic simplicity was evaluated on the basis of the mean number of words in the sentence, number of syntactic structures, number of words before the predicate, and the number of simple and composite sentences. Contrastive analysis of texts in both parts did not reveal obvious dynamics in complexity. The texts in both parts tend to have similar quantity of simple and composite sentences. However, the texts from the first part of the textbook are shorter, but sentences are longer and they are more elaborated than sentences of the second part. Syntactic simplicity of texts varies across the textbook.
    Keywords: Textbook, Text Complexity, Syntactic Structure, Sentence
  • Irina Valeryevna Erofeeva, Albert Ilgizovitch Gilyazov, Maria Alexandrovna Pilgun Pages 1169-1178
    The article discusses the linguistic forms of representation of the concept of light in a work of religious content XII-XIII centuries. "The Lives of Theodosius of the Caves." Under the influence of the Christian worldview, the concept of light is enriched and saturated with new meanings, the idea of the positive properties of which has developed in mythological consciousness. The method of conceptual analysis of lexical units used in the research process allows us to draw conclusions about the linguistic picture of the world of the medieval man, his spiritual and moral values, and the methods of component and contextual analysis allow us to characterize the semantic content of the lexemes of the studied field. The juxtaposition of light and darkness is a significant conceptual opposition with an axiological orientation. For the consciousness of a medieval man, light is understood as a phenomenon of the physical plane associated with the divine plan. Representatives of the lexical and semantic group 'light' are examined in contexts and not only the frequency of their use is shown, but also a place in the religious picture of the world, since it is the concept of 'light' that occupies one of the key places in it, entering the field of the concept of 'holiness' '. Light is one of the most significant attributes of God, and its distribution to a person testifies to the chosenness and holiness. The use of a large number of lexemes with light meaning in characterizing Theodosius reflects the religious picture of the world of the Middle Ages. Along with the lexeme light, the monument analyzes both the derivatives of the given basis of the form with various word-formation meanings: personal, abstract, tool, and other LSG 'light' lexical units. The adjective light, which has a wide range of meanings and is used to characterize the most significant church events, plays a special role in the text of the "The Lives". Functionally, the lexemes of this group perform not only a nominative, but also an expressive function, have a pronounced appreciation, and are part of stable formulas that perform text-forming functions in works of church subjects. The results of the study can be applied in the practice of linguistic and ethnolinguistic analysis of the basic concepts of Russian culture, they refine the data on the evolution of a person’s views on the idea of light in Russian culture, thereby are important for the development of ethnolinguistics, linguoculturology, cognitive science.
    Keywords: Lexical-Semantic Group, Semantics, Hagiography, Linguoculturology
  • Lin Guo *, Vera A. Kosova, Chuncai Mei Pages 1179-1190
    The article is devoted to a peculiar linguistic phenomenon – polyfunctional deictic verbs in the Russian language, one of which – the lexeme чувствовать (to feel) – is the object of this study. The purpose of this study is to determine the functional correspondence between situations described in a statement and the semantics of the lexical means that effectuate the object valency of the verb чувствовать. This goal is achieved through a contextual analysis of the corresponding text fragments available in the Russian National Corpus. A quantitative method is used to define the main lexico-semantic variant of this verb. We performed a semantic classification of the object expanders of the verb to summarize the observations on the ability of every one of its lexico-semantic variants to combine with the vocabulary of certain semantic categories. The conclusions are the following: the deictic nature of the verb чувствовать allows it to combine in an extensive and free way with nouns of various semantic groups that effectuate its object valency; this verb is polyfunctional as it is used to describe situations of various states (emotional, physical, subjective-mental) and to define some types of sensory perception and the capability of aesthetic perception. The experience of our study can serve as an example of an analysis of a row of analogous deictic verbs such as ощущать (to sense), испытывать (to experience), воспринимать (to perceive), понимать (to understand) etc.
    Keywords: Deictic Verb, Polyfunctionality, Object Combinability, Lexico-Semantic Variant, Lexico-Semantic Classification
  • Diana Nyailevna Davletbaeva *, Guzaliya Sayfullovna Khazieva Demirbash, Alyona Mikhailovna Ivanova, Elchin Ibragimov Pages 1191-1198
    The article examines local variations of the theonym Khyzyr-Ilyas in Tatar traditions, stable combinations with this name and also highlights parallels in other Turkic languages. In the corpus of material extracted from the field records of the author collected in the folklore and dialectological expeditions the dialect and ethno-cultural features of this theonym prevail. The purpose of this study is the reconstruction of the diversion nest with the vertex word Khyzyr-Ilyas in the texts of the Tatar conspiracies and spells. Motivational reconstruction of linguistic fact is depicted in a cultural context. In the article the patron spirit Khyzyr-Ilyas is ambivalent but if you violate the rules of communication with him it can punish a person. The author distinguishes two motivational lines: on the one hand, the theonym Khyzyr-Ilyas lives in the language as a precedent name, on the other hand, in the texts of culture theonym is described most closely to the local variants of the culture of the Tatars within their own ethnocultural space. It was also proved that depending on the motivation of a given theonym with its internal form this name becomes an appeal.
