فهرست مطالب

تاریخ اندیش - پیاپی 5 (تابستان و پاییز 1398)
  • پیاپی 5 (تابستان و پاییز 1398)
  • بهای روی جلد: 300,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Abdolmehdi Rajaei Pages 9-29

    Iran’s economic conditions in the 1930 are very similar to today’s situation. At that time, the government also faced a foreign currency crisis. Economic managers thought to different ways. Finally, the enactment and implementation of the “Foreign Trade Monopoly Law” prevented the wasting of currency and confronting if country with the lack of money. The government strongly controlled importations and prevented Import of luxury goods to the country. In this article, we review what happened. Then, we analyzed two laws that the government adopted and implemented in response to events. Also, we survey the impact of this process. This article is taken from my book “The Ups and Downs of the Textile Industry in Isfahan”.

    Keywords: economic, Riza Shah, the law of foreign trade, feign crisis
  • Saideh merzaei sosefidi Pages 31-44

    Existence of social and financial insecurities, legal instabilities and lawlessness had led to the dissatisfaction of people in the Qajar era. In addition to this, the expansion of relationships between Iran and Europe in 13th AH and Iran’s defeat in war with Russia had caused extensive developments in financial and cultural structures. Innovative reformist thoughts came into existence. The continuity of reformist processes in the following eras provided the necessary preparations for the appearance of civilized institutions and innovative intellectual phenomena such as the publication of governmental and nongovernmental newspapers, school construction, translation and compilation of new books in Nasserian and Mozaffari periods. These developments caused modernistic thoughts and appearance of new, intellectual and modernistic strata which had devoted themselves to produce change in political, social and cultural structures. They also attempted to integrate these changes with the conventional thought of Iran’s society. The progression of this approach had finally led to the establishment of the constitutional movement. Therefore, the constitutional movement is considered a turning point in Iranian’s struggles. It is a major resurrection of Iran’s society and the beginning of creation and expansion of law, justice and social equality. In this study, a descriptive and analytical approach has been used to investigate the internal and external causing factors of the constitutional movement, its reasons and states from a historical viewpoint.

    Keywords: Qajar, Constitutional Movement, Clerics, Intellectuals, Privileges, Minor Migration
  • Masoud Bahramian Pages 45-60

    Constitutional government is viewed as one of the most significant eras and turning points of contemporary Iranian history. Within this era, religious experts as society’s elites played a crucial and influential role in the changes taken place. One of those renowned religious experts who sided with constitutional government was Mulla Abdulla Mazandarani. He completed his primary education in Mazandaran, and then he moved to Iraq to do his religious and Islamic seminary studies. After Akhound Khurasani’s decease, Mulla Abdulla Mazandarani became the spokesman of those who were striving for constitutional government. The present research takes on a descriptiveanalytical apporoach and addresses the question ‘’ what place do constitution and national council parliament hold in Mulla Abdulla Mazandarani’s mind style?’’. The findings of the study indicate that Mulla Abdulla Mazandarani had presented rational and narrative reasons in defense of constitutional government. Additionally, he views constitutional government in defense of human freedom,in defiance of despotism, and in restriction of ruling system’s absolute authority. He further considered Islamic council parliament as the assessor of constitutional government under the vigilant religious experts’ supervision of legislation .

    Keywords: Mulla Abdulla Mazandarani, scientific life, constitutionalgovernment, parliament
  • Amin rezaei Pages 61-74

    As the constitutional revolution resulted in the combination of many factors of internal and external relations, these factors also failed to succeed. The intervention of Russia led to the closure of the Iranian national assembly, and despite the re cmquest of the constitutionalists. The stability and security of Iran fell apart. In the wake of the competition between the crown claimants and the place ment of larg kings and landlords at the head of the constitutional revolution and foreign agents, including the attacks of Russia and Britain and the outbreak of the first world war, Iran was on the verge of collapse in the last years of the thirteenth century. The intellectuals, one of the elements of the victory of the constitutional revolution, came to power in the after moth of the establishment of the country under such conditions under the monarch Reza khan Autonomy, following the coup detat of 1299, to maintain the minimal conditions of the constitutional revolution, which preserved the independence and integrity of Iran. By publishing propaganda in the press, speeches and parliament, the intellectuals expressed the weakness and decadence of the Qajar and the need for the country to enjoy a centralized power and to briny it together. The subject of this dissertation is about the role of intellectuals in the events after the constitutional revolution and the coming of Reza shah. This research is based on the library method and by means of a descriptive/ analytical picturing method to collect scattered material on the subject and than the content has been discussed and researched.

    Keywords: Intelletuals, Publication, Socity, Constitutional Revolution, Constitutionalists
  • Parvin Salehian Pages 75-86

    Many of the factors in the Safavid period were influenced by community health and health. One of them was the weather. The hot and dry weather in some cities like Isfahan and Shiraz prevented the formation and replication of germs, but in some cities, such as coastal cities and other cities with hot and humid air, such as Persian Gulf and Mazandaran port cities, more suitable conditions for microbial proliferation and Spread the disease. Other pathogens in this period include baths, although they were established for urban hygiene, but due to their furry structure, they were the cause of many skin diseases, insect pests, drugs and family marriage. Due to the non-observance of the health of the cities, there were numerous diseases, for example, since the wells of the sewage were in the alley and were not managed by them, the city was trampling, or animal carcasses would be abandoned in the middle of the alleys. Causing plague in the cities and causing insect and pathogenic insects.

    Keywords: Iran, Safavid, urban health, pathogens
  • Naeem Limochi Pages 87-96

    Following the establishment of the Safavid rule, profound changes in political, economic, social and particularly religion have been made. Iraq was found very important by Safavid’s kings because of Shia Imam’s graves and its political strategic situation. Meanwhile, Iraq, because of historic and cultural background has been always a suitable bed for raising and growing talent and ingenuity of Islamic fames and specifically Shia fames. In the present study, tendency to burying in Al-Atabat Al-Aliyat has been noticed to Iranians in Safavid dynasty. The present data is based on historic method, the buried people and their social and political status and also their main graves in Iraq are the topics of presented questions in this article: who and in what social and political status have been buried in some holy cities of Iraq?

    Keywords: Al-Atabat Al-Aliyat (the sublime thresholds), Karbala, Najaf, buried, Safavid dynasty
  • Rasoul Saeedizadeh Pages 97-114

    The position of Rasht in Islamic art studies is not well understood. Ancient Mosques of Rasht had artistic features in the field of architecture, elements and decorations. Unfortunately, usual rainfall and heavy humidity destroyed most of them. Few researches have been done on the architecture of mosques in Rasht. Most of these studies have studied the Rasht mosques in general and briefly. In aspect of antiquity, most of the mosque buildings belong to the Qajar period and only a few of the mosques in Rasht belong to this period. This article attempts to present the history of some mosques from Timurid period to early Qajar period in Rasht, Some elements of Islamic architecture such as the altar, Phīlpā (Thick columns under the roof), Stucco and Minarets.

    Keywords: Gilan, Rasht, History, Mosque, Islamic Architecture, Decoration