فهرست مطالب

فنون ادبی - سال یازدهم شماره 3 (پیاپی 28، پاییز 1398)
  • سال یازدهم شماره 3 (پیاپی 28، پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • طاهره موسی زاده مقدم، محمود مهرآوران*، اقدس فاتحی صفحات 1-14
    کتاب المعجم فی معاییر اشعار العجم شمس قیس رازی از متون قرن هفتم، در موضوع بلاغت، عروض، قافیه و یکی از مهم ترین منابع برای سخن سنجی است. نویسنده در بخش قافیه علاوه بر قوانین قافیه، مطالبی در دستور زبان و موضوعات زبان شناسی مطرح کرده که یکی از قدیمی ترین نوشته ها درباره خود زبان و تحولات آن است. در این مقاله نظرهای گوناگون شمس قیس با دسته بندی موضوعی در زبان شناسی بررسی و تحلیل شده است. شمس قیس در این کتاب گاهی به نکاتی اشاره می کند که آگاهی از آنها، برای تلفظ صحیح واژگان ارزشمند است و برخی از مسائل مربوط به تاریخ زبان فارسی نیز در آن نهفته است. نگاه شمس قیس به زبان معیار زمان خود، آشنایی با برخی ویژگی ها در گویش های خراسان قدیم، نام گذاری آواها و حروف، درستی یا نادرستی برخی از نطرات وی حاصل این نوشتار است و نشان می دهد که در گذشته های نسبتا دور نیز نگاه زبان شناختی به خود زبان بوده، اما تفاوت هایی با امروز داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: المعجم، شمس قیس، نظرات زبانی، تحولات آوایی، پسوندها
  • محمد ابراهیم ایرج پور* صفحات 15-30
    تحقیقات اصیل و بنیادی درباره موضوع شعر دوره بازگشت و عصر پس از صفویه، نسبت به دوره های دیگر شعر فارسی بسیار اندک است. این مقطع تاریخی شاید به دلیل تقلید و تکرار از دیگر دوره های ادبی کم اهمیت تر باشد؛ ولی ترک و طرد بخش عظیمی از تاریخ و فرهنگ این سرزمین و فراموشی و گمنامی آثار عمده و شاعران بزرگ این دوره نیز خسرانی بزرگ در پی خواهد داشت. همین کم مهری و ناچیزانگاری درباره شعر دوره بازگشت سبب ناشناخته ماندن ویژگی های فضای ادبی آن دوره و قوانین حاکم بر آن شده است. با تامل دقیق در جامعه ادبی، تعاملات میان شاعران و همچنین محصولات شعری این دوره به مولفه ها و مشخصاتی برمی خوریم که یا محصول این عصر است یا نسبت به دیگر ادوار شعر و ادب فارسی به صورت ممتازتری نمودار شده است. در این مقاله در دو بخش باعنوان 1. ویژگی های فضای ادبی دوره بازگشت و 2. ویژگی های شعر و ادب دوره بازگشت، به موضوعاتی همچون انجمن های ادبی و روابط حاکم بر آن، گسترش خوش نویسی و هنرورزی در میان شاعران، اعتبار بسیار شعر و ادب در میان درباریان، فراوانی خاندان های اهل فضل و هنر و تغییر تخلص خواهیم پرداخت. این ویژگی ها نمونه هایی شاخص و گاه منحصربه فردی است که در فضای ادبی عصر قاجار دیده می شود و پیشتر از دیدگان پژوهندگان پنهان بوده است. در این مقاله به تفصیل و با ذکر نمونه های متعدد این ویژگی ها بررسی و تحلیل می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: دوره بازگشت، شعر، عصر قاجار، انجمن های ادبی، خوش نویسی
  • زهرا سید یزدی*، حمید جعفری قریه علی، فاطمه استوار صفحات 31-46
    شاهنامه حکیم ابوالقاسم فردوسی منظومه ای جاودان از عصر سامانی و غزنوی است که ایرانیان تا حد زیادی حفظ زبان و ملیت ایرانی را در بحران های ادوار مختلف مدیون این اثر بی بدیل هستند. شاهنامه از جنبه های گوناگون حائز اهمیت است؛ یکی از جنبه هایی که شاهنامه پژوهان کمتر بدان توجه داشته اند، مقایسه واژگان، ترکیبات و تعابیر آن با آثار دیگر است. فخرالدین اسعد گرگانی، ویس و رامین را در قرن پنجم از متنی پهلوی به نظم درآورده است و در موارد بسیاری مشابهت های زبانی با شاهنامه دارد. در این پژوهش کاربرد واژه ها و ترکیبات با معانی یکسان و همچنین میزان کاربرد واژگان پهلوی و کهن در دو اثر بررسی و مطابقت داده شده است. نتایج بررسی ها نشان می دهد ویژگی های لغوی مشابه دو اثر نشان دهنده تاثیرپذیری ویس و رامین از شاهنامه در حوزه تکنیک های زبانی است. نکته دیگر تناسب واژه های به کاررفته در شاهنامه و ویس و رامین با فرم و محتوای آثار است. این موضوع را می توان از کاربرد واژه هایی دریافت که از سویی با موسیقی کلام هماهنگ است و از سوی دیگر با رسوم آیینی و باورهای مدنظر گویندگان در پیوند است.
