فهرست مطالب

Basic and Clinical Cancer Research - Volume:11 Issue: 3, 2019
  • Volume:11 Issue: 3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Siavash Mashhouri*, Erfan Yarahmadi, Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani Pages 113-123
    Introduction

    The potential of Candida albicans to modulate antigen-presenting cells maturation has been documented in past studies. Dendritic cells are critical modulators in the orchestration of adaptive immune responses alongside myeloid subtypes, which play an important role in the presentation of antigens to T cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of splenocytes activated with the extract of heated 4T1 cells and the yeast form of C. albicans against breast cancer growth in vivo‏.

    Methods

    4T1 cells were subcutaneously injected into the left flanks of female BALB/c mice (n=40). At a time when palpable tumors had developed, experimental groups were immunized twice at one-week interim with either activated splenocytes with the extract of heated 4T1 or the killed preparation of yeast form of C. albicans or a combination of the two-One week after the second injection, one-half of animals (n=20) were euthanized to investigate the immune response profile.

    Results

    Administration of activated splenocytes with the combination protocol caused a favorable survival curve and slower rates of tumor development compared to other tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, combination therapy significantly increased the secretion of IFN-γ, respiratory burst and nitric oxide production and conversely diminished the secretion of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β in the splenocyte population.

    Conclusions

    Since the murine 4T1 cell line is similar to the final stage of human breast carcinoma, we postulate that activated splenocytes with the extract of heated 4T1 cells and yeast form of C. albicans can reduce tumor development in tumor-bearing mice.

    Keywords: 4T1, Breast cancer, Candida albicans, Dendritic cell, Macrophage
  • Fariba Zarani*, Leili Panaghi, Seddighe Mirzaei, Sanaz Helmi Pages 124-134
    Background

    Studies have shown that cancer creates a variety of problems and issues for children with cancer. It creates unique challenges for both the patients and their families. Despite the severe stress associated with these problems, most children are able to adequately cope with and adapt to cancer. However, some of the patients experience more severe or prolonged problems that require psychological support. The present study investigated the needs and coping strategies of Iranian children aged 9 to 13 with cancer. The goal was to determine the needs, concerns and coping strategies in children after being diagnosed with cancer.

    Methods

    For this purpose, 12 children aged 9-13 with cancer as well as their mothers were selected from among children admitted to Mofid hospital. Patient selection was conducted in a purposeful sampling method. Data was collected in an in-depth semi-structured interview with the child and their mother and then analyzed using content analysis method.

    Results

    The content analysis of individual interviews with the child and mother showed that the main concerns of these children were related to the hospital space, support, society, family and educational needs, which were responded to by five distinct types of coping. These coping methods include spiritual coping, admission of support and assistance, visiting relatives (on a regular basis) in a positive manner and negative behaviors such as active and passive aggression and avoiding presence in the community and society. The findings of this study indicate that Iranian children with cancer have special needs some of which have mental and emotional aspects, including worry about being a burden on their families, and they use different coping strategies to cope with their condition. One of the most important means of coping with cancer are family and relatives.

    Conclusion

    Treatment centers should address these factors in order to improve the mental and physical health of their patients.

    Keywords: Psycho-social needs, Coping strategies, Children, Cancer
  • Masoud Asefi, Nayebali Rezvani, Mohammad Hasan Soheilifar, Massoud Saidijam, Ali Mahdavinezhad* Pages 135-141

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The beginning and progression of the disease are thought to be determined by combinations of epigenetic and genetic changes that trigger multistep programs of carcinogenesis. In colorectal cancer, epigenetic alterations, in particular promoter CpG island methylation, occur more commonly than genetic mutations. Hyper-methylation contributes to carcinogenesis via inducing transcriptional silencing or down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes. DNA methylation alteration has a high potential for minimally invasive biomarker identification. Genome analysis has confirmed that microRNA expression is deregulated in most cancer types through several mechanisms, including failings in the microRNA biogenesis machinery. Moreover, microRNAs can be dysregulated by abnormal CpG methylation in cancer. Since it is believed that epigenetic changes occur in the early stages of the disease, these changes can be used for the early detection of cancer. In this review, we intend to study the role of microRNA gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer.

    Keywords: Colorectal Neoplasm, microRNA, epigenetics, DNA hypermethylation
  • Faezeh Ghaemdoust, Azin Nahvijou, Farah Farzaneh Pages 142-146
    Introduction

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. HPV infection causes some kinds of cancers including female (cervical cancer, vulvar) and male genital cancer, oropharyngeal cancers and also genital warts. There are risk factors which determine whether an HPV-infected individual could develop to cervical cancer or genital warts. Among these risk factors, tobacco and cigarette smoking play a significant role in developing cervical cancer and genital warts.

    Case presentation

    this case report is about a young woman who had developed extensive genital warts a year after she started waterpipe smoking. Those genital warts were healed spontaneously after cessation of waterpipe smoking.

    Conclusion

    the primary hypothesis that could be propounded, is that waterpipe smoke plays a role as an independent risk factor in developing genital warts, like cigarette smoke.

    Keywords: Waterpipe tobaco smoking, Genital pipes, HPV, Hooka, Nargileh
  • Seyedeh Nasrin Hosseini Motlagh *, Faeze Lari Motefaker Pages 147-155

    The aim of this study is achieve an analysis of the mathematical model governing radiotherapy as well as to achieve the concentration of healthy and cancerous cells to reduce the length of treatment and less damage to cancer treatment by this type of therapy. In order to obtain this, we used the latest mathematical radiotherapy model based on the Lotka-Volterra competitive equations and the Adomian decomposition method that is the one of the most advanced analytical solutions to solve differential equations to attain our goal. The calculation of the Adomian decomposition method was applied to the mathematical model governing radiotherapy, and then the concentration of healthy and cancerous cells was achieved with a very good approximation. Comparison of the behavior of healthy and cancerous cells concentrations based on experimental cases and the behavior of healthy and cancerous cells concentrations based on computations express the correctness of the work. ADM indicates the concentration of healthy and cancerous cells during the treatment stage and the no treatment stage can be effective in improving the modeling based on the competitive model of the Lotka-Volterra equations, which results in the reduction of the use of diagnostic devices, less radiation, the faster treatment process and decreasing the cost of treatment for patients and governments.

    Keywords: adiotherapy, mathematical model, Lotka-Volterra, Adomian decomposition method