    Keywords: Local Variants of the Tatar Culture, Turkic Parallels, Semantic-Motivational Reconstruction, Theonym, Khyzyr-Ilyas
  • Anna V. Dengina, Elena F. Arsenteva *, Elena A. Nikulina Pages 1199-1206
    The central point of discussion is how distinctive features of a traditional for English or French-speakers religious practice are reflected in the metaphorically motivated phraseological units of the English and French languages, containing a religious term. Such phraseological units constitute a substantial part of the phraseological corpuses of the languages being compared. Thus they are capable of reflecting not just individual associations connected with that or another religious term, but they can throw light on real trends showing how phraseology reflects certain aspects of traditional religious practice typical of the English and French cultures. The research has involved 500 French and 200 English metaphorically-motivated phraseological units containing a religious term, chosen from bilingual or monolingual idioms dictionaries. The analysis of their inner form reveals that in both languages being studied most of the metaphorically-motivated phraseological units containing a religious term are aimed at human beings, i.e. human in most cases appear as a target domain of metaphorical transposition of meaning. However as far as the source domain is concerned, notions connected with religious rites, cult procedures and objects are more characteristic of the French language, while the English phraseology mostly appeal to the general religious ideas as the source domain for metaphor-based phraseological units.
    Keywords: Phraseological Unit, Religious Term, Phraseological Meaning, motivation, Metaphor
  • Vladislav E.Elistratov *, Liliya F. Khabibullina, Oleg Y. Polyakov Pages 1207-1214
    The article is devoted to the consideration of the features of plot construction in American prose about dissociative identity disorder using the example of F.R. Schreiber Flora Rheta Schreiber "Sibyl" (Sybil, 1973). The basis of the plot of the work is the history of mental illness (medical history). Dissociative personality disorder leads to the realization by society of the end of the 20th century of a new psychological state in which a person can be. Such a state, when one consciousness can exist in several states representing different personalities, puts a person on the line between real and fantastic. The artistic interpretation of the disorder carries similar characteristics. The fantasticness of the described is contrary to the scientific component, in this confrontation, the scientific is trying to control the fictional, rationalize it, fit into the real. Psychoanalysis is becoming an indispensable attribute for describing and understanding events. The cause of the disorder is a personal childhood injury, from which a person seeks to fence himself off. Here we see the influence of Z. Freud, whose psychoanalytic practice, including hypnosis, analysis of the events of the past, analysis of dreams, is reflected both in events and in the structural organization of the novel.
    Keywords: Narrative, American Prose, Psychoanalysis, Dissociative Personality Disorder, Documentary Prose
  • Zhanbolat M. Zhetibay *, Radif R. Zamaletdinov, Gulnara F. Zamaletdinova, Fanuza H. Gabdrakhmanova Pages 1215-1223

    This work relates to studies of the lexical-semantic system of different languages, and is devoted to a comparative study of the lexical-semantic fields “eget” and “man” in Tatar and English. We considered important and additional meanings of the word “eget” and “man” in both languages, analyzed Tatar and English sayings and proverbs in order to determine the significance of “eget” and “man” in a particular language. To describe the concept, we chose proverbs and sayings of the Tatar and English languages, as they are products of linguistic popular consciousness as a materialization of the experience of generations. If you compare the proverbs and sayings of the Tatar and English, you can see that these native speakers have a lot in common and this contributes to their mutual understanding and rapprochement. Comparing the data of the two languages, we came to the conclusion that “man” is widely used in proverbs and sayings of the English language. In the picture of the world of the English language, a man is presented to us as an image of a knight without fear and reproach or a fearless, brave man. The man is given a dominant role. A feature of the Tatar language is the presence in the language of a large number of proverbs and sayings formed by comparing a man with the image at (horse) or drawing a parallel between them. Despite the differences in national character, values, it is clear that “rider” and “man” are a symbol of a warrior, courage, laconicism, the head of the family, courage, in the Tatar and English cultures, a man plays a dominant role in society.

    Keywords: Linguoculturology, Tatar National Picture of the World, English Culture, Paremia
  • Aliya A. Kabirovа, Kadriya S. Fatkhullova, Elvira N. Denmukhametova *, Rida I. Zekrist Pages 1224-1232
    The study examines the linguistic and methodical features of the organization and monitoring of residual knowledge of the mother tongue (Tatar language) among students who have mastered the basic general educational program, examines tasks for schools with the Russian language of instruction. The relevance of this topic is due to the need to generalize pedagogical experience to improve the quality of instruction in the native (Tatar) language and determine forms and methods of work for the further development of students' language abilities. The article discusses the goals, objectives and the main content of monitoring knowledge of the Tatar language among Russian-speaking students. It also provides an analysis of the types of tasks aimed at identifying students' level of listening, reading and writing skills, as well as linguistic competence (lexical and grammatical skills). The main problems associated with the introduction of test technology in the school’s practice of monitoring and evaluating the results of educational activities of students in the Tatar language are associated with improving the objectivity and quality of control and measuring materials.  The article is the first experience in covering the test technology of control in the Tatar language, which allows to give a comparable assessment of the linguistic achievements of students in secondary schools.  Such studies will contribute to the activation of test forms of diagnosis of communicative abilities of students in accordance with international language competencies, the dissemination of positive experience in this area.
