فهرست مطالب

Medicinal Plants and By-products - Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2019
  • Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
  • Behzad Babazadeh Darjazi *, Kamkar Jaimand Pages 105-114

    The aim of this study was to determine organic acids and individual sugars as well as carotenoids in fruit of Kumquat[Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle] on different rootstocks.  On other hand, the purpose of this study was to identify the rootstock that could produce the highest amount of sugars. The content of individual sugars and organic acids in fruits were determined by HPLC, whereas spectrophotometer was used to determine the total carotenoids and chlorophylls. Total acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS) and pH value of juice was also evaluated. The content of ethylene in fruits was determined by Gas chromatograph. The results showed that, the highest of total sugars (51.63 mg/mL), pH (2.43), TSS (11.06%) and TSS/TA (3.71) were in fruit of Kumquat(Fortunella Margarita) grafting on the Troyer citrange rootstock. According to results, the amount of citric acid (45.07 mg/mL), ascorbic acid (0.41 mg/mL), juice (26.78 (%) and carotenoids (0.10 mg/gr DW) of Kumquat grafted on Sour orange was higher than those of other rootstocks. Among the sugars, Sucrose was determined in the highest concentration in all investigated fruits. The results of correlation showed that there were a high positive correlation between the amount of sucrose and glucose. Results showed that Troyer citrange rootstock had an important role in increasing of sugars, pH, TSS, as well as TSS/TA. Finally based on the obtained results it can be concluded that although the concentration of sugars and organic acids is strongly related to the genotype of fruit, it seems that rootstocks affect the amount of sugars and organic acids.

    Keywords: chemical traits, Kumquat, Physical traits, rootstocks
  • Cruz-Valenzuela, M. Reynaldo*, Tapia-Rodríguez, Melvin R., Silva-Espinoza, Brenda A, Testa-Nava America, Gutiérrez-Pacheco, M. Melissa, González-Aguilar, Gustavo A. Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando. Pages 115-123

    Safety and quality of food have become a challenge for the food industry looking to replace synthetic preservatives with natural agents. In this context, cinnamon leaf essential oil (CLO) showed to be potent antioxidant and antimicrobial agent; however, its active compounds are highly reactive volatiles and grant strong odors and flavors when used as food additive. With this in mind, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antiradical and antimicrobial activity, and oxidative stability of CLO encapsulated within β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Radical scavenging activity of encapsulated CLO measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) methods showed values of 67.3 mol (Trolox equivalent) TE/g and 177.2 mol TE/g of sample, respectively. In addition, the total phenol and flavonoid contents were 48.7 mg (eugenol equivalents) EE/g of capsules and 8.6 mg CE/g of capsules, respectively. The antibacterial activity of the encapsulated oil against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 5.5 mg/mL for all the tested bacteria. β-CD protected the bioactive properties of the essential oil exposed to ozone, compared to the free oil. Based on these results, the encapsulation of CLO in β-CD can be considered as a viable method for stabilizing its bioactive compounds.

    Keywords: Encapsulation, Natural Products, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, eugenol
  • Farideh Azarbani *, Samira Jafari, Sima Shiravand Pages 125-132
    Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl) Boiss. commonly known as Chavil e Roshanball in Persian is a medicinal and aromatic plant from the Apiaceae family that grows in the west of Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical components, phenolic contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of F. macrocarpa flower and leaf from Lorestan, Iran.IC50 values, total phenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents of flower and leaf extracts were 481.75 and 1505.59 μg/mL, 59.33 and 45.57 mg Gallic acid equivalents, 45.76 and 11.53 mg Catechin equivalents and 0.73 mg Cyanidin-3-glucoside per g of dried extract, respectively. The flowers extract exhibited inhibitory effects on Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis of the flower and leaf extracts by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) resulted in twenty-seven molecules consisting 97.42% of the total flowers extract volatile, and forty-four molecules consisting 94.91% of the total leaves extract volatile. The major components were bornyl acetate (37.1%), terpinolene (9.99%), thymol (7.46%) and limonene (6.39%) in the flower extract, and bornyl acetate (37.91%), o-cymene (7.83%), 2-hexanal (7.01%) and camphene (5.57%) in the leaf extract.
    Keywords: Ferulago macrocarpa, Composition, phenols, Antioxidant, Antibacterial
  • Roksana Bayati, Hossein Ali Asadi Gharneh * Pages 133-141

