فهرست مطالب

Environmental Health and Sustainable Development - Volume:4 Issue: 4, 2019
  • Volume:4 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Fahimeh Rahimi*, Farideh Atabi, Jafar Nouri, Ghasem Ali Omrani Pages 866-878
    Introduction

    In Tehran with a population of 9 million currently, about 2.5 million tons municipal solid waste have been producing annually.
    Materials and Models: In this study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model an optimal system of waste management of Tehran was recommended. Based on the quantity and quality of waste in Tehran in 2013 and facilities, three scenarios were selected. First, current status (15% compost, 5% recycling and 80% landfill), second, the maximum use of the capabilities of waste of Tehran (70% compost, 20% recycled and 10% landfill ) and third, the optimal scenario according to conditions of Tehran (55% compost, 10% recycling, 5% energy recovery and 30% landfill). The IWM model and WRATE model was used for Phase II and Phase III, respectively.

    Results

    Results of the conducting second Phase showed in compared to the first scenario by the second and third scenario, the amount of emissions was decreased 64% and 72%, respectively. The third phase results showed the third scenario has the lowest environmental impact in chosen six impact groups.

    Conclusion

    Considering the quality and quantity of wastes in Tehran and also the current facilities, conducting the third scenario could be useful for reducing emissions, the external costs and environmental impacts.

    Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Waste Management, Greenhouse Gas, Environmental Impact, Landfill
  • Fariba Abbasi, Mahrokh Jalili, Mohammad Reza Samaei*, Ali Mohammad Mokhtari, Elahe Azizi Pages 879-884
    Introduction

    Hospitals, as one of the important elements in the health system, play an important role in patient’s health. Fungi are one of the effective parameters on indoor air quality. This study aimed to compare of fungal contamination of two hospitals in Shiraz City.

    Materials and Methods

    Sampling was conducted based on NIOSH 0800 standard (1.5 meters above the ground level with one stage Anderson and Sabaroud dextrose agar enriched chloramphenicol as the growth media) in January-September 2017. The investigated wards included pathological laboratory, emergency rooms, neonatal specialist care, radiology, operating room, and maternity ward. The results showed that the variation and concentration of fungi were higher in hospital X than hospital Y, which was located in an agricultural area far from the city center.

    Results

    The predominant fungi were Monillia, Aspergillus, and Penicillium in hospital Y, while they were Aspergillus and Penicillium in hospital X. The highest concentrations were found in emergency and laboratory wards. With regard to higher fungal contamination of hospital X and its different location, it can be concluded that the geographical properties and outdoor air are effective factors on indoor air contamination at hospitals.  

    Conclusion

    Appropriate management of patients' admission and visiting time can be effective on indoor air contamination at hospitals. Furthermore, efficient ventilation using high-efficiency particulate air and appropriate devices for elimination of fungi level are recommended to this end. Moreover, these parameters can provide physical and psychometric health problems for patients’ careers and other health workers.

    Keywords: Fungi, Hospital, Shiraz, Indoor Air
  • Fahimeh Teimouri, Ali Asghar Ebrahimi, Mahrokh Jalili*, Hamid Reza Alaghehbandan Pages 885-894
    Introduction

    Current energy sources are coming to end and one of the main priorities of the country’s management is the energy recovery from renewable energy. Considerable quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most serious urban pollution sources. Impact assessment matrix is a new and fast tool for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

    Materials and Methods

    In this regard, renewable energy like waste-to-energy was investigated. Environmental assessment method was performed to evaluate the environmental impacts of common Waste to Energy (WTE) technologies by Wooten and Rau matrix. Most available WTE technologies (anaerobic digestion, sanitary landfill with gas recovery, waste incineration, and gasification) were environmentally assessed and compared.

    Results

    Results showed that anaerobic digestion could be most environmental friendly WTE technology for production of renewable energy from organic waste and could be considered. Furthermore, executives as green minded managements can improve the quality of waste management by finding new solutions. Other technologies such as landfill by gas recovery and gasification will be ranked second and third in terms of environmental effect.

    Conclusion

    Results showed that performing anaerobic digestion technology will produce less environmental impact in long term. Then landfilling by gas recovery and gasification technologies will be ranked second and third in terms of environmental effect.

    Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment, Municipal Solid Waste, Waste to Energy (WTE), Leopold Matrix
  • Meysam Soleimani, Elham Khalili Sadrabad, Negar Hamidian, Ali Heydari, Fateme Akrami Mohajeri* Pages 895-902
    Introduction

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen bacteria transmitted by food stuffs. Due to the lack of information about contamination of retail chicken meat to Listeria monocytogenes in Iran, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of this bacterium in retail chicken meat in Yazd, Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from January 2018 to June 2018 on 811 randomly selected samples from four districts located in Yazd city, Iran. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes was performed using enrichment and selective culture media as well as biochemical tests. The positive samples were confirmed by PCR assay.

    Results

    In total, 247 samples (30.5%) were infected with at least one of the Listeria spp. Among the 247 samples, the isolates were 68 (27%) L. monocytogenes, 155 (63%) L. innocua, 5 (2%) L. seeligeri, 19 (8%) L. ivanovii. In current study, the antibiotic resistance of positive samples was also evaluated that especially Listeria monocytogenes were resistant to tetracycline and penicillin.

    Conclusions

    The presence of this pathogenic microorganism in chicken meat can be a health risk, especially for pregnant women, the elderly, and those with immune deficiency. Considering the amount of contamination with L. monocytogenes in chicken and the high mortality rate caused by it, monitoring of the health principles and standards during the production, transportation, and storage as well as training of employees in this industry are necessary.

    Keywords: Listeria Monocytogenes, Chicken Meat, PCR
  • Seyed Ali Almodaresi*, Mohsen Mohammadrezaei, Maryam Dolatabadi, Mohammad Reza Nateghi Pages 903-912
    Introduction

    It is generally accepted that groundwater is one of the most vital sources of water for drinking use in cities and rural areas. The water drawn from these sources should be sanitary, have low soluble substances, and be free of any pathogens and microorganisms.

    Materials and Methods

    In this study, 90 wells were sampled with proper dispersion over the study area to achieve suitable estimation accuracy.

    Results

    The assessments made based on 10-year averages of water quality in the studied plain showed that according to the Schuler and Wilcox criteria of water quality for drinking and agricultural use, the northern and southern parts of the plain have unsuitable water quality compared to central parts. Interpolation RMSE value of the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) model for SO4-, TDS, TH, Mg2+, Cl-, Ca2+ and HCO3- were 8.46, 2615, 246, 6.8, 38.9, 8.3 1.16 also 8.4, 2628, 750.9, 7.0, 39.8, 8.1, 8.1 (mg L-1) for Kriging, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The cause of low groundwater quality in northern regions is the high rate of SO4-, TH, Cl-, and TDS, which are of the most important determinants of water quality for drinking. The examination of samples in the assessment of water quality for agricultural use clearly showed a higher value of EC compared to SAR.

    Keywords: Qualitative Analysis of Groundwater Quality Indicators
  • Monire Fallah Yakhdani, Zeynab Abaszade Fathabadi, Reza Fouladi Fard, Amin Salehi Abargouei, Ali Asghar Ebrahimi* Pages 913-921
    Introduction

    Radon (Rn)  is a chemically inert gas with no odor, color, and taste. It is created from the decay of uranium in the soil and can penetrate the building through the interiors. As a result, Rn can enter the human body with the release of alpha radiation along with airborne dust and cause chronic illnesses such as lung cancer and multiple sclerosis. The Multiple Sclerosis disease, as a complex multifactor disease, is the most common widespread neurotic disorder among the young people. The purpose of this study was to collect and review the past studies published in this field since 1996.

    Materials and Methods

    In this review, the related articles were searched and studied using key words such as "Radon, Action, Thoron, MS, MS Disseminated, and Sclerosis" using the PRISMA statement.

    Results

    After reviewing the studies, several effective factors in the prevalence of MS were identified. Some of these factors were a result of the exposure to high levels of radon gas. Penetrations from the building cracks of floor, soil bed, and dwelling materials as well as the water resources are among the most important sources of Rn.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, the amount of Rn and it’s daughters in the environment are recognized as the risk factors for the MS prevalence.

    Keywords: Radon Gas, Alpha Radiation, Multiple Sclerosis, Myelin, Environmental Pollutant