    کلیدواژگان: شاهنامه، ویس و رامین، ویژگی های زبانی، تشابه و تقلید
  • الهیار افراخته، فاطمه مدرسی*، بهمن نزهت صفحات 47-68
    نهاد، بخشی از جمله و رکن اصلی کلام است. برای ذکر نهاد باتوجه به احوال مخاطب دلایل بلاغی متعدد ذکر کرده اند. این مقاله بر آن است تا اغراض بلاغی ذکر نهاد را در حکایت شیخ صنعان، از منطق الطیر عطار، بررسی و نقد کند. پژوهش حاضر براساس مطالعات کتابخانه ای و با روش توصیفی تحلیلی انجام شده و یافته ها براساس تحلیل محتوا بررسی شده است. حاصل این پژوهش نشان می دهد عطار، به 25 غرض ثانوی در ذکر نهاد توجه داشته و گاهی اظهار معانی متعدد به طور توامان نیز در یک جمله رخ داده است. اغراض بلاغی ذکر نهاد در این حکایت نشان می دهد که تعظیم، هشدار به مخاطب، اصل ذکر نهاد و نبودن سببی بر حذف آن، استغاثه و تثبیت حکم برای جلوگیری از انکار، بیشترین بسامد را داشته اند که متناسب با موضوع و هدف حکایت، بر مقتضای حال و مقام آمده اند. باید یادآوری کرد عطار به سایر کارکردهای بلاغی ذکر نهاد مانند اغراق و ادعا، تحقیر، بسط کلام، التذاذ، شگفتی، شمول حکم، تخییر، ملامت، تفاخر و... نیز توجه داشته است؛ بنابراین راز زیبایی رازآلود و نهان این داستان، نغزکاری های زیباشناختی است که در علم معانی کاربرد دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: عطار، شیخ صنعان، نهاد، منطق الطیر، علوم بلاغی، معانی
  • امید شاه مرادی، محمدجعفر یاحقی*، عارف نوشاهی صفحات 69-82
    امروزه یکی از مهم ترین حوزه های مطالعات ادبی، نقد و بررسی آثار بلاغی از منظرهای مختلف است؛ این گونه مطالعات، به خصوص زمانی که روی آثار کهن تر و با دیدی انتقادی انجام شود، اهمیتی دوچندان می یابد. مجموعه لطایف و سفینه ظرایف تالیف سیف جام هروی،یکی از کهن ترین منابع بلاغت فارسی است که در سده های هشتم و نهم در شبه قاره تدوین شده است. بررسی مباحث بلاغی در مجموعه لطایف باتوجه به قدمت آن، برای ترسیم چشم اندازی از تاریخ بلاغت و روند تطور آن به ویژه در شبه قاره، اهمیت خاصی دارد؛ به این منظور، در این مقاله سعی شده است میزان نوآوری، تاثیرپذیری و همچنین اهمیت این اثر ازمنظر بلاغت بررسی شود. پس از مقایسه مجموعه لطایف با منابع عمدتا بلاغی پیش از آن، روشن شد سیف جام در تدوین بخش بلاغت مجموعه لطایف، از منابع مختلف، بدون ذکر منبع و نام نویسندگان آنها، اقتباس کرده که به نمونه هایی از آن اشاره خواهد شد. همچنین در این پژوهش، برخی از اشتباهات بخش بلاغت مجموعه لطایف، در سه حوزه تعریف، مثال و تقسیم بندی ، نقد و بررسی شده است؛ در پایان نیز، به برخی از نوآوری های مجموعه لطایف ازقبیل اصطلاح سازی برای مفاهیم بلاغی، نقد شعر شاعران گذشته، تقسیم بندی های تازه و مثال های نو اشاره می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: بلاغت، تاثیرپذیری، سیف جام هروی، مجموعه لطایف و سفینه ظرایف
  • سهیل فتاحی، موسی پرنیان*، غلامرضا سالمیان صفحات 83-96
    تاریخ بیهقی، روایت کننده اوضاع و احوال خاندان غزنوی در زمان حکومت مسعود است. بیهقی در جای جای این تاریخ داستان وار کوشیده است گزارشی مستند و دقیق از رخدادها را به خواننده بدهد؛ اما گرایش او به شاعرانگی و تمایل به استفاده از شگردهای بلاغی در سراسر کتاب به وضوح دیده می شود که این به استفاده بیهقی از عناصر شعری منجر شده است. یکی از شگردهای بیهقی در به کارگیری عناصر شاعرانه، استفاده از صفت های شاعرانه است. صفت های شاعرانه آن دسته از صفات اند که علاوه بر صفت بودن، حاوی شگردی شاعرانه نیز هستند؛ یعنی علاوه بر داشتن نقش دستوری صفت، یکی از شگردهای بلاغی، اعم از کنایه، اغراق، استعاره، مجاز، حس آمیزی و... را در خود داشته باشد و به این صورت موجب آفرینش هنری در کلام شوند. در این مقاله که به روش تحلیلی توصیفی و برپایه منابع کتابخانه ای است، تلاش شده تا با مطالعه کامل کتاب تاریخ بیهقی، صفت های شاعرانه آن بررسی شود. دلیل اصلی استفاده بیهقی از صفات شاعرانه، به رسالت او در فن تاریخ نگاری بازمی گردد؛ با این شرح که بیهقی می کوشد رسالت خود را در قالب مورخی صادق حفظ کند و به علاوه با بهره گیری از عناصر شاعرانه، تاریخ خود را زیبا و دلچسب بنگارد که این خود یکی از رموز ماندگاری تاریخ بیهقی در گذر از زمان بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: صفت های شاعرانه، تاریخ بیهقی، شگردهای بلاغی
  • داود شیروانی، حجت رسولی* صفحات 97-110