    Keywords: Tatar Language, Monitoring, Quality of Education, Objective Control
  • Anastasia Nikolaevna Nikolaeva, Venera Gabdulkhakovna Fatkhutdinova *, Sergey Sergeevich Khromov Pages 1233-1241
    The article discusses the specifics of the semantic structure of derivatives of the Russian language. The subject of the study was the idiom of the word-formation semantics of Russian nouns, which is particularly difficult in the linguodidactic description of the laws and mechanisms of Russian word formation. The purpose of the work is to characterize in a linguistic and methodological aspect derivative nouns, the semantics of which are not a simple sum of the values of the motivating basis and formant, but their interaction, as a result of which a new meaning is formed. The work states that in the Russian language derivative words with different types of word-formation semantics are distinguished. The lexical meanings of derivatives of nouns may contain additional semantic components, which are neither in the meanings of the generating stems, nor in the meanings of word-forming affixes. The ambiguity of affixes in the Russian language defines one of the widespread types of idiomatic semantics of a derived word. It is established that the realization of this or that other lexical meaning is not always predictable, the semantic increment cannot be automatically deduced from the word-building structure and semantic components of the word. The brightness and transparency of the internal form of such derivatives allows you to use them to name a variety of objects and phenomena.  The semantics of motivating foundations, namely the fragments of reality behind them, provide Russian speakers with an understanding of the general meaning of the derivative, which is not always relevant for foreign phones. In the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language, derivatives with an idiomatic type of semantics should be given special attention. Word-formation analysis at all stages of training forms the ability to observe, generalize and systematize lexical units according to their linguistic properties, to establish internal structural-semantic relationships and patterns.
    Keywords: Russian Language, Word Formation, Derivative, Idiomaticity, Linguodidactics
  • Gulshat I.Nureeva, Milyausha М. Khabutdinova *, Liailia I. Mingazova, Ainur Mashakova Pages 1242-1250

    The article systematized the material and contains an analysis of the state of modern Tatar children's dramaturgy. Particular attention is paid to the genre nature of the works. The material is fiction written in the native language and included in the repertoire of Tatar theaters. The work analyzes the work of the older generation of Tatar writers (Rkail Zaydulla, Nazif Karimov). “The Seventies” fruitfully work in the field of national folklore and stage works of other Tatar writers. If R.K. Zaydullah creates texts that fully meet the spirit of the original, then N. Karimova prefers to enrich the canonical text with new content: she acquaints young viewers with the customs of the Tatar people, the peculiarities of the festive culture, etc.   Particular attention is paid to the work of young authors conducting experiments with form. The article summarizes the experience of domestic theaters in educating new authors and texts that meet the needs of the modern audience. The effectiveness of the work of theater laboratories and drama contests for the search for new authors and topics has been proved. The article reveals the potential of fairy tales-plays, developing the traditions of folklore tales (magical, everyday, about animals); dramatization aimed at dialogue with the world literary tradition. Particular attention is paid to the characterization of such a new direction for the Tatar theater as plays for the baby theater.

    Keywords: Tatar Children’s Literature, Tatar Children’s Drama, Tatar Theater, Plays for Children, Dramatization
  • Aliya M. Abrarova * Pages 1251-1259
    Recently, the cultural frontier, as the area of the most intensive implementation of intercultural contacts, has come to the attention of humanitarians. The concept of the work was influenced by studies in which issues of cultural borderland and interliterary synthesis are studied. In solving the tasks set, system-structural and context-hermeneutic methods were used. It is established that in the poetry of A. Absalyamova there lives a dialogue of two cultures - Russian and Tatar. However, passive knowledge of the Tatar language suggests that the dominant culture is Russian. In this context of cultural borderland, we can talk about the influence of the degree of language learning by the writer. The article provides examples of the work of R. Bukharaev and Ch. Aitmatov. The results obtained are significant for understanding the artistic and aesthetic nature of literature that implements the phenomenon of the Russian-Tatar borderlands, as well as for identifying “cultural voices” emerging at the intersection of two cultures.
    Keywords: Transculture, Dialogue of Cultures, Borderlands, National Codes, Bilingualism
  • Regina M. Plankina *, Maria S. Pestova, Fanuza H. Tarasova, Albina M. Yakhina Pages 1260-1268
    Despite the fact that axiological interpretation of the linguistic and logical categories of evaluation, the problems of the value picture of the world and values, as well as the interpretation of appraisal, are rather widely represented in the works of modern Russian and foreign scientists, the problem of evaluation today has been more developed in the lexical system of the language than in phraseological corpus, that also explains our interest to the representation of the evaluation category in the units of secondary nomination.The main aim of this work is to study the evaluative component in the meaning of verbal phraseological units, describing human behavior in English, Russian and Tatar languages. Phraseological units denoting human behavior are one of the most active formation of the phraseological structure of any language. This group of phraseological units takes a significant place in phraseological system of Russian, English and Tatar languages as well, is characterized by semantic and structural diversity and expresses specific appraisal of the world and a person in it. The authors take an attempt to study evaluation as one of the macro components of the connotation of phraseological meaning of the researched units, suggest their own scale of emotive marks, separately consider the interaction of evaluation with expressiveness, emotiveness.
    Keywords: Evaluative Component, Stereotypes, Verbal Idiomatic Phrases, Dictionary Marks, Semes
  • Marina V. Anisimova *, Angela R. Lisenko, Valentina V. Savina Pages 1269-1277
    The article discusses various aspects of the communication problem addressed by contemporary German-speaking playwrights. The development of history led to the fact that at the end of the 20th century, the borders between states were practically erased. The key has become the concept of globalization. Acutely reacting to the problems of modern society, the latest German-language drama reflects, among other things, the problems of the crisis of communication and self-identification that emerged at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. The main content of the article is an analysis of plays by Swiss authors (“Room for Friends” by A. Jacques and “Yoko-ni” by Eugene), as well as plays “In Emergency” by the German playwright F. Richter. The plays were selected taking into account the fact that the problem of communication is considered in them from different angles. So in the play of F. Richter, a violation of communication within the family comes to the fore (problems of fathers and children, lack of understanding between spouses). The play by Eugene continues this theme, but in a slightly different vein (moving away from reality into virtual space). “Room for Friends” A. Jacques represents communicative failures at the level of intercultural communication. In these plays, the problem of communication is presented from different angles, which makes it possible to assess the scale of this problem.
