فهرست مطالب

Tanaffos Respiration Journal - Volume:18 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:18 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
|
  • Reza Aminnejad * Page 1
  • Saeede Amani, Rasoul Shahrooz, Ali Karimi, Zahra Bakhtiari, Esmaeil Mortaz* Pages 89-95
    Background

    Mast cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various immunological and non-immunological diseases. It is now accepted that culturing primary mast cells considered as a tool for investigation role of mast cells in diseases. Development of various animal primary mast cells and their function could be used for the translational studies in the pathogenesis of human diseases. The aim of the study was to develop simple and cost-efficient method for differentiation and culture of rat mast cells from bone marrow by using rat and mouse spleen supernatant.

    Materials and Methods

    Bone marrow cells from 10 to15-weeks-old male rats was obtained and cultured for three weeks on cell culture medium. After that, purity of cells was approved by FCԑRI and CD117 antibodies, toluidine blue and Immunohistochemistry (IHC).

    Results

    After 3 weeks continuous culturing, high purity of cells was found. CD117, CD34 expression and tryptase were 80.1, 76.89 and 87.9%, respectively by rat splenic supernatant, whereas 85.4, 83.07 and 82.1%, respectively with mouse splenic supernatants. Besides, rat spleen supernatant developed 91.4% and mouse splenocyte supernatant developed 89.7% mast cells based on surface markers.

    Conclusion

    The data presented in this study indicated equal maturation and differentiation of bone marrow derived rat mast cells by using both spleen supernatants.

    Keywords: Bone marrow, Mast cell differentiation, Rat splenic cell culture
  • Majid Marjani *, Mahtab Moeinpour, Afshin Moniri, Shadi Khabiri, Seyed Mohammadreza Hashemian, Payam Tabarsi, and Ali Akbar Velayati Pages 96-103
    Background

    Infection with Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) is a growing problem in developing countries. Among HIV infected cases, respiratory complications are common, dissimilar in different setting and their diagnosis is challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the spectrum of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary complications among HIV infected patients.

    Materials and Methods

    The retrospective study was done among 710 HIV infected patients admitted in Masih Daneshvari Hospital, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Tehran, Iran from January 2003 to March 2017. Demographic, clinical, radiologic and laboratory data of 836 episodes of pulmonary complications were reviewed and final diagnosis were extracted.

    Results

    Mean of CD4 cell count was 90±131 x106 cells/L. Definite etiology was found for 653 episodes (78.1%) of pulmonary complications. Infectious respiratory diseases were clearly more common than non-infectious etiologies, 86.1 and 7.6%, respectively. Pulmonary tuberculosis, as the leading cause, involved 542 cases (64.8%) and Pneumocystis jiroveci (P. jiroveci) was the second infectious agent that was found in 111 cases (13.2%). Among non- infectious causes, bronchiectasis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation were on the top of the list, 21 of 64 (32.8%) and 18 0f 64 (28.1%), respectively. Many patients had more than one etiology. P. jiroveci had the highest tendency for dual infections (43 episodes).

    Conclusion

    Pulmonary complications, especially infections are common among HIV cases in Iran, among them tuberculosis is the most common. Respiratory problems may be the first presentation of HIV infection. Clinicians should be aware about the risk of dual infections. Screening for HIV among all tuberculosis cases and vice versa is recommend.

    Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Pulmonary, Tuberculosis, Respiratory complications
  • Shervin Shokouhi, Ilad Alavi Darazam *, Atousa Yazdanpanah Pages 104-111
    Background

    Antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) has shown major changes in recent years. On the other hand, macrolide antibiotics are being increasingly used in clinical practice. Several studies have reported increased resistance to this group of antibiotics, while there is no comprehensive information in this area. Accordingly, the present study was designed to estimate the resistance of S. pneumoniae to macrolides in Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    In this review, articles (2000-2017), evaluating the level and type of S. pneumoniae resistance to macrolides in Iran, were extracted by searching different databases, and the results were analyzed.

    Results

    A total of 25 relevant articles were retrieved and analyzed. Overall, 2723 cases had been recruited in these studies. The mean percentage of resistance to macrolides was estimated at 48.43% (CI, 38.8-57.9%). In the majority of reported cases, the resistance mechanisms included ribosomal methylation (i.e., ermB mutation), dual resistance, and efflux-mediated resistance.

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings, the resistance rates are considerable in different cities of Iran. Therefore, without determining the type of drug resistance in clinical samples, use of macrolides is not recommended for treatment purposes. In addition, considering the type of resistance mechanisms in Iran, use of higher drug doses is probably ineffective.

