فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 23
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  • Eshrat Beigom KIA*, Francan Felix OUMA, Chrispinus Siteti MULAMBALAH, Patrick Kirsteen OKOTH Pages 502-509
    Background

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l), is a zoonotic parasitic disease with a worldwide distribution. Kenya is one of the high endemic countries of CE with the endemic areas in the country being under immense occupation of traditional pastoralists. Turkana area in Kenya, has in the past recorded the highest prevalence of CE in the world.

    Methods

    The keywords cystic echinococcosis; Prevalence; Diagnosis; Risk-factors; Kenya were searched on google scholar and PubMed and the important literature materials retrieved for further analysis.

    Results

    The most notable infection risk factor for this disease in the country is the close association between man, dogs, and livestock. Successful control of CE in Kenya requires application of innovative interventions achieved after the review of the disease situation in the country. With the emergence and advent of new diagnostic techniques, CE organ-specific infections and transmission pattern in Kenya differ from what is commonly reported in literature.

    Conclusion

    A better understanding of CE prevalence of different hosts, its transmission pattern and the pathogenicity might make it possible to set up more effective control programs in future.

    Keywords: Cystic echinococcosis, Prevalence, Diagnosis, Risk-factors, Kenya
  • Seyedeh Faezeh SADJJADI, Mina MOTAMEDI, Tahereh MOHAMMADZADEH, Seyed Mahmoud SADJJADI* Pages 510-520
    Background

    Echinococcus granulosus is a zoonotic parasite with worldwide distribution. The present study focused on comparative morphologic and morphometric observations on the developmental aspects of whole body, more special the reproductive structures of in vitro reared adult worms (RAW) and in vivo reared adult worms in definitive host (AWIDH) using differential interference contrast (DIC)/Nomarski, phase contrast and routine optical microscopy.

    Methods

    A total number of 10 in vitro and 10 in vivo reared adult worms of E. granulosus sensu stricto, G1 strain were selected. The worms were processed by Formaldehyde-Alcohol-Azocarmine-Lactophenol (FAAL). The details of morphological factors and reproductive structures of each worm including 25 biometrical parameters were studied by routine optical, phase contrast and Nomarski microscopy. The details of the samples were photographed, measured and analyzed. The fine structures of the parasite including the details of cirrus sac and developmental stages in different strobila were more obvious observing by Nomarski microscopy.

    Results

    The morphometric characters in the RAW and AWIDH showed that length of immature proglottid, length of mature proglottid, length of suckers are larger in RAW than AWIDH worms with statistical difference. Characters in E. granulosus of RAW and AWIDH showed that total number of segments, number of mature segments and the total number of testes were greater in RAW than AWIDH worms; while only the number of mature segments was statistically different is two groups.

    Conclusion

    Application of DIC/Nomarski and phase contrast microscopy together with morphometric criteria are useful means for comparing the developmental aspects of in vitro and in vivo reared adults of E. granulosus.

    Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto, G1 strain, DIC, Nomarski microscopy, Phase contrast, Morphology, Morphometry
  • Morteza SADUQI, Iraj SHARIFI*, Zahra BABAEI, Alireza KEYHANI, Mahshid MOSTAFAVI, Maryam HAKIMI PARIZI, Mahdiyeh GHASEMIAN, Mehdi BAMOROVAT, Fatemeh SHARIFI, Mohammad Reza AFLATOONIAN, Fariba SHARIFIFAR, Pooya GHASEMI NEJAD, Ahmad KHOSRAVI, Ehsan SALARKIA, Rajender S. VARMA Pages 521-533
    Background

    Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime), are the first-line treatment against leishmaniasis, but at present, they have basically lost their efficacy. This study was aimed to explore epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG), alone or in combination with MA against Leishmania tropica stages.

    Methods

    All experiments were carried out in triplicate using colorimetric assay, macrophage model, flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. This experimental study was carried out in 2017 in Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

    Results

    Promastigotes and amastigotes were more susceptible to EGCG than MA alone, but the effect was more profound when used in combination. EGCG exhibited high antioxidant level with a remarkable potential to induce apoptosis. Furthermore, the results showed that the level of gene expression pertaining to Th-1 was significantly up-regulated (P<0.001).

    Conclusion

    EGCG demonstrated a potent anti-leishmanial effect alone and more enhanced lethal activity in combination. The principal mode of action entails the stimulation of a synergistic response and up-regulation of the immunomodulatory role towards Th-1 response against L. tropica.

    Keywords: Epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, Leishmania tropica, Immunomodulatory role, Apoptosis, Gene expression
  • Mojtaba SHAHNAZI, Farzaneh NAGHIZADEH, Elham HAJIALILO*, Safar Ali ALIZADEH, Mehrzad SARAEI, Mahmood ALIPOUR Pages 534-541
    Background

    We aimed to investigate the genotypes of Giardia intestinalis among the food handlers in Qazvin, Iran.

