فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Leily Ganeh Badrabad , Afsaneh Ghanizadeh * Pages 1-15

    The present study examined the impact of visualization and graphic organizers as pre-listening strategies on English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ cognitive, behavioral, and emotional engagement and their listening comprehension. To do so, this study was carried out in three listening classes at Islamic Azad University of Mashhad. The participants included 80 junior EFL university students. A quasi experimental design with a control group and two experimental groups (graphic organizers and visualization) was utilized. Students’ engagement was assessed through academic engagement questionnaire measuring behavioral, emotional, and cognitive aspects of academic engagement. A sample IELTS (International English Language Testing System) test was utilized to gauge students’ level of listening proficiency. To examine the impact of the two intervention techniques on listening proficiency level, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was run. A one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was utilized to investigate the role of graphic organizers and visualization in students’ behavioral, cognitive, and emotional engagement. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of graphic organizers and visualization as pre-listening strategies in enhancing EFL university students’ listening achievement as well as their engagement.  The results of post-hoc analysis showed that visualization and graphic organizer techniques were equally influential in enhancing learners’ listening proficiency.  It was also found the emotional engagement exhibited the highest difference and cognitive engagement showed the lowest difference.

    Keywords: Behavioral engagement, Cognitive engagement, Emotional engagement, Graphic organizers, Listening comprehension, Visualization
  • Nafiseh Emadi *, Mohammad Hussien Norouzi , Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiari Pages 17-28

    Translators always seek to find the best equivalents for each word, sentence or phrase in the target language (TL) in order to have the most accurate and meaningful translation of the text. Generally, a translator’s main concern is whether to prefer the form over the content or vice versa. In translation studies, literal translation prioritizes the form while free translation concentrates on the content. Literal and free translations are roughly categorized by Vinay and Darbelnet (1995) as direct and oblique translations respectively, overall covering seven concrete procedures. This study aimed to look at the works of Parvin Etesami, a 20th century Persian poetess, with the intention of analyzing a selection of her poems translated by Alaeddin Pazargadi, professor at the University of Tehran, according to Vinay and Darbelnet's model  in order to identify the strategies and procedures most frequently used by the translator. Every Persian line and its English translation from nine poems of Parvin were analyzed and classified under the relevant taxonomy proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet. By calculating the number of cases of each procedure, it was found that the translator mostly utilized the direct strategy which resembles word for word translation. Finally, some improvements were suggested for some defective cases. This study benefits research on translating literary works.

    Keywords: Direct strategy, Literal translation, Parvin Etesami, Vinay, Darbelnet’s model
  • Zivar Derakhshi, Sajjad Khorami Fard* Pages 29-41

    Considering the statement that errors can affect the quality of translations, the need to adopt an objective model to analyze these errors has been one of the most debated issues in translation quality assessment. In recent decades, some objective models have emerged with an error analysis nature according to which evaluators can make decisions on the quality of translations. In this study, Method (A) of Waddington's model (2001) was applied on the novel Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck (1937) and translated by Parviz Daryuosh in 1966. To this end, 20 paragraphs were chosen at random, then compared and contrasted thoroughly with their translations to evaluate the quality of translation. By close examination of the data, the kinds of errors were detected and tabulated according to the number of frequency and percentage. The results of the study revealed that almost all extents of Waddington's model (method A) could be applied on the novel. Furthermore, the values of the statistical analysis showed that out of the total of 270 errors, the most frequent errors went to the first category of the model with 232 errors accounted for 85.92%, and affected comprehension in the source text. The most frequent errors related to this category were fauxsens, omission, addition and loss of meaning and the rest of errors were not significant. In contrast, the least dominant errors were related to the second category with 38 errors accounted for 14.07%, and affected the expression of the target text. The most frequently occurred error related to this category was grammar and the other errors were not significant.