    Keywords: Antimicrobial, resistance, Streptococcus pneumoniae, macrolides, Iran
  • Atefeh Abedini, Arda Kiani, Habib Emami, Mohammad Hassan Touhidi* Pages 112-117
    Background

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Although the cause of COPD exacerbations can be bacterial or viral, use of antibiotics in exacerbations remains controversial. Procalcitonin serum level dramatically increases in bacterial infections, but not in viral or noninfectious febrile diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the measurement of procalcitonin can be used to differentiate bacterial from non-bacterial causes of COPD exacerbations.

    Materials and Methods

    Sixty-eight COPD patients admitted to the emergency department of Masih Daneshvari Hospital due to COPD exacerbation were studied. At admission and before prescribing antibiotics, we obtained sputum and blood samples for sputum gram staining and culture and measured serum C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. All results were analyzed by SPSS software version 22.

    Results

    A total of 68 patients including 51 males and 17 females were studied. From 38.2% of patients a respiratory pathogen was isolated from their sputum and 23.5% of patients had elevated serum procalcitonin values. Using Fisher exact test, we found strong correlation between elevated procalcitonin levels above 0.5 ng/ml and sputum culture results (P < 0.01). We also found strong correlation between elevated procalcitonin levels above 0.5 ng/ml with abnormal C-reactive protein levels in a group of patients with positive sputum culture, using Fisher exact test (P <0.01)

    Conclusion

    As sputum culture and microbiologic studies are time consuming and sometimes expensive, it seems that procalcitonin could be a reliable marker of bacterial infection in COPD exacerbation, although we recommend a larger study with larger sample to consolidate the finding of this study.

    Keywords: Procalcitonin, COPD, Exacerbation, Bacterial infection
  • Khadije Mohammadi Gharibani, Ahad Azami, Masoomeh Parvizi, Farzad Khademi, Seyed Fazlullah Mousavi, Mohsen Arzanlou* Pages 118-125
    Background

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is one of the most common causes of human diseases in young children. Macrolides are commonly antibiotics used for empirical treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections. The purpose of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance pattern as well as the relationship between macrolide resistance and the major mechanisms of resistance in pneumococci isolated from healthy children.

    Materials and Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 43 isolates of S. pneumoniae were collected from healthy children in Ardabil. Resistance pattern against tested antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of erythromycin was determined using the E-test strips. The mefA/E and ermB gene were detected in erythromycin-resistant isolates using the specific primers and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique.

    Results

    According to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, 74.4 % of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, 95.3 % to penicillin, 81.3 % to co-trimoxazole, 72 % to azithromycin, 41.8 % to tetracycline, 27.9 % to clindamycin, and 16.2 % to chloramphenicol. All isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin and vancomycin. In the case of rifampin, 95.3% of the isolates were sensitive and 4.6% semisensitive. The MIC of erythromycin for resistant isolates was between 1.5 and ≥ 256 μg/ml. PCR results revealed that 100% of erythromycin-resistant isolates contained mefA/E gene and 81.25 % contained both the ermB and mefA/E genes.

    Conclusion

    The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, especially resistance to macrolides, was high among healthy children in Ardabil. According to the results of this study, we suggest using levofloxacin, rifampin and vancomycin antibiotics as an appropriate prophylactic regimen in pneumococcal infections.

    Keywords: S. pneumoniae, Healthy children, Macrolide, Antibiotic resistance, ermB, mefA, E
  • Abdolah Asgari, Forogh Soltaninejad*, Ziba Farajzadegan, Babak Amra Pages 126-132
    Background

    Most of patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) are at risk of metabolic syndrome. The treatment of choice for OSA patients is the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). Reports about the effect of CPAP on metabolic parameters are controversial. So, we aimed to evaluate the effect of CPAP therapy on blood pressure, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), and serum lipids including: Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (Chol), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL).

    Materials and Methods

    This study included 35 OSA patients. Initially, their baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Then, the patients underwent CPAP therapy on average 4-7 hours for 8 weeks. The level of FBS, TG, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and blood pressure were measured and recorded before and after treatment. Finally, the collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 22.

    Results

    This study included 35 OSA patients [24 men (68.6%)], with mean age of 45.58±8.02 years. Results indicated that CPAP therapy led to decrease of 9.76 and 3.49 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressures, respectively. Also, LDL decreased to 6.27mg/dl and HDL increased to 0.75 mg/dl (P<0.001) with treatment. The changes of other variables were not significant (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    Treatment of OSA with CPAP has beneficial effects on blood pressure and some items of lipid profile. Regarding the importance of metabolic disturbances in OSA complications, choosing an appropriate treatment for OSA patients can play an important role in improvement of patients status as well as prevention of these complications.