    سنت و مدرنیسم از مولفه های مهم ادبیات و نقد ادبی معاصر به شمار می آید که بسیاری از ناقدان ادبیات عربی و فارسی معاصر ازجمله عزالدین اسماعیل و محمدرضا شفیعی کدکنی بدان پرداخته اند. این دو شخصیت ادبی با تکیه بر ادبیات و نقد ادبی قدیم عربی و فارسی به تاثیر مثبت تعامل سنت و مدرنیسم و ضرورت کارکرد سنت در شعر معاصر عربی و فارسی تاکید دارند؛ بنابراین پژوهش حاضر، با تکیه بر روش توصیفی تحلیلی کوشیده است دیدگاه های نقدی عزالدین اسماعیل و شفیعی کدکنی را درباره لزوم استمرار سنت ادبی در شعر معاصر عربی و فارسی بررسی کند و به این سوال پاسخ دهد که حضور سنت ادبی در شعر معاصر عربی و فارسی از دیدگاه این دو تا چه میزان است و رابطه سنت با مدرنیسم تعاملی است یا تقابلی. علاوه بر این، علت تشابه و اختلاف در اندیشه این دو ناقد چیست. نتیجه این پژوهش نشان داد هردو ناقد سنت و نوگرایی را به خوبی تجربه کرده اند و با اشراف کامل بر ویژگی های این دو حوزه، ضمن پایبندی و تعهد به موازین سنت، نوگرایی را در تعامل با آن دانسته اند. شباهت ها و تفاوت های دیدگاه این دو ناقد هم معلول گرایش ها، نگرش ها، محیط، میدان رشد و فضای حاکم بر اندیشه های دو نویسنده است. از سویی ریشه های فرهنگی مشترک این دو شخصیت ادبی، به خصوص در حوزه نقد ادبی، آنان را دست کم در نگرش به موضوع تعامل سنت و مدرنیسم بسیار به هم نزدیک کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: عزالدین اسماعیل، شفیعی کدکنی، سنت ادبی، مدرنیسم، شعر معاصر
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  • Tahere Musazadeh Moghadam, Mahmoud Mehravaran *, Aqdas Fatehi Pages 1-14
    1- Introduction Shams Qays Razi's book entitled Al-Mo'jam fi Ma'ayeer Ash'ar Al-'Ajam (The Dictionary of Criteria for Persian Poems), one of the most important sources of poetics written in the 7th ('AH'), is about eloquence, prosody, and rhyme. In the chapter on rhyme, the author not only discusses about its rules but also about grammar and linguistic issues, which is one of the oldest discussions about the language itself and its developments. Based on a thematic classification in linguistics, the present paper reviews and analyzes Shams Razi's different views. 2- Theoretical Framework The theoretical foundations of the present paper are modern linguistics and its rules which are compared and contrasted with Qays's views. In his book, Shams sometimes mentions some points which can help us pronounce the words correctly and inform us about some issues related to the history of Persian language. The authors try to find his view about standard language of his own time, his familiarity with some features of old Khorasan's dialects, his way of naming phones and prepositions, accuracy or inaccuracy of some of his views in order to know that there were linguistic views about language in old times but with some differences with modern ones. 3- Methodology A descriptive-analytical method is used in this paper. The authors have completely studied Al-Mo'jam and compared and contrasted its author's view with the foundations and rules of linguistics. 4- Results and Discussion Attention to language and rules governing it is one of the most important issues discussed in some old books and texts. The function and features of language have long been noted by literary men, particularly writers. No doubt, past linguistic studies were more about compiling dictionaries, etymology, manner of articulation, some linguistic developments, and writing rules, because written form was more important and considered in the past, not spoken form. Al-Mo'jam, which is about poetics and its different related principles and criteria, provides us with some views about poetic matters, particularly rhyming letters, which altogether can be regarded and studied as sub-classifications of linguistic issues, two important of which will be reviewed in the following parts.   A. Standard Language A brief look at the diversity of texts in previous centuries and their considerable differences shows that Persian language had no single form in early centuries and until the time of compiling Al-Mo'jam to be regarded the standard language cited and referred by all writers. It seems that writers regarded their own knowledge and perception of language and dialect in their own environment as the standard language. Similarly, Shams Qays believed that poetics requires knowing the correct form of words and its combinations, but did not exactly clarify the criterion for correct recognition of "Dari words" which he regarded as standard language. The use of Dari language in poets' and writers' works can be regarded as the criterion for considering it as the standard language of his time.     