    Keywords: Drama, The Crisis of Communication, Self-Identification, German Drama, Swiss Drama
  • Shermaymayti Kasemu, Alfiya Sh. Yusupova, Elvira N. Denmukhametova *, Firdaus G. Khisamitdinova Pages 1278-1286
    Dictionaries are one of the most valuable sources for historical and linguistic studies of the language. They allow you to document the role and place of certain language elements in the history of the culture of the people, fix lexemes in certain historical periods, indicate the relationship of different languages, show the mutual influence of different-structured language systems. At the same time, dictionaries are an indicator of linguistic modification, i.e., innovations that arise in a language under the influence of various socio-political, social, cultural factors, manifesting themselves as linguistic variability at different linguistic levels of the language, including lexicographic. Despite the fact that they are not special lexicographic sources in the field of synonymy, in the explanatory dictionaries of the Turkic languages a lot of synonymous lexemes are recorded, showing the harmonious development of the literary and colloquial language.  This study examines the lexical synonyms recorded in the Explanatory Dictionary of the Tatar Language (Tatar Telenen Anlatmali Suzlege, 2015) and the Academic Dictionary of the Bashkir Language (Academic Dictionary of Bashkir Language, 2012), as representatives of the Kipchak group of Turkic languages, which are considered in the linguistic aspect as components of a common Turkic lexical fund.  The relevance of the study is explained by the tasks of identifying the role of the activity of synonyms recorded in the studied dictionaries. The article presents materials reflecting the research experience of teachers of the Kazan Federal University together with colleagues from the Republic of Bashkortostan on the study of Turkic languages, including the Tatar and Bashkir languages in synchrony and in diachrony.  The purpose of this study is the lexico-semantic development of synonyms of the Tatar and Bashkir languages recorded in the explanatory dictionaries, relative to the vocabulary of the dictionary of Mahmud Kashgari “Divan lugat at-Turk”. In the course of the study, the authors studied the modern works of Russian and foreign authors on linguistics, philology; lexical material recorded in the explanatory dictionaries and dictionaries of synonyms of the Tatar and Bashkir languages is analyzed; comparisons of vocabulary and practical speech are made; The main trends in the development of vocabulary of the modern Tatar and Bashkir literary languages as representatives of Turkic linguistics are revealed.
    Keywords: Explanatory Dictionaries, Tatar Language, Bashkir Language, Turkic Languages
  • Alexandr Vladimirovich Spiridonov *, Hossein Sheykhi Pages 1287-1295
    In this scientific article, we study the individual author’s neoplasms, extracted from the texts of the collection of short stories “The Positive Hero Negative”, written by V. Aksenov in the 90s. of the 20th century. The methods that the author uses to create these neoplasms are established, a semantic characteristic of the named units is given, the functions that they perform are analyzed. In the course of the analysis, it is concluded that the writer constantly uses systemic and non-systemic methods of creating occasionalisms. The former includes prefixation, suffixation, fixation, and addition, while the latter include substitutional derivation and creation. Systemic methods are characterized by the presence of word-formation chains of occasionalisms, as well as a deviation from the language standard. Non-systemic methods are characterized by irregularity and singularity. The functional and stylistic characteristic testifies to the fulfillment of occasionalisms of nominative, interlinguistic, ideological, playful and emotionally expressive functions. The author emphasizes the constitutive nature of the last two for the creativity of V. Aksenov. In general, the study claims that the predominantly casual nature of the derivative structure of neoplasms, as well as the playful, emotionally expressive, and ideological connotation of these units are explained by the view of V. Aksenov, an adult of the sixties in the 90s. in Russia, the fundamental changes in which he, after many years of emigration, can observe with his own eyes.
    Keywords: Occasional Word Formation, Function, Semantics, Typology, V. Aksenov
  • A.R. Zaripova *, A.R. Zakirov Pages 1296-1304
    Regional and national identities as two levels of the identification process may conflict, especially when it comes to multicomponent states. Today, against the backdrop of globalization and integration processes, regional identity is strengthening, which leads to the desire of regional communities to change the existing balance of relations with the central government, expanding the autonomy of their territorial entities, until independence.This article, using Spanish autonomies as an example, reveals the significance of regional identity in the process of intensifying regional separatism. Spain is a state that has repeatedly faced the problems of rising separatist sentiments. Historically, the Spanish regions were distinguished by cultural and linguistic diversity, and the asymmetry in the socio-economic and political situation of the autonomous regions at the present stage predetermined the developed regional self-identification of the population. This article focuses on the historical aspects of the formation of the regional and national identity of the inhabitants of Spain, discloses the stages of the process of building the Spanish nation. Based on the results of surveys on self-identification of residents of the autonomous regions of Spain, the correlation of regional national identities is determined, on the basis of this, two groups of regions are identified. The assessment of regional identity as one of the prerequisites for the development of centrifugal trends in Spain is given.
    Keywords: Separatism, National (National) Identity, Decentralization, Regionalism, Regional Identity
  • Olga Nikolaeva *, Yulia Kozlova, Marina Mefodeva Pages 1305-1313
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze psychological and pedagogical conditions to maintain interactive atmosphere at the English classes. Research methods like a method of structural analysis, a content analysis method, scientific interpretation and synthesis of specific factual materials have been used. Four types of psychological and pedagogical group cooperation have been defined. In case of speech interaction organization at the foreign language lessons the second and the fourth types of psychological and pedagogical group cooperation are the most successful ones. The most reasonable and effective tasks to implement speech interaction in a foreign language class are: prediction, questioning, interview, discussion, report and role-playing. Recommendations for the teachers are addressed.