    Keywords: Continuous positive airway pressure, Blood Pressure, Serum Lipids, Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
  • Payam Payandeh, Javad Fadaee, Farahzad Jabbari Azad*, Mehdi Bakhshaii, Samane Sistani Pages 133-141
    Background

    Respiratory allergies are among the most common allergies in the world with an increasing number of people affected in recent decades. Determination of allergens prevalence in each area is considered as the first step in prevention of allergic diseases and developing novel and more effective immunotherapies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the most common allergens among patients with respiratory allergies in Mashhad, Iran

    Materials and Methods

    This cross sectional study included 1246 people who were referred to Allergy Clinic of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences with respiratory allergic symptoms from 2012 to 2017 in which a questionnaire containing demographic information was completed and Skin Prick Test was performed for each patient.

    Results

    Among 1246 patients with respiratory symptoms, there were 1084 patients with allergic rhinitis (87%), 69 patients with allergic asthma (5.5%), 14 patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (1.1%) and 79 patients with both allergic rhinitis and asthma (6.3%) with an overall male to female ratio of 1.18. Rhinorrhea (86.3%), sneezing (81.1%) and itchy eyes (68.4%) were the most common symptoms in patients with respiratory allergic disorders in this study and the highest rate of sensitivity was to pollens including Salsola kali (82.3%), pigweed mix (65.1%), tree mix (51.7%) and ash (49.8%), respectively.

    Conclusion

    Generally, Salsola kali seems to be the main allergen in different respiratory allergies including allergic rhinitis, asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis in semi-arid climate of Mashhad, Iran.

    Keywords: Allergens, Respiratory allergies, Rhinitis, Asthma, Rhinoconjunctivitis
  • Mehdi Mohammadi, Kambiz Bahaadinbeigy, Mehdi Ahmadinejad, Behrang Chaboki, Hamed Tabesh, Kobra Etminani* Pages 142-151
    Background

    One of the most worrying aspects of medical area in developing countries is the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability of the clinical dashboard by the users, prior to final use and their attitude towards this technology, as well as to examine the specific needs that Tele-ICU technology can cover in the form of a clinical dashboard.

    Materials and Methods

    This study was conducted at Shahid Bahonar Hospital of Kerman, Southeastern Iran, with three ICUs, the first, second, and third sections of which had 10, 12, and 24 beds, respectively. Taking survey and need assessment of care providers, qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken to identify key positive and negative themes. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 18.

    Results

    About 82% of care providers in the ICU participated in this survey. The number of participants based on the groups in the survey was 98 (81.7%) of the nurses and respiratory therapists group, 20 (80%) from the group of anesthesiologists and 20 (87%) from the group of anesthesiologist assistants who participated in the survey. About 51% of the survey participants completed the description section either partially or totally. On average, among all groups, the group of anesthesiologists had the most and the nurses had the least knowledge about telemedicine and Tele-ICU, whereas the anesthesiologist assistants had the most and the nurses and respiratory therapists group had the least knowledge about clinical dashboards.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that the level of knowledge and awareness of care providers, especially nurses and respiratory therapists in the ICU in terms of telemedicine and Tele-ICU is low and care providers are in doubt that telemedicine technology could have a positive or negative impact on human resource shortages, yet agreed that it would have a negative effect on the privacy of the patients and care providers. In addition, the ICU care providers agree that Tele-ICU can positively affect the quality of patient care, staff satisfaction, reduce the cost of care, and ease and reduce the time for patient counseling. This suggests the need for further research and education of system impact beyond patient outcomes related to this new technology.

    Keywords: Intensive care unit, telemedicine, Tele-ICU, Clinical dashboard, ICU staff
  • Taraneh Naghibi*, Zahra Akbari, Somayae Abdollahi Sabet, Faramarz Dobakhti Pages 152-156
    Background

    Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is one of the common causes of mortality and morbidity. Subglottic secretion suction decreases the incidence of VAP. In this study, the effect of 5% sodium chloride (NaCl) in subglottic area in addition to secretion suction in VAP prevention was investigated in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit.

    Materials and Methods

    All patients were intubated by an intubation tube with subglottic suction. In the intervention group, subglottic area was washed with 10 ml of 5% sodium chloride solution, and in the control group the subglottic area was washed with 10 ml distilled water. Patients were monitored for a maximum of two weeks, and the incidence of VAP was monitored by a Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS).

    Results

    There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age and sex. Four (27%) patients in the intervention group, and 7 (37%) in control group were diagnosed with VAP, which was not statistically significant between the two groups (P=0.225). The duration of hospitalization, duration of intubation and mortality did not show any significant difference between the two groups.