Incorrect views about Persian language and its power are sometimes seen in Al-Mo'jam, because pervious writers compared Persian language's possibilities, derivation system, and the like with, for example, Arabic, and regarded the latter as the superior one, while linguists believe that there is no superior language. B. Phonemic processes Shams's explanations about rhyming letters clarify some points about phonemes and their changes at that time. He sometimes refers to the points which can help us pronounce the words correctly and inform us about the history of Persian language. One of these points which can be extracted from the text is the existence of some vowels such as unpronounced "w" which is not now present in the Persian language in its historical form and its pronunciation has changed. C. Grammatical points In the chapter on rhyming letters, the author mentions some grammatical points, particularly suffixes and their meaning, which are of great importance due to antiquity of the work. In this part, the author mostly talks about suffixes, because they are placed in the position of rhyming letters. He regards these "affixes" as preposition. 5- Conclusion and Suggestion Altogether, the study of Al-Mo'jam shows that its author pays attention to the features of language and rules governing it to make the rhetorical rules understood. Of course, the terms used in modern linguistics are different from those used in this book and similar ones. Like many other writers of the time, Qays regards the written form as the standard language, while has a side glance at pronunciation and sometimes refers to it. The form called modern standard language can be recognized in Qays's work, which is his own language used in his time and hometown. He pays attention to such phonemic processes as adjunction, reduction and alternation or metathesis and provides some related rules. Some useful grammatical points which can be used in the classification and description of linguistic models in modern grammar can be understood and extracted from the book. He provides some linguistic points and meanings to introduce types of suffixes. The knowledge of these points and his other views are useful and effective in studying historical linguistics of Persian language.
    Keywords: Al-Mo'jam, Shams Qays, linguistic views, phonetic developments, suffixes
  • Mohammadebrahim Irajpour * Pages 15-30
    In the different periods of Persian poetry, the smallest amount of original and fundamental research belongs to the theme of Return Literary style and the post-Safavid period. Although this historical section is hardly comparable with other literary periods due to the imitations and repetitions, abandoning and rejection of a vast section of history and culture of this land and the oblivion and the anonymity of the major works and great poets of this period will be followed by great losses. This short-sighted view and underestimating approach to the poetry of the Return Literary style has led the features of the literary atmosphere and it's governing rules of that period not to be known correctly. With precision in the literary community, and the interactions among the poets as well as the poetic products of this period, we will find the components and specifications that are the product of this era or have been shown more favorably than other periods of Persian poetry and literature. Literary associations and its relations, the spread of calligraphy and arts among the poets, the strong connection of the court with poetry and literature, the abundance of the families of the bounty and art, and the change of pseudonym are examples of some of the characteristic features that are unique in the literary atmosphere of Qajar era that had already been hidden for the researchers. In this article, we will look at some of these features in detail and with a few examples.