    Methods

    Overall, 1530 stool specimens were collected from the food handlers who visited Shahid Bolandian Health Center, Qazvin, Iran during 2016. Specimens were evaluated by microscopic and concentration methods. Twenty specimens with appropriate number of giardia cysts were selected followed by DNA extraction. Determination of giardia genotypes was achieved through PCR and sequencing the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. The phylogenetic tree was drawn using the MEGA7 software. Finally, the data were analyzed statistically with a P-value<0.05 was considered as significant.

    Results

    Twenty stool samples (1.3%) were positive for Giardia cyst. All positive specimens were obtained from male participants with abdominal cramp being their most common symptoms. The mean age for infected individuals was 32 yr. Molecular characterization was successfully performed for 17 isolates and two genotypes A (AII, 65%) and B (BIII, 35%) were identified.

    Conclusion

    The most prevalent giardia genotypes among the food handlers in Qazvin were A (AII) and B (BIII) genotypes with A (AII) genotype as the dominant one in the region. Considering the direct association between the food handlers and public health as well as the impact of geographical and host conditions on dispersion and pathogenicity of various genotypes and their zoonotic aspects, further investigations are necessary.

    Keywords: Giardia, Food handlers, Glutamate dehydrogenase gene, Iran
  • Farzaneh MIRZAEI, Hossein KHANAHMAD, Fatemeh NAMDAR, Shahrokh IZADI, Seyed Hossein HEJAZI* Pages 542-551
    Background

    We aimed to design a different method of drug delivery for increased transfer of the choice drug (meglumine antimoniate) within the host cells. Therefore, listeriolysin O (LLO), a bacterial product which is a member of pore-forming peptides was used as an enhancer factor with meglumine antimoniate in order to facilitate the transition of the drug across macrophage membrane.

    Methods

    LLO was produced in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2016, by expressing the hlyA gene in Escherichia coli and purified using affinity chromatography. Cytotoxicity of the purified protein was investigated in an in vitro model of macrophage Leishmania infection.

    Results

    LLO was cytotoxic against murine macrophage cells (J774-A1) and amastigote forms of L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER). It was less toxic to macrophages (CC50=2.56 μg ml-1 ±0.09) than to the parasites (IC50=1.72 μg ml-1 ±0.07). Moreover, non-cytotoxic concentration of LLO (0.006 ug ml-1) potentiated the cytotoxicity induced by low dose concentration of meglumine antimoniate. Very little dose of meglumine antimoniate was needed when combined with the LLO (IC50=12.63 μg ml-1 ±0.13) in comparison with the cytotoxicity induced when the drug is used alone (IC50=46.17 μg ml-1 ±0.28).

    Conclusion

    The combination of pore-forming proteins with anti-leishmanial agents could increase the advantage of anti-leishmanial drugs. Since lower concentrations of anti-leishmanial drugs can reduce undesirable side effects of chemotherapy trials carried out in animal models and then in humans with this system.

    Keywords: Leishmaniasis, L. major, Meglumine antimoniate, In vitro, Listeriolysin O
  • Hai Ting GUO, Zhong Yuan LI Jin Lei WANG, Zhao Yu GENG, Xing Quan ZHU Pages 552-562
    Background

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect all the warm-blooded vertebrates and cause serious toxoplasmosis. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 7 in T. gondii (TgERK7) mediated the proliferation of this parasite may be a potential vaccine candidate. Thus, immune responses induced by TgERK7 were investigated in this study using a DNA vaccine strategy.

    Methods

    pVAX/TgERK7 plasmid was constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice for three times with two-week intervals. The challenge and the investigation of humoral and cellular immune responses were performed at two weeks post the last immunization, and the survival times of the infected mice were daily recorded until all of them were dead.

    Results

    The innate immune response with higher concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL2 and IL12p70 in sera (P < 0.05), and the adaptive immune responses were evoked by the DNA immunizations, including specific antibody, lymphocyte proliferation, and the CD3e+CD4+ and CD3e+CD8a+ T cell-mediated response effects. Interestingly, no significant difference was detected in their survival times among all the experimental groups of mice that were challenged with GT1 tachyzoites or PRU cysts (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    The successive immunizations with pVAX/TgERK7 can provoke the innate and adaptive immune responses of BALB/c mice, whereas the DNA vaccine-induced immunological efficacy is not sufficient for complete protection the host against T. gondii infection.

    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Toxoplasmosis, ERK7, DNA vaccine, Immune response
  • Abolghasem SIYADATPANAH, Shirzad GHOLAMI, Ahmad DARYANI, Shahabeddin SARVI, Mehdi SHARIF, Mauricio SEGUEL, Larson BOUNDENGA, Afsaneh AMOUEI, Abdol Sattar PAGHEH, Mohammad Taghi RAHIMI, Seyed Abdollah HOSSEINI, Davood ANVARI* Pages 563-571
    Background

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current knowledge on the epidemiology of importance zoonotic parasitic diseases in free-ranging canids of Mazandaran, north of Iran.

    Methods

    Overall, 63 small intestinal samples of animals (20 stray dogs and 43 golden jackals) were collected from April 2017 to May 2018. The intestine contents were studied to detect and identify helminth infections. Additionally, 274 fecal samples (130 dogs, 35 fox, 90 golden jackal and 19 wolf) were examined by Sheather's flotation method for detection of Taenia eggs.