    Keywords: foreign language, Speech Interaction, Interactive Approach, Psychological, Pedagogical Conditions
  • Vasil Zagitovich Garifullin *, Lilia Fanilovna Imamova Pages 1314-1323
    Today, one takes an excessive interest in the problem of specialized publications. Many scholars deal with the problem of studying their typology. Therefore, greater development of specialized publications is supposed to be a probability. That is why it is important to study the typology of special-purpose publications. It is necessary to rely on previous experiments to have this study even more effective. This article dwells on the specialized Tatar-language press in its historical context. The specialized press of the early twentieth century carries much weight in the system of the Tatar periodical press according to quantity and problematic thematic diversity. The religious press was the largest group of specialized publications. It was also distinguished by a longer duration, it had been issued for 11-12 years, until 1918. As concerns secular publications, satirical publications were very popular. Economic publications for Muslims to be issued in the Tatar language were first to appear in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. Specialized ones involve newspapers and magazines for children, women, as well as educational and legal publications. The specialized prints were mainly in the journal format (only 12 newspapers versus 31 magazines out of the specialized prints we have examined). This conforms to the current developments of specialized media.
    Keywords: Specialized Prints, Typology, history, Language, culture
  • Nurgul M. Tukeshova, Fanuza H. Tarasova, Irina N. Luzenina Pages 1324-1332
    Language is a multifunctional phenomenon, it is a means of communication between people. And phraseology, as a part of the language system, is a language unit with a structural-semantic character. Currently, phraseology collects new directions and aims. And in this article, the phraseological units with antonymous components in the Kazakh language are considered, their lexical and grammatical analysis is carried out. The phraseological units with antonymous components are understood the phrases or sentences formed on the contradictory values of the components. Basically, lexical antonyms-adjectives are found very often in the Kazakh language, the other parts of speech are found rarely. Therefore, we will try to identify the most and least used parts of speech as antonyms as a part of the phraseological units, and their grammatical structure on the basis of the phraseological dictionary of Kenesbayev I.K., the first of its kind dictionary of the phraseological units of the Kazakh language.
    Keywords: Phraseology, Phraseological Units, Antonym, Lexis, analysis
  • Landysh R. Faezova, Milyausha М. Khabutdinova *, Gulfia R. Gaynyllina, Ainur Mashakova Pages 1333-1341
    The article deals with the work of the Tatar writer of the sixties Mirgaziyan Yunus. For a long time, Tatar literary scholars considered him as an artist of the word-marine painter, who expanded the horizons of Tatar prose, filled it with romance, enriched it with new topics. The literary debut of the writer took place in Russian. The writer wrote on “marine topics” in Russian and Tatar. In the 1960s the writer, under the influence of circumstances, makes a sharp turn towards a heightened awareness of his ethnic identity. In his work appears a number of works devoted to the comprehension of the Tatar emigration, the problems of the Tatar national character. The article systematizes material related to the reflection of the writer on the subject of his identity. Under pressure from Soviet censorship until the 1990s. his work was politically neutral. M. Yunis preferred writing about the problem of national and ethnic identity in his native Tatar language. During the perestroika period, the writer's work became more politicized and he turned into a fiery patriot of his people, who defended the right to its statehood. M. Yunis is moving from oblivion of his own ethnic identity, distancing himself from his native culture to the realization of its identity, and he is beginning to openly uphold his “Tatar” character.
    Keywords: Tatar Literature, Tatar Prose, Tatar Journalism, National Identity, Mirgaziyan Yunusov (M. Yunus.)
  • Liliya I. Fakhrutdinova, Venera R. Amineva *, Alfina T. Sibgatullina Pages 1342-1350
    A Russian reader who does not know the Tatar language can get acquainted with the works by A. Eniki only via their translations into Russian, therefore, the analysis of the structurally-meaningful features of translated texts in the aspect of interliterary communication and dialogue is necessary. The genre-stylistic transformations of the original are revealed in the translated text on the basis of their comparative analysis. It is based on his view of translation as a form of dialogue of cultures, reflecting the interaction of not only various national languages, but also the artistic models of the world. The subject of the analysis was the translations of the hikay “Night Drops” and the novel “An Unspoken Testament” made by M. Rafikov, H. Khusainova and S. Khozina. They revealed the genic transformations in the translation of Eniki's hikay into Russian: the translator introduces a novel intention into an epic complete picture of the world. Stylistic transformations are significant in the translation of the novel “An Unspoken Testament” by Kh. Khusainova. Despite the rather accurate and adequate translation, Kh. Khusainova does not manage to recreate the intimate-confidential atmosphere created by the rhythmic-intonational organization of the original. They determined that S. Khozina is guided by the traditions of the Nazir genre during the translation of the story “Unspoken Testament”. They determined the main trends in which her co-creation with the author of the work is carried out. The obtained results can be used to solve urgent problems of intercultural communication and dialogue, to make comments about the translations of A. Eniki's works for the Russian-speaking reader.