    Keywords: Style of return, poetry, Qajar era, literary associations, Calligraphy
  • Zahra Sayedyazdi *, Hamid Jafarighariehali, Fatemeh Ostvaar Pages 31-46
    This study investigates the use of words and collocations with the same meanings as well as the use of Pahlavi and ancient words in the two works of Shahnameh and Vis and Rāmin. The results reveal that the similar lexical characteristics of the two works reflect the influence of Shahnameh on Weiss and Ramin in terms of linguistic techniques. Another point is the congruence of the terms used in these two works with the form and content. This can be understood from the use of words that are in line with the music of the word on one hand, and linked to ritualistic practices and beliefs of the poets on the other. Introduction One of the issues that could be investigated about Shahnameh is the language of Shahnameh and its characteristics. This research attempted to compare Vis and Rāmin by Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani, which is similar to Shahnameh in terms of style and language. This literary work is the oldest available poetic collection in Persian literature. It is a story belonging to the Arsacid period in the Pahlavi language, which has been put into poetry through preserving the meanings and words. This work, just like the Shahnameh, is simple and fluent in terms of diction and expression, with few Arabic words but filled with authentic and l Pahlavi words. 1-1 Statement of the problem By closely reading Shahnameh and Weiss and Ramin, we find that there are many linguistic similarities in these two works. There are similar vocabulary and collocations as well as analogous theme and expression in the two works. The authors of this study have tried to answer this question by studying Shahnameh, and Vis and Rāmin: What are the similarities between the two works in terms of the use of vocabulary and collocations? 1-2 Research Significance  Since Shahnameh and Vis and Rāmin are considered to have the most original words and linguistic collocations. On the other hand, both of these works involve many of the rituals and beliefs of the ancient Iranian ethnic groups. This research, will introduce the two works and their linguistic values. It will give the Iranian readers access to a valuable part of the Persian language. 1-3 Research Background We could not find any previous study on the language structure Vis and Rāmin and Shahnameh's, but similar articles and theses have been presented. Most studies address Shahnameh's linguistic characteristics. Discussion Shahnameh has given us a special strength for our body of culture and language. Vis and Rāmin is also among the top Persian literary works in terms of having original Persian words. Its similarity with Shahnameh can be a sign of the linguistic connection of two works. In the context of language, the correct investigation of the features mentioned in the following section illustrates the link between these two works: 2-1 Language characteristics 2-1-1 Common terms in two works More than noting the rhetoric and the fictional power of the words, the two poet have paid attention to originality and their ability to convey their concepts. The most important aspects of the Shahnameh and Vis and Rāmin in the field of language are as follows: 2-1-1-1 Names of Nature 2-1-1-2 Names of meanings 2-2 Current ordinary collocations 2-1-3 Current ironies 2-1-4 The use of adjectives to refer to a noun 2-1-5 Adjective phrase 2-1-6 Prepositions and conjunctions 2-1-6-1 Use of Abba, Abi and Abar in Pahlavi 2-1-6-2 Use of Ider and Idon in Pahlavi 2-1-6-3 The use of “where” to mean “that” 2-1-6-4 The use of "if" to mean "or" and "maybe" to express doubt and to mean "maybe" 2-1-6-5 The use of the word "inside" to mean "in" 3. Conclusion One of the achievements of this research is to prove that Vis and Rāmin is not only close to Shahnameh in terms of linguistic and stylistic features, but the composer of Vis and Rāmin was so much under the influence of Shahnameh while writing Vis and Rāmin. The frequent use of ancient words in the both works shows that the both poets were concerned with the great importance of the originality of the words, and the choice of these words has been with the goal of expressing the ideas, traditions and beliefs of the predecessors.