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a native plant, which has many different cultivars in Iran. This plant consists of rich biochemical compounds that plays an important role in human health. This research aims to study some of biochemical compounds of this valuable fruit. Extract of pell and seeds and juice of fruits were prepared. According to the outcomes of this study, there is a direct relationship between increasing amount of phenol compounds and the colour of fruit peel. This increase showed significant difference. The anthocyanin measurement in three cultivars showed that the colour of the peel and seeds of the fruit has a direct relationship with the amount of anthocyanin. Study of antioxidant activity with the method of DPPH revealed that the highest amount of antioxidant activity between the peel and the seeds of the three cultivars of pomegranate is dedicated to the peel of the BSY. The outcomes of the FRAP method showed that the highest amount of antioxidant activity among seeds and the skin belongs to the seed of the WSR. With the use of the ABTS method the highest amount of antioxidant activity belongs to the peel of the BSY cultivar. The results of the studying vitamin C revealed that the amount of Vitamin C per 100ml of the pomegranate juice is 54.6±2.2mg for RSQ, 42.8±2.3mg for WSR and 65.7±2.2mg for BSY. Analysing the biochemical compounds from different cultivars helps to sufficient selecting, defusing and commercializing the pomegranate.

    Keywords: Pomegranate, Phenolic compounds, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant activity, vitamin C
  • Hassan Mahdavikia *, Esmaeil Rezaei Chiyaneh, Amir Rahimi, Nayer Mohammadkhani Pages 143-151

    Drought stress is a major environmental stress that restricts plant growth and production in the majority of agricultural fields of the world. The application of different fertilizers, especially biofertilizers and organic fertilizers, might play an important role in the production of medicinal plants in order to improve their resistance to deficit water stress. In order to evaluate the effects of fertilizer treatments on antioxidant enzyme activity and physiological characteristics of basils (Ocimum basilicum L.) under water-limited conditions, a study was arranged as a factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Two irrigation intervals (6, and 12 days) and six fertilizers levels [chemical fertilizers (N, P, K), vermicompost (10 t  ha-1) + mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices), vermicompost +bacterial biofertilizer [Azetobarvar1 (Azotobacter vinelandii as nitrogen-fixing bacteria), Phosphatebarvar2 (Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus lentus as phosphorus solubilizing bacteria), Pota barvar-2 (Pseudomonas koreensis and Pseudomonas vancouverensis as potassium releasing bacteria)], bacterial biofertilizer+mycorrhizal fungi, chemical fertilizers 50% (Basic NPK fertilizer was applied at the rate of 90–120–100 kg/ha in the form of urea, triple super phosphate, and potassium sulfate, respectively)+ bacterial biofertilizer and control] were assigned as the first and second experimental factors, respectively. The results showed that water limitation decreased the chlorophyll content and relative water content, but carotenoids and antioxidantenzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase) and also osmolytes (proline and sugar) contents were increased. But, the application of fertilizer sources alleviated the drought effects, so the application of fertilizers (especially chemical fertilizers 50% + bacterial biofertilizer) increased these traits at all irrigation levels. Overall, in addition to cellular mechanisms, such as osmoregulation and antioxidant defense, fertilizers sources application can improve antioxidant activities and physiological traits of basil under water-limited conditions.