    Keywords: Tatar Literature, Russian Literature, Dialogue, Perception, Interpretation
  • Angelina A. Khaybullina *, Elvira F. Nagumanova, Alsu Z. Khabibullina, Alina A. Nakhodkina Pages 1351-1360
    The article is devoted to the consideration of the gazelle as a canonical solid form, its features and functioning in Russian and Tatar literature of the XXth century. The focus of the research is on the gazelles of Russian poets of the 20th century (M. Kuzmin, E. Bagritsky) and the Tatar poet Radif Gatash, whose works are the example of love lyrics. The authors of the article argue that in Russian literature the gazelle genre did not become the part of the poetic tradition, while in Tatar poetry it took its rightful place. So, the modern poet Radif Gatash was able to accommodate new techniques in the traditional genre, to reveal the problems faced by modern society. The language of his works is metaphorical, different layers of vocabulary are skillfully combined in them: a sublime pompous style coexists with a “simple” word. The Tatar gazelle as a whole deepens the content of the traditional form, with poetic methods typical for it: the language metaphorization, an appeal to the motive of love madness, and the preservation of tachallus. The conclusion is made that the gazelle in a dialogue of different cultures and languages ​​is changing, enriched with "new" meanings. The dialogue is based on those universal values ​​and performances of the gazelle that, in different versions, exist in the space of national literature.
    Keywords: Genre, Gazelle, Russian Literature, Tatar Literature, Radif Gatash, Dialogue
  • Regina G. Khairullina, Alsu Z. Khabibullina *, Elvira F. Nagumanova, Elena I. Zeifert Pages 1361-1370
    The article substantiates the essence of comparative poetics as a special area of ​​scientific research, which was formed in the context of the ideas and methodological settings of comparative literature. They determined that Russian and Tatar literature complement each other in a dialogue, contributing to the generation of new meanings. In the framework of comparative poetics, a special place was occupied by comparative genrology, based on the traditions of historical-genetic, hermeneutic and structuralism methods. Formed in the field of comparative discourse, it involves the study of genres of various literatures within their national identity, the correlation in which each of the art forms retains its unique features. They concluded that a common lyrical-epic form, similarity to performative, can become common traits of the Neser genres and poem intention in prose for the perceiving consciousness. In the work about Tolstoy “The thread of the sacred rosary broke" (1910) by G. Tukai, which has common features with a poem in prose, there are also the elements of poetry of other oriental genres, and above all kasydy - the canonical form of lyric poetry. Among them are the following ones: the indivisibility of subjective and objective (author and reality); the appeal to the antithesis, which forms around itself the semantic field of other paths (metaphors, epithets, parallelism), creating an image of a huge, universal longing for Tolstoy.
    Keywords: Comparative Poetics, Russian Literature, Tatar Literature, National Identity
  • Gulnara Rasikhovna Shakirova *, Gulshat Raisovna Galiullina Pages 1371-1379
    The study of morphology occupies a large place in the teaching of the native language. The first acquaintance with parts of speech takes place in primary school; then students learn how many of them in the language, into which groups they divide and, thus, get the concept of parts of speech as the system in the middle school. The conducted research shows that morphological knowledge and skills are the foundation on which the teaching of various types of speech activity in the native literary language is based. However, the morphological knowledge of the majority of students remain fragmentary, skills – unformed. Great difficulties are caused by tasks related with the differentiation of words into parts of speech, with the definition of the grammatical meaning of word forms. The relevance of our study is determined by the low level of formation of the most important morphological knowledge, skills, and by the necessity of finding effective methods of morphology teaching, which will contribute to the realization of the planned results in this section of linguistics. We think that the independent activity, which implies attention to the meaning and destination of morphological units and functional relationships with units of other language levels, which involves the realization of functional-semantic approach, is necessary for successful formation of morphological competence of students.
    Keywords: Morphology, Native Language Teaching, Parts of Speech, Independent Activity, Language
  • Dilyara Sharapova, Gelinya Ch. Gilazetdinova, Ruzilya R. Salakhova *, Lyudmila Y. Astakhina Pages 1380-1388
    As is known, lexico-semantic groups of words form individual microsystems in a langauge at both lexical and grammatical level, as well as in the context of word formation. It is impossible to examine lexico-semantic groups and their lexical description without a comparative analysis of such formations in multi-structural languages. This is the reason why we have chosen such a theme for this work. The subject of this comparative analysis is the multi-structural Russian and Tatar languages. This topic is relevant because of the existence of intercultural barriers faced with when examining verbs of motion in the context of bilingualism that, in our opinion, arises because of insufficient comparative analysis. Comparing of multi-structural languages makes their specificity clear and obvious. In this regard the level of word formation is of particular interest because when it is being examined, the typical feature that underlies the naming of a whole word class comes to surface, and systematic links and relashionships connecting the whole language structute become more evident.
    Keywords: Verbs of Motion, Oscillatory Motion, Rotational Motion, The Russian Language, The Tatar Language
  • Ayrat F. Yusupov *, Nurfiya M. Yusupova, Enze Kh. Kadirova, Raisiya А. Kudryavtseva Pages 1389-1396
    The article is devoted to the study of linguistic-stylistic features of Tatar poetry of the first half of the XX century and the identification of the style-forming properties of new lexical means in the language of fiction; it reveals the artistic and aesthetic features and semantics of new formations in the language of poetic texts; explores the methods of formation of new lexical units, which until now have not become the object of special linguistic research. The relevance of the research topic is explained, first of all, by the possibility of revealing the behavior of new formations at different levels of the language and is determined by the need to study new individual-author formations in Tatar poetry. The scientific novelty of the research lies in an interdisciplinary approach: interdisciplinary analysis made it possible, on the one hand, to more fully identify the specifics of the “poetic style” of the Tatar literary language in the first half of the XX century, and, on the other hand, to develop a methodology for studying the stylistic patterns of the formation of the language of poetic texts.