    Keywords: Error analysis, Of Mice, Men, Translation errors, Translation quality, Translation qualityassessment, Waddington’s model
  • Marziyeh Taleghani, Ehsan Pazouki*, Vahid Ghahraman Pages 43-55

    Machine Translation Evaluation Metrics (MTEMs) are the central core of Machine Translation (MT) engines as they are developed based on frequent evaluation. Although MTEMs are widespread today, their validity and quality for many languages is still under question. The aim of this research study was to examine the validity and assess the quality of MTEMs from Lexical Similarity set on machine translated Persian texts. This study focused on answering three main questions, which included the extent that Automatic Machine Translation Evaluation Metrics is valid on evaluating translated Persian texts; the probable significant correlation between human evaluation and automatic evaluation metrics in evaluating English to Persian translations; and the best predictor of human judgment. For this purpose, a dataset containing 200 English sentences and their four reference human translations, was translated using four different statistical Machine translation systems. The results of these systems were evaluated by seven automatic MTEMs and three human evaluators. Then the correlations of metrics and human evaluators were calculated using both Spearman and Kendall correlation coefficients. The result of the study confirmed the relatively high correlation of MTEMs with human evaluation on Persian language where GTM proved to be more efficient compared with other metrics.

    Keywords: Lexical Similarity, MTEM, Statistical Machine Translation
  • Mohammad Iman Askari* Pages 57-70

    As a subset of descriptive studies, the current research focused on learners’ perception of the common teaching methods in translation courses. Accordingly, a multi-item Likert-scale questionnaire with 29 items was developed based on the proposed strategies applied in the three traditional, complex and modern methods of teaching for collecting the research data. Cronbach’s alpha was administered for estimating the reliability of the items. Besides, experts’ judgment and factor analysis were used for the coverage and relevance of content and construct validity. After administering the questionnaire among 100 homogenized participants, the answers were processed into numbers and applied in the final data analysis and reported. In conclusion, although all the methods were common in the educational context, the modern methods resolved the challenges which existed in previous methods and put emphasis on the necessity to provide a combined approach towards the existing principles of teaching translation. The results of the study would be helpful for students and instructors in teaching and translation studies via providing an interdisciplinary perspective in teaching translation and languages based on students’ attitudes towards the teaching methods in translation courses.

    Keywords: English-major students, Methods of teaching translation, Translation courses
  • Servat Shirkhani * Pages 71-84

    This study attempted to compare corrected linguistic errors in foreign language classrooms and all errors occurring in these classes to see which types of errors are more attended to by teachers in relation to their occurrence in classes. For this purpose, 69 hours of the classes of 34 teachers teaching in different language schools were recorded and the errors corrected by these teachers were identified and categorized into phonological, lexical, and grammatical types. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests indicated that the number of phonological errors being corrected was significantly higher than that of lexical errors. However, the results of similar analyses for the proportions of treated errors to occurring errors revealed that the differences among the three proportions were not significant, indicating that the three error types were addressed in accordance with the frequency with which they occurred in the classrooms. The findings can justify the differences in the findings of the studies on the comparison of error types being noticed by teachers and can have implications for future studies on the comparison of corrective feedback targets.

    Keywords: Corrective feedback, Corrective feedback targets, Error correction, Error types
  • Houman Bijani*, Adnan Satariyan Pages 85-99

    This study investigated students’ oral performance ability accounting for various oral analytical factors including fluency, lexical and structural complexity and accuracy with each subcategory. Accordingly, 20 raters scored the oral performances produced by 200 students and a quantitative design using a MANOVA test was used to investigate students’ score differences of various levels of language proficiency groups with respect to their oral scores in each analytical factor. The findings showed that students, in each level of language proficiency, were different from each other regarding various measures of fluency, lexical complexity, structural complexity and accuracy when performing the five oral tasks. Besides, the findings showed that language planning, perspective and immediacy were the determining dimensions in oral task difficulty. The findings demonstrated the usefulness of analytical approaches to rater training programs in detecting rater effects and demonstrating the consistency and variability in rater behavior. The analysis confirmed that the nature of second language oral construct is not constant, thus different results are achieved using different oral task dimensions. Consequently, the outcomes have constructive implications in the use of feedback as a reliable indicator of task difficulty and specifically as a basis for test design and validation.