    Keywords: Shahnameh, Vis, Rāmin, Linguistic characteristics
  • Allahyar Afraketeh, Fatemeh Modarresi *, Bahman Nozhat Pages 47-68
    Manteq al-Tayyr is one of the glories of the Islamic thought and brilliant pearls of art that have been decorated with Islamic civilization. The story of sheikh sanaan is the longest story which is haunted in Manteq al-Tayyr and includes 410 couplets. One of the main pillars of Attars poetry, from a poets point of view, it is a masterpiece of the Persian order, and is unbelievably charming, clear and delusional.  The meanings of knowledge in which the most intrinsic and aesthetic and applications of aesthetics are explored and applied; artistic applications that are sometimes written in the first glance are not envisioned and delayed because it spells with wording beauties. In the science of meanings, the first meanings are not words and phrases, but the main purpose in this science is the second meaning. The meaning of secondary meanings means the meanings that the speaker has given to his word for the sake of bringing those meanings in accordance with what is required by the means by which the speaker expresses his intentions and so called Ma fi al-zamir. In this science, words that are not used verbally in their sense are discussed. In the science of meanings, it is a statement of sentences that have no verbal symbols to guide the listener in the secondary sense, and guidance through reason, that is to say, to the circumstances and conditions of the time and place. We use sentences in secondary meanings, because we want our speech to be effective. It is effective to address the current issue (the audience, the reader, the subject, and the author himself). The story of Sheikh Sanaan and the mystical themes mentioned in this story are on the occasion of the present. The reader of Sheikh Sanaans story, in his first reading of the story, wondered what art-making was like. And what is the secret of artistic excellence in it? The mystery of the mysterious and secret hidden behind the beauty of the story of sheikh sanaan is challenging aesthetic things that are used in the science of meanings, and the words are most beautifully arrayed, but not easily understood. One of the important issues of the science of meanings is the issue of the mentioning the subject (mosnadon elaih). The study of the subject of rhetorical aspects in literary texts makes the aesthetic aspect of these works more dual. The subject is part of the sentence which constitutes the main element of the word. The reasons for rhetoric have been mentioned in order to mention the subject according to the audience. This article tries to criticize wording intention to mention the subject in the narration of Sheikh San'an, from Mantegh al-teir by Attīr. The present study is based on library studies and descriptive-analytic method. The findings are based on content analysis. The result of this research shows that the secondary motives of the subject are not limited to the same ones as those mentioned in the rhetorical books, but much more because the principles of the science of meanings written in Arabic are not exactly in accordance with Persian language; also, literary, emotional and imaginative pleasures. The poets are not limited; and even different existential reasons can be found in a sentence. The discovery of these intentions shows that the main part of the key to influencing the word of Attar depends on the construction of the sentence and the mention of the subject and its application. From the analysis of the evidence and the examples mentioned above and the second reasons for mentioning the subject in Sheikh Sanaan's narrative, it can be said that most of these abstracts are indicative of mosnadon elaih, which is due to the emphasis on the reader and the fear of the poet from the inability of readers and losing the way the words are expressed. The subject has become more binding (with conjunctions, ambiguous, subject pronouns) to make the subject more prominent and clearer. Attar has been paying attention to the 25th Secondary Thoughts of the Subject, and occasionally, the expression of multiple meanings has taken place simultaneously in one sentence. The rhetorical reasons for mentioning the subject in this narrative show that: bow and admittance with 41 and 15%, punishment of warning to the audience by 33 and 12%, the principle of mentioning the subject and the non-causal reason for its removal with 22 cases and 8% The petition with 18 and 7 percent, giving the verdict to prevent denial of 17 cases and 6 percent, the statement of exaggeration and claim with 17 and 6 percent, and writing the verdict with 14 and 6 percent of the highest frequency, were proportional with the subject and the purpose of the story. It should be noted that Attar also noted other rhetorical functions mentioned in Sheikh Sanaan's narration, including: humiliation, narration and extension of speech, annulment, surprise, claims of inclusion of judgment, precaution (weakness in the removal of symbols), alteration, and the elimination of illusion Admittance, blame and condemnation, happiness and glad tidings, adultery and obnoxiousness of the audience, consolation, passage of life, witness in the subject, reduction of judgment, distraction and perplexity, disparity and rebellion. Therefore, the secret of the mysterious and mysterious beauty of this story is the aesthetic things used in the science of meanings.      With the tools of semantics in studying "The Sheikh Sanaan Story," we understand the latent and secret purpose of the artist who acquaints us with the many possibilities in his language. It can be understood that Attar had special meanings in rhetoric. Research has tried to recognize the hidden and profound angles of Sheikh Sanaan. For example, one can look at the poet's view of the superiority of love mysticism on ascetic mysticism and neglect of name and disgrace. It is possible to examine this purpose by studying the secondary intentions of the subject in Attar's poetry and revealing the inner layers of the mystical thought of the poet.