    In relation to the research problems, the set of existing basic research methods is effectively used: descriptive (generalization techniques and interpretation of the material under study), comparative-historical methods, partial and continuous sampling techniques, systematization of units by denotative classes, elements of component, contextual, and etymological analysis.
    The study proved that any changes in the social, literary and aesthetic process, the history of the Tatar literary language transform not only the ideological and meaningful layer of poetic works but also the stylistic background of their language. The authors established that in the poetic language of the first third of the XX century, lexical units and grammatical forms are formed by suffixation, phonetic method, and abbreviation. Poetic language strives for brevity as much as possible, in terms of the use of linguistic units, the author's choice of linguistic and stylistic means, and differs from other types of works.
    Keywords: Linguistic Stylistics, Poetry Language, Neologism, Lexical Units, Suffixation
  • Olesya A. Yarullina *, Fanuza H. Tarasova, Elena V. Varlamova, Elena V. Polhovskaya Pages 1397-1403
    Adjectival phraseological units with the component of evaluation are studied in the article. Semantic peculiarities are basically taken into referred to. General linguistic methods and special linguistic methods were used for investigation. The purpose of the article is to find out the peculiarities of the adjectival phraseological units with the component of evaluation in the English and Tatar Languages. The material is borrowed from English and Tatar monolingual and polylingual dictionaries. The comparative analysis of the adjectival phraseological units with the evaluation component in the English and Tatar languages has not been realized before. Adjectival phraseological units with the evaluation component have been analysed in the article. Semantically the adjectival phraseological units with the evaluation component may express negative or positive attitude to reality, spheres of life, communicative process or to a person. Common and unique features have been found out in the two languages. The conclusions on structure and semantics of the adjectival phraseological units with the quality evaluation component are presented in the article.
    Keywords: Adjectival Phraseological Units, Evaluation Component, Comparative Units, Non-Comparative Units
  • Arina R. Shevchenko *, Olga O. Nesmelova, Natalia A. Vysotskaya Pages 1404-1412
    The paper deals with the novels and short stories of multicultural writers, descents of immigrants from different countries but born and bred on the territories of Great Britain and the USA. Their literary works can be also related to cross-cultural fiction due to the national and cultural heterogeneity and reciprocity depicted in the narration. It is important to say that interaction and interpenetration of several histories, traditions, customs and cultures lies in the basis of any cross-cultural text. Therefore, the concept of OWN-OTHER is claimed to be one of the most important for both authors under study and characters they create, as hybridity, being a key characteristic of contemporary multicultural situation, leads to an erasure of borders between the so-called own and alien. The crucial point of the research undertaken is to analyze how contemporary cross-cultural writers play with the concept of OWN-OTHER in regard to the category of space and its significance in connection with the personages’ self-identification and acculturation.
    Keywords: British Postcolonial Literature, American Multicultural Prose, Cross-Cultural fiction, Own-Other
  • Abdullahi Tafarki Mustapha, Hanife Bensen Bostancı Pages 1413-1429
    The low literacy rates and the dearth of quality education in Nigeria has given cause for reading interventions and programs to flow into the country to improve the literacy skills. These call for more investigation into the programs to ascertain their efficacy in teaching Nigerian children how to read and write effectively. This paper evaluates the impact of a three-day teacher training program in which a pre-test and post-test was employed to report data graphically. The program evaluated was based on the ‘Learning to Read’ methodology which is popularly called Jolly Phonics in Nigeria, a brand of synthetic phonics instruction, employed as an intervention by Kebbi state government under the auspices of Kebbi State Universal Basic Education Board in partnership with Universal Learning Solutions (ULS, 2015).  The value of the Synthetic Phonics instruction through the Jolly Phonics Instructors Pilot Training held in the state attempted to implement the teaching of literacy skills through the synthetic approach to all the primary schools in the state. This research-based program, Jolly Phonics, accentuates the development of phonemic awareness to advance the development of literacy skills in the early years of struggling learners.