    Keywords: Biofertilizer, medicinal plant, mycorrhizae, Reactive oxygen species, Vermicompost
  • Leila Falahhosseini, Mohammad Ali Alizadeh *, Ali Ashraf Jafary, Leila Rasoolzadeh, Parvin Salehi Shanjani Pages 153-162
    The genus AnthemisL. (Asteraceae) as medicinal plants are used both for pharmaceutical purposes and in folk medicine. In order to study of seed priming effects on seedling growth of two species of Anthemis spp., an factorial experiment based on randomized complete design with three replications was conducted under greenhouse conditions in Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands in 2014-2015.A factorial experiment consisting three factors: 1) two species including Anthemis tinctoriaL. and Anthemis triumfettii (L.) DC. which formed the three levels of factor A, and 2) five conservation methods including: medium-term storage (active cold room 4 °C for 10 years), long- term storage (basic cold room-18 °C for 10 years), regenerated seeds in open air 22 °C for 2 years (Control) and aged seed under accelerated ageing )40 °C,98% of Relative humidity) for 48 and 72h made up the five levels of factor B, and 3) five priming treatments were including: Control (without priming), osmopriming (PEG -0.3Mpa), hormonal priming (Giberlic acid 250 and 500 mg/L), hydropriming (imbibitions with distilled water) were levels of factor C. Data collected for seed emergence percent, root and shoot length, seedling length, vigor index, seedling weight and three proxidase, catalaz and super oxid desmotaz (SOD) enzymatic activities. Result of analysis of variance showed  that effects of species, conservation and priming and their interaction were significant  for many of seedling traits and enzymatic activities. According to the results, the higher values of seedling emergence, vigor index, seedling length were obtained in A. tinctoria. In contrast, peroxidase and SOD enzymatic activity were the higher in A. triumfettii. All species had higher seedling growth by using osmopriming. Both  osmo and hormonal priming method were effective in recovery of deteriorated seeds. The mean of all traits of three species were higher in base cold room (-18 °C) than active cold room (4 °C) and this a sign effect of low temperature on seed viability. The root length were higher in accelerated ageing test (48h and 72). It was due to positive effect of priming on improvement of deteriorated seed by increasing root length. The more seed emergence characteristics were obtained with effect of osmopriming (PEG 0.3Mpa), and, hormonal priming (Gibberellic acid 250 mg/L). Regarding to result of this research work, It was proved that two priming technique osmopriming using (Poly ethylene glycol) and hormonal priming (Gibberellic acid ) were effective method for improvement of aged seed of  Anthemis spp.
    Keywords: Anthemis, deterioration, priming, germination, seedling growth
  • Roghayeh Najafzadeh *, Somayyeh Ghasemzadeh, Shahram Mirfakhraie Pages 163-169
    Essential oils of medicinal plants have insecticidal properties as bio pesticides. In this study fumigant effect of three plant essential oils extracted from Nepeta crispa Willd (Lamiaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Lamiaceae) and Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae) were investigated against third instar larvae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Pyralidae), during 2017 at Urmia University, Iran. Extraction of essential oils was carried out by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. All of the essential oils were highly effective to E. kuehniella larvae. The highest mortalities produced by essential oil of N. crispa with LC50 value of 6.846 µl L-1 air followed by A. graveolens and S. hortensis with LC50 values of 18.001 and 30.088 µl L-1 air, respectively. There was a direct relationship between insecticidal activity and oils concentration. The results revealed that essential oils from the three aromatic plants have a potential insecticidal activity against the third larvae of the stored-product insect "Zeller" under laboratory conditions and might have paved an effective and friendly environmental treatment technique in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs.
    Keywords: Medicinal plants, Bio pesticides, Insecticidal activity, Ephestia kuehniella
  • Ana María Mesa *, Silvia Blair, Carlos Pelaez Pages 171-179
    Malaria is considered one of the health problems in many parts of the world. The objective of this work is to implement standardized extraction strategies using analytical methodologies of the Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. for the validation of antiplasmodial potential in vitro. Using HPLC chromatographic and chemical characterization techniques (13C-NMR, 1H-NMR), the marker substance was identified and quantified on continuous cultures of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive strain NF-54 and cytotoxicity in cell lines U-937 and HepG2used the antimalarial potential of the C. brasiliense. The best extracts were stems with ethyl acetate and extraction after 4 hours, presented a yield of 4.154±0.301%, a promising antiplasmodial activity of IC50 = 9.013 ± 1.288 μg/mL, a cytotoxicity of CC50HepG2 =43.340±3.159 μg/mL, an IS = 4.808 and a content of marker substancesnamedsoulatrolide (1)of C1 =0.257±0.021%. A new analytical method for the quantification of marker substances was established and the best extracts were obtained. The extracts presented promising pharmacological activities for studies that guarantee reproducibility and effectiveness in biological tests in vivo and framed in the transformation of a phytotherapeutic product.