    Keywords: Attar, Sheikh Sanaan, Identity, Manteq al-Tayyr, Rhetoric Sciences, Meanings
  • Omid Shahmoradi, Mohammad Jafar Yahaghi *, Arif Naushahi Pages 69-82
    Abstract Currently, one of the most significant areas of literary studies is to assess, review and criticize of various rhetorical work from different viewpoints; such studies is more remarkable especially when performed on older literary texts with critical-thinking view.”Majmu'e-ye-Latayef-va-Safine-ye-Zarayef” poem ontology compiled by "Saif-e-Jam-e-Heravi", one of the most ancient rhetorical text from the late eight and early nine AH centuries, is written in the Indian subcontinent. The study of rhetorical subjects in ”Majmu'e-ye-Latayef ", considering its history, provides outlook on rhetoric’s history and development, especially in the Indian subcontinent; hence, this paper inspects this work from innovations, impressionability and imitation viewpoints as well as its importance from rhetoric perspective.  The innovation of "Saif-e-Jam" in this poem ontology are as follows: personal terminology for rhetoric concepts, critique of his precedent poets’ poems, novel classifications, and new examples. Additionally, he gathered poems from both famous and less known Indian subcontinent poets, hence his ontology could be the only reference for several poets, especially the less knows or unknown ones. Such innovations has extolled the merits of his ontology beyond a merely imitation work. To specifically clarify imitations of ”Majmu'e-ye-Latayef ", this work is compared against other precedent predominantly rhetorical texts. This comparison reveals that “Saif-e-Jam-e-Heravi" have adopted various sections of his poem ontology from different references without mentioning their titles and authors; several of such references are as follows: Rashid-e-Vatvat's “Hadayegh-ul-Sehr” (divisions and examples), Jajarmi's “Munes-ul-Ahrar” and Kalati's “Munes-ul-Ahrar”(classification and poem samples), Amir Khosrow's “Eijaz-e-Khosrawi” and “Dibache-ye-Divan-e-Ghorrat-ul-Kamal”(definitions and examples created by Amir Khosrow), Khatib-e-Qazvini's “Al-Eizah-fi-Olum”(definitions), and Taftazani's “Al-Motawwal” (definitions). Furthermore, this work reviews and criticizes errors and mistakes of this ontology's rhetoric section in definitions, examples, and classification areas. "Saif-e-Jam-e-Heravi" have intended to collect an ontology and just exploit rhetoric viewpoint for classification of the gathered poems under separate sections; hence, he have mentioned incorrect examples for a given literary figure of speech or even have called one specific figure of speech under different names or labels (e.g., “tarh-e horuf” /lipogram and “hazf-e horuf”/ elision are identical).
    Keywords: Rhetoric, Adoption, Saif-e-Jam-e-Heravi, Majmu'e-ye-Latayef-va-Safine-ye-Zarayef
  • Soheil Fattahi, Musa Parnian *, Gholamreza Salemian Pages 83-96
    The abundant use of poetic attributes is one of the main poetic features of Beyhaghi’s history. Poetic attributes, in addition to being an adjective as a grammatical role, also contains a poetic element including rhetorical elements such as irony, exaggeration, metaphor, synecdoche, etc. thus, leading to an artistic creation. This paper, which is descriptive-analytic and based on library resources, has attempted to examine the poetic elements in Beyhaghi’s History by thoroughly studying Beyhaghi’s history. The poetic adjective actually plays both a grammatical and an aesthetic role, that is, in addition to its logical and grammatical role; it also has an artistic finesse and delicacy that makes it delightful. For instance, the word ‘man’ is a general term; but when we say a graybeard man or a world seen man, in addition to specifying a man, graybeard and world seen man is a metaphor indicating experience. Beyhaghi’s history contains fascinating and appealing descriptions with a poetic ascription. Beyhaghi has created vivid, dynamic and poetic images by using various descriptions which demonstrates his expertness in poetry. Beyhaghi has used poetic elements in a variety of situations and positions. It should be noted that each of these elements may contain several rhetorical features; however, the most prominent and tangible feature is considered as the criterion for division. The naming of each of the attributes is based on its practical application and use in Beyhaghi’s history. Ironical attributes: Ironic poetic elements are those in which a hidden metaphor lies, that is, besides being an adjective it also contains poetic images. Metaphorical attributes: Such elements are based on simile, in which the writer shows resemblance by using an adjective. Personification attributes: They are the elements that are associated with implicit metaphor and refers to giving the attributes of a human being to a concept or an object. The poet or writer gives spirit to non-living objects and entities and compares them with human attributes. Synecdoche attributes: These attributes are closest to the rhetorical elements; and also involves allegorical metaphor and irony. Sensory attributes: These attributes are derived from the five senses including sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. It is the literary device called synesthesia. Visual attributes: Generally speaking, attributes help the reader to visualize, and by bringing several adjectives for a noun, readers can visualize different scenes. Emphatic attributes: The most important characteristic of this attribute is that they are used with emphasis and in fact, Beyhaghi seeks to increase the influence of an attribute. Adverbial attributes: Another point that is worthy to mention is the poetic adverbial clauses used in Beyhaghi’s work. This group plays the role of an adjective, and sometimes adverb. A comprehensive study of the book and the high frequency of poetic attributes indicate that Beyhaghi has taken advantage of various attributes to maintain his mission as a moralist historiographer and to adhere to his role as a trusted historian. Beyhaghi uses customary attributes, thereby making his historical accounts attractive rather than fatigue to the reader, making his style unique and one of the popular works in Persian history and literature. Among the rhetorical elements, Beyhaghi has used irony to the largest extent; in addition, other poetic elements such as metaphor, personification, synecdoche, synesthesia, etc. are observed considerably in the book.