    Keywords: Pilot Study, Jolly Phonics, Instructors, Literacy, Letter Sounds, Education
  • Rasim T. Jehjooh Pages 1430-1442

    Phonology deals with the study of Phonemes and the rules and patterns that explain their behavior in their context, yet phonemes differentiate words in meaning. This is a general fixed rule, but what is not expected is that the sound has a meaning by itself, in addition to its ability to distinguish the meanings of words as whole. According to the available literature which is written about the subject of (sound and meaning) one discovered that linguistically such a process is referred to under the term sound symbolism, or phones theme in which a particular sound or sound sequence that (at least in a general way) suggests a certain meaning as in /wr /shows obliquity or twisting in words like wry, wrong, wreck and wrist, also /br/points to a breach, violent and generally loud splitting apart: break, breach, brook. In words like glimmer, glitter, and glisten, the initial gl – phonestheme is associated with vision or light. Moreover, phonesthemes can appear anywhere in an initial, medial, or final position. The same thing In Arabic, we find that Ibn Giny is the first one who talks about the "Phonaesthetic Function", before the famous British linguist Firth as he states that the consonant voiceless fricative / ث /, for example, show both vastness and spreadness, /h, ه/ denotes weakness, /q / ق is used to refer to strength …etc. and this what we call" Gers AL-Alfadh. جرس الالفاظ . The ancient Greek philosophers wrote about this phonetic and semantic relationship, but, until recently, many of their observations have been ignored. Modern English and Arabic linguists paid attention to this phenomenon here and there through literature calling the relationship which occurs between sound and meaning as "sound symbolism". One of the most important aspects of sound symbolism In Arabic is called "onomatopoeia", whereas in English it is called phonostheme, but most assume that those aspects play only a minor role in language. The general principle, they assume, is that sound and meaning relate only arbitrarily. According to this view, symbolism, works merely out of custom, habit, or circumstance. The evidence accumulated from the past three decades challenges this assumption, and it is clear that sound symbolism plays a far larger role than hitherto recognized. In this paper, I will present evidence demonstrating how phonaesthesia, an aspect of sound symbolism, plays an influential role in the English and Arabic language. Of the main conclusions of this paper is that in both Arabic and English, the phenomenon of sound symbolism is presented, under two different terms, but there was a kind of limitation in Arabic as compared to English, i.e., In Arabic a specific phoneme suggests the meaning of a set of words depending on the phonetic properties of that sound like / شʃ/ While in English the case is different ,i.e. a phoneme, or a cluster of phonemes as in /p/ may be responsible for bearing such suggestive meaning but that meaning is not necessarily the result of its phonetic characteristics .The sound that suggests the meaning in Arabic is somehow similar to the same sound that has been used in English

    Keywords: Phonological Symbolism_Phonaesthesia_Arabic a Specific Phoneme
  • Bushra Ni’Ma Rashid Pages 1443-1453
    The present paper investigates the theory of implicatures and how H. P. Grice developed it. It sets out Grice's Cooperative Principle and describes the four conversational maxims that he believed were necessary for efficient communication. It also looks at implicature triggers and the deviation from the Cooperative Principle with reference to the ‘flouting’ of Quantity maxim by the various characters in the novel Pride and Prejudice. Examples of flouting the maxim of Quantity have also been put under spotlight and analysis.
    Keywords: Flouting Maxim, Cooperative Principle, Implicature, Pride, Prejudice
  • Jerome Baghana *, Evgenia I. Buzina, Svetlana N. Glamazda, Tamara V. Khvesko, Oksana P. Lazareva Pages 1454-1465
    The article considers literary text as an integrated format of knowledge, namely artistic knowledge represented by the writer in the form of a text world. Any text world model has various storing and transmitting knowledge parameters that is why its interpretation provides a complex research construct being called knowledge format. It is revealed that the parameters of a text world model are determined by the intention of the author of a text and represent a set of realisations of nominative fields of literary concepts, the unity of which forms the conceptual sphere of a literary text. It is determined that a number of basic literary concepts acquire the status of cognitive textual dominants. It is revealed that the literary concept “time” is one of the frequent cognitive textual dominants within the models of text worlds of both single works and of the entire work of a writer. It is revealed that along with the presence of cognitive textual dominants context polarization as well as within the nominative field of the literary concept “time” appears to be an important distinguishing feature of text worlds.
    Keywords: Text Worlds, Conceptual Sphere Modeling, Literary Concept “Time”, Cognitive Textual Dominant, Contextual Polarization
  • Jerome Baghana *, Olga N. Prokhorova, Yuliya S. Blazhevich, Tatiana G. Voloshina, Elena L. Kuksova Pages 1466-1472
    The article gives an insight into the phenomenon of language shift and death in Africa. It starts out with the discussion of the theoretical assumptions the work is based on. The sociolinguistic status of languages in the multilingual and multicultural context of Africa is also considered. The authors analyze the existing terms related to the problem of endangered languages, including ‘language shift’, ‘language loss’, ‘language death’ and ‘language decay’ as well as the UNESCO classification system used in the Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. Much attention is also given to the account of models of ‘gradual death’ and to the classification of the extralinguistic factors leading to language abandonment and decay. Some comments on the existing linguistic indicators of language decay and pidginization are given.
    Keywords: Multilingualism, Endangered Languages, Language Death, Language Shift, Minority Language
  • Tatiana G. Voloshina *, Igor V. Chekulai, Irina M. Chebotareva, Natalia V. Fisunova, Daria M. Kostina Pages 1473-1480
    The relevance of this article is determined by the debatable nature of definitions of idioms concept in the sphere of language variability. The English language of Nigeria is a linguistic unit, combining the properties and features of the English language at the phonetic, grammatical, morphological levels and processing the elements of own cultural identification. Due to the multi-ethnic nature of Nigeria, the lexical layer of the language contains many linguistic definitions from the indigenous languages of Nigeria, which determines the difficulty of identifying the meaning of idioms without analyzing the lexical composition of the original linguistic units. The aim of the article is to formulate the definition of the idiom in the framework of contact linguistics; to identify the characteristic features of Nigerian English idioms; to study the specifics of the Nigerian idioms of the English language on the material of linguistic dictionaries. Language is not a stable formation, but it is the subject to a constant dynamic process of changes at the morphological, syntactic, phonological levels. Depending on the local affiliation, certain languages also have a certain number of dialects, which provokes linguists’ interest at the present stage of scientific development. It is possible to trace language features of English variations on the example of Malaysian English in which lexical structure of language comes from Malay, Chinese and Borneo languages. An important aspect of the analysis of linguistic features of a language is the study of phraseological units. This part of vocabulary presents the main originality of the language specificity and reflects the true linguistic and cultural features associated with belonging to a certain interethnic identity. Idioms in English that develop in different sociolinguistic contexts can be defined as belonging to a particular variety of English variant. A variety of modifications of English idioms can represent an idiom not only at the structural and lexical levels, but also include a semantic shift that can only be identified by a careful analysis of the language used in its social context.
    Keywords: Language Variation, Nigerian English, Cultural Identity, Indigenization