    Conclusion

    It was expected that in this study the rate of VAP became significantly lower with the intervention of using antimicrobial solution in addition to suction. Although the rate decreased clinically, it was not statistically significant, which may be due to the low number of patients.

    Keywords: 5% Sodium hypertonic, Subglottic irrigate, Ventilatorassociated pneumonia
  • Ali Omidianidost, Sasan Gharavandi, Mansour R. Azari, Amir Hossein Hashemian, Mehdi Ghasemkhani*, Fatemeh Rajati, Mehdi Jabari Pages 157-162
    Background

    Although the main hazard in cement processing is dust, and its effects on pulmonary function constitute the most important group of occupational diseases in this industry, evidence for association between exposure to cement dust and pulmonary function has not been conclusive. This study was performed with the aim to evaluate the impact of cement dust in the workplace on decreasing pulmonary function parameters among the workers.

    Materials and Methods

    In this cross-sectional study 283 workers were studied, of which 140 workers were considered as exposed group and 143 workers as non-exposed group. Fifty samples of respirable dust were collected from breathing zone of workers in different sections of cement factory. Visible absorption spectrophotometry was used according to the NIOSH Method 7601 to measure crystalline silica content of reparable dust samples. Spirometry test was also applied to assess workers’ pulmonary function parameters.

    Results

    Respirable dust concentration was in the range of 1.77 to 6.12 mg/m3. The concentration of crystalline silica in all units was higher than the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (0.025 mg / m3). There were a significant difference in the Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) parameter among workers in the two exposed and non-exposed groups to respirable dust (P= 0.017). In other parameters of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75, FEV1/FVC %), there were no significant differences between the two groups under study (P= 0.45, P= 0.14, P= 0.29 and P= 0.23, respectively).

    Conclusion

    The findings of this study have provided an evidence to confirm the hypothesis that exposure to cement dust can cause complication in PEF parameter of cement industry workers.

    Keywords: Cement dust, Respirable dust, Crystalline silica, Pulmonary function
  • Taraneh Yazdanparast, Hournaz Hassanzadeh, Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Hamidreza Jamaati, Amirkia Naimian, Maryam Karimi, Rahim Roozbahani, Alireza Firooz* Pages 163-168
    Background

    Tobacco smoke is toxic for cells and could be a damaging factor to skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the biophysical properties of skin in smokers and non-smokers.

    Materials and Methods

    The study population consisted of 28 current smokers and 24 non-smokers. The hydration of the stratum corneum, trans epidermal water loss, pH, erythema, melanin content, sebum, friction and elasticity parameters (R0, R2, R5) of skin, epidermis and dermis thickness and echodensity were measured on middle forehead, right cheek and right inner arm of participants. Also volume, surface area and depth of right nasolabial folds were measured. The mean of these values in smokers were compared with nonsmokers by independent sample T- test.

    Results

    Gross elasticity was significantly lower in smokers on forehead (p= 0.048). Thickness of epidermis was higher in smokers in all measured sites but the differences were not statistically significant. Thickness of dermis was higher in smokers in all measured sites too, but only the difference on cheek was statistically significant (p= 0.009). Density of epidermis was lower in smokers in all measured sites, but only the difference on forehead was statistically significant (p= 0.019). Density of dermis was lower in smokers in all measured sites, but only the difference on arm was statistically significant (p= 0.028). Volume and area of nasolabial folds were higher in smokers, but only the difference of area was statistically significant (p = 0.031).

    Conclusion

    Tobacco smoking could affect the biophysical parameters of skin, especially thickness and density of dermis and epidermis and nasolabial folds.

    Keywords: Biophysical properties, Skin, Smokers, Non-smokers
  • Meysam Yousefi, Seyed Alireza Nadji, Behrooz Farzanegan , Seyed Mohammad Reza Hashemian, Majid Marjani, Afshin Moniri, Pedram Javanmard, Payam Tabarsi* Pages 169-172

    A 35- year- old man with a prior history of liver transplantation 18 months ago was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with fever and worsening dyspnea and was diagnosed with severe pneumonia leading to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). He had a prolonged hospitalization and was treated with empiric broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics, oseltamivir, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and subsequently caspofungin and ganciclovir. Blood, nasopharyngeal, as well as Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were negative for all viral, bacterial, and fungal causes of pulmonary infection except Enterovirus-Human Rhinovirus (EV-HRV) that was positive with high titers on BAL and swab specimens. Consequently, the diagnosis of EV-HRV pneumonia complicated by ARDS was established. The patient gradually improved and was discharged from the hospital after 3 weeks. This report highlights EV-HRV as a cause of ARDS in immunocompromised adults.

    Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), EnterovirusHuman Rhinovirus, Immunosuppression, Transplantation