    Keywords: Accuracy, Complexity, Fluency, Oral performance assessment, Oral tasks
  • Nabiollah Sadeghi*, Ali Asghar Rostami Abusaeedi, Manoochehr Jafarigohar Pages 101-120

    The present study investigated the relationship between personality traits and multiple intelligences, and learners’ reading proficiency. To this end, 384 graduate EFL students participated in the present study. Two questionnaires, namely the NEO personality inventory-revised, and McKenzie’s (1999) MI inventory as well as a sample TOFEL reading comprehension test were used to collect the data. Three regression models, backward, forward, and stepwise were used to determine prediction equations for the reading performance of EFL graduate students. Path analysis technique was employed to assess the magnitude of direct and indirect relationship of the variables. The result of the statistical analysis showed that there were only positive as well as direct relationships between interpersonal intelligence and reading proficiency, while the other intelligences such as intrapersonal, existential, naturalist, etc. would account for negative relationship with the criterion variable, reading proficiency. Agreeableness was found to be the only personality trait which had direct and negative relationship with the criterion variable. Additionally, the relationship among conscientiousness and extroversion traits as well as spatial, verbal, and mathematical intelligences with the criterion variable proved to be indirect. All the mentioned relationships between graduate EFL learners’ personality traits and multiple intelligences with their reading proficiency would lead the researchers to conclude that although various individuals have a tendency to do differently while reading in spite of the different reading preferences, readers tend to be relatively consistent in their performance.

    Keywords: Multiple intelligence, Personality traits, Reading proficiency
  • Maryam Haghighi, Mojgan Rashtchi*, Parviz Birjandi Pages 121-136

    Drawing on the insight from metacognition theory, second language researchers conceptualize strategic knowledge and strategic regulation as the two dimensions of strategic competence in language performance. In this regard, the present study aimed at determining whether strategic knowledge and strategic regulation are related to listening performance. The study also attempted to specify how strategic knowledge and strategic regulation are related to each other and to listening performance using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. To this end, the data were gathered from a total of 343 Iranian EFL learners. They were required to answer a cognitive and metacognitive listening strategies questionnaire (CMLSQ) both before and immediately after completing the listening section of a sample TOEFL test. The correlational analysis showed that strategic knowledge and strategic regulation were significantly related to listening performance. Furthermore, the SEM analysis revealed that metacognitive strategies exert a significant, direct impact on cognitive strategies. The actual use of cognitive strategies, in turn, has a direct impact on listening performance. In other words, metacognitive strategy use as a latent trait produces significant, indirect effects on listening performance through cognitive strategies.

    Keywords: Listening performance, Strategic knowledge, Strategic regulation, Structural equation modeling
  • Naser Salehi, Seyyed Ayatollah Razmjoo* Pages 137-152

    The present study was an attempt to identify a model of the political and socio-economic factors influencing Iranian EFL learners’ motivation to learn English. To achieve this, 20 EFL learners were interviewed about their motivation of learning English and based on these interviews, a questionnaire was designed and piloted among 221 EFL learners. Exploratory factor analysis was then run to identify the underlying factors, and as a result, eight factors proved to have high loadings. Then, the final 26-item questionnaire was distributed among 375 EFL learners, and they were asked to rate the items on a Likert scale. Analyzing responses revealed the most influencing factor as ‘emigration’ and the least important one as ‘attitudes toward English and its utilitarian values’. To confirm the factor structure of the instrument, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used. The goodness of fit measures was utilized to see whether the proposed model fitted the data. The obtained fit indices sustained the initial structure of the EFA with eight factors and 26 items. Consequently, this model can act as a reliable source for future localized motivation research in Iran making up for the lack of such a specific view in this politically unique EFL context.

    Keywords: EFL, Motivation, Political factors, Socio-economic status