    Keywords: Antiplasmodialactivity, cytotoxic activity, Phytomedicine, Plasmodium falciparum, Standardized extract
  • Mehrdokht Najafpour Navaei *, Bahareh Alahverdi Pages 181-188
    Zataria multiflora Boiss. is  one of the most important species of the Lamiaceae family, which has numerous medicinal properties in traditional medicine, and is related to the thyme species in terms of botanical features and composition of essential oil. In this research, the anatomical characteristics of vegetative organs including leaves, inflorescence, stems and petioles of 4 populations of shirazian thyme have been collected from different areas of Iran and were investigated and compared. Methods include making hand-cuts and observations with an optical microscope. The results of this study showed that there is a similarity to the characteristics of theinflorescence, stem, leaf and petiole in the populations of shirazian thyme. In terms of stem and leaf diameter, the thickness of the cork and xylem, frequency and type of non-glandular trichomes and glandular trichomes there are differences between the studied populations.  The results indicate that the study of anatomical characters is an appropriate method for identification of populations of a species and the role of ecological factors on the development of the internal structures of plants could be studied too.
    Keywords: Sh, Anatomy, Vegetativirazian thymee organs, Glandular trichome
  • Fatemeh Amiri, Abdolghayoum Gholipouri *, Mohammad Kheirkhah, Mohammad Hossein Mirjalili Pages 189-199
    Study on relationships between a species with its surrounding biotic and abiotic environment provides valuable information in terms of optimum choice for utilization, propagation, breeding and domestication. In other words, ecological study of behavior as essential elements of their ecosystems and habitat characteristics in order to find appropriate solutions to maintain, revise and revitalize this important part of the renewable natural resources. This study was done to discover the correlation of the essential oil yield of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with some environmental factors. The other goal was the ethnobotanical study of the species in different habitats where the plan is growing. The studied areas are located in five natural habitats of Yazd province, Iran. Soil results showed that this species is distributed in rangelands with 7.5-8 pH, 0.633-1.47 EC ds/m. According to 10-year statistics, the average rate of rainfall and annual temperature in these habitats were 175.9-308.7 millimeters and 12.2-17.1 centigrade, respectively. The essential oil showed significant relationship with EC and pH. This relationship was negative but both of them showed significant variance. In other words, the essential oils will increase if EC decrease in a same situation. Investigation on soil texture discovered the ability of the plant to grow in different soil texture. The soil textures in different habitats were silt-loam, sandy-loam, and loamy-sand.
    Keywords: Ethnobotany, biotic factor, pH, EC
  • Gholam Basati, Khatereh Anbari, Saber Abbaszadeh, Majid Hamidi * Pages 201-206
    Jaundice begins in the infants from the very early days of birth; the symptoms usually appear with yellow skin and sometimes eyes, jaundice first involves only the face, but it also affects the chest, abdomen, legs, and the soles of the feet and the lower limbs.  In this ethnobotanical study, attempt was made to identify medicinal plants used in the herbal medicine of Shahrekord region to treat neonatal jaundice. This cross-sectional study was performed by collecting data through an ethnobotanical knowledge questionnaire from 21 April 2016 to 19 February 2017, through face-to-face interview with 29 traditional therapists. The results of the questionnaire were distributed among traditional therapists and information was obtained.  The results showed that in the ethnobotany of Shahrekord, Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, Cichorium intybus L., Alyssum spp. Stead. Ex Boiss., Fumaria spp., Adianthum capillus-veneris L., Astragalus adscendens (Boiss. & Hausskn.) Podlech, Alcea spp., Vinifera Spp. and Rheum ribes L. are used as anti-neonatal jaundice medicinal plants. The results shows that leaf (41%) is the most commonly used plant organ for jaundice in the studied region. According to the results of our ethnobotanical study, the plants reported in this study are traditionally used to prevent neonatal jaundice, and it is necessary to prove these effects in clinical and pharmacological studies.
    Keywords: Pediatric Diseases, Jaundice, Ethnobotany, Shahrekord, Iran