    Keywords: Poetic attributes, History of Beyhaghi, Rhetorical elements
  • Davoud Shirvani, Hojjat Rasouli * Pages 97-110
    Tradition and modernism are among the most important components of contemporary literature. The tradition in literature is the set of literary practices that have emerged and accumulated over the course of literary development of every ethnic group. Modernism, or literary modernism, is also a term sometimes used against literary tradition, denoting a break with existing traditions, rules and conventions, and new ways of looking at various literary issues, and sometimes means renewing tradition. Accordingly, the great tension between the adherents of literary tradition and modernism in the twentieth century has led to the emergence of the discourse of "tradition and modernism" in contemporary literary criticism. Contemporary Arabic and Persian literary criticism also welcomed this issue. Critics emphasize the contradiction and, in general, the connection between the legacy of the past and modern and modern works, as they see many benefits in this connection, and the result of these conflicts is nothing but the dynamics of literature and literary criticism. Many contemporary Arabic and Persian literary critics, including Ezeddin Ismael and Mohammad Reza Shafiei Kadkani, have addressed it. The two literary figures emphasize the positive influence of interaction between tradition and modernism and the necessity of the function of tradition in contemporary Arabic and Persian poetry, based on literature and ancient literary critique of Arabic and Persian. Similarities and differences in the views of these two critics are also due to tendencies, attitudes, environment, field of growth, and the dominant atmosphere of the thoughts of the two writers. On the other hand, the common cultural roots of them, especially in the field of literary criticism, have brought them, at least in the attitude towards the subject of interaction between tradition and modernism. This has necessitated a review and comparison of their criticisms. Here, by relying on descriptive-analytical method, tried to review the criticisms of these figures regarding the necessity of continuing the literary tradition in contemporary Arabic and Persian poetry. The question here is that the how these people view presence of literary tradition in contemporary Arabic and Persian poetry? Also, if they found the interaction among these schools as interactive or opposite? The result of this study showed they experienced both the tradition and the modernism. In most of their researches, by respect to the principles of tradition they found modernism in interaction with tradition. They always believe that tradition and innovation are two aspects of the continuity of a nation's culture or a nation, for tradition to continue, it must evolve with the help of innovation, and innovation can only be understood by turning to one tradition. Innovation without tradition and tradition is lacking in historical and social objectivity. They believe that in literature, tradition and innovation are two vital and indispensable factors. It can be argued that almost all the attention to tradition and its importance is clearly seen in all works of these two critics. In the face of modernism, both critics have an almost unified experience. Both believe that the process of modernizing poetry must be broken, but not in the sense of abandoning tradition, but of modernity. The two critics argue that the contemporary poet's relationship to tradition is a pervasive one and a conscious acquisition of the human-historical meaning of tradition, not merely the influence of tradition. Thus, the contemporary poet's attitude to tradition chooses positions that are permanent and enduring, whether that is a requirement of the classical approach or whether it is augmented by the poet himself. They want a renewal that is in line with the literature of the past and disconnecting from the past is not a good thing. They also see bigotry as a dangerous thing, because the past and the present must follow and recognize each other's boundaries.
    Keywords: Ezeddin Ismael, Shafiei Kadkani, Tradition, Modernism, Contemporary Poetry