    Results

    Sixty (95.2%) animals were infected with at least one species of intestinal helminth. the intestinal helminths were found in dogs and golden jackals included: Dipylidium caninum (25.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (52.3%), Ancylostoma caninum (41.2%), Mesocestoides spp. (33.3%) and Toxocara canis (14.2%). In fecal examination, 2.5% of samples contained Taenia eggs, and through a species-specific PCR, 1.09% of these samples were confirmed positive for Echinococcus granulosus.

    Conclusion

    There is a high prevalence and clear risks of zoonotic helminths in free-ranging carnivores in Mazandaran province, north of Iran. Therefore, understanding the epidemiology of zoonotic parasite infection is useful for health care access both domestic animals and humans health.

    Keywords: Canids, Intestinal helminth, Iran
  • Hossein MODIRROUSTA, Gholamreza HABIBI*, Parviz SHAYAN, Asghar AFSHARI, Ali MIRJALILI, Mohammad ABDIGOUDARZI Pages 572-583
    Background

    The protozoan parasite Theileria annulata is the causative agent of tropical theileriosis in cattle. Vaccination is recommended by administration of attenuated schizont-infected cell lines. The expected protective immunity post-vaccination can be demonstrated by challenge test through inoculation of highly virulent infective sporozoites. The aim of this study was to produce Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum tick infected with T. annulata (local strain) for preparation of tick-derived sporozoite stabilates for molecular characterization and infectivity test assay.

    Methods

    A local T. annulata strain was used for experimental infection of calves. A field isolate of H. a. anatolicum was isolated, laboratory-reared and infected by blood-feeding on Theileria infected above-mentioned calves. The infectivity of calf, tick and prepared stabilate were confirmed by clinical signs of theileriosis, microscopic inspection, RT-PCR and in vitro cell culture.

    Results

    The tick stabilate was prepared and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The infectivity of the tick stabilate was verified by in vivo bioassay, in vitro cell culture infection, microscopic inspection in salivary glands and RT-PCR assay. The in vitro produced cell line in this study was characterized by T. annulata Cytochrome b gene analyzing.

    Conclusion

    The infectivity of a new prepared tick-derived sporozoite stabilate was confirmed in susceptible calves; by microscopically, post mortem, tick microscopic and molecular assays. Moreover, naïve PBMCs were transformed and proliferated by T. annulata infected tick stabilate to immortal T. annulata schizont infected cell line. The potent infective sporozoite tick derived stabilate could be used for vaccine efficacy and challenge test as well as in vaccine development.

    Keywords: Theileria annulata, Hyalomma a. anatolicum, Tick stabilate, RT-PCR
  • Mohammad Hossein FEIZ HADDAD, Saeed KHOSHNOOD, Mohammad Reza MAHMOUDI, Habib HABIBPOUR, Selman A. ALI, Habibollah MIRZAEI, Rezvan FEIZ HADDAD, Kambiz AHMADIANGALI Pages 584-591
    Background

    This study was conducted to determine the presence and molecular identify of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba in unimproved hot springs.

    Methods

    From Jul to Aug 2017, 54 water samples were collected from hot springs in different parts of the Guilan Province, North Iran. For the isolation of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba approximately 500 ml of the water samples were filtered through a cellulose nitrate membrane with a pore size of 0.45 μm. The filter was transferred onto non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) as a food source. The morphological key of page was used to identify free‐living amoebae (FLA) using an inverted microscope, PCR amplification targeting specific genes for each genus and sequencing determined frequent species and genotypes base on NCBI database.

    Results

    Fifteen of the 54 samples were positive by culture and/or PCR for Acanthamoeba and other FLA from unimproved hot springs. By sequencing the positive isolates, the strains were shown to belong to Acanthamoeba castellanii (12 case isolates belonged to T4 genotype), 4 cases of V. vermiformis, and 3 cases of N. australiensis, 2 cases of N. pagei and 1 cases of N. gruberi.

    Conclusion

    Although FLA-mediated illnesses are not as high as in environmental distribution, but because of a poor prognosis, more investigations about FLA distribution in hot springs is critical. Hot spring may enhance exposure of the amoebae in individuals. Hence, more attention to unimproved hot springs is needed to prevent free-living amoebae mediated diseases.

    Keywords: Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Vermamoeba, PCR, DNA sequencing, Hot springs, Iran
  • Alireza SADEGHI TAFRESHI, Zahra ZAMANI*, Marjan SABBAGHIAN, Ramezan Ali KHAVARI NEJAD, Mohammad ARJMAND, Sedigheh SADEGHI, Maryam MOHAMMADI Pages 592-603
    Background

    Recently eosin B was shown to have an effect on the asexual stage of Plasmodium falciparum and in this study, its activity against gametocytes and changes in the culture medium metabolites were investigated using an1HNMR-based metabolomics approach.

    Methods

    In the Biochemistry Department of Pasteur Institute of Iran in 2017, parasites were cultured and gametocytogenesis induced by heparin and 5% hematocrit. Sexual stage parasites were tested by eosin B in 90 well plates and IC50 determined using Lactate Dehydrogenase assay. Gametocytes were treated by IC50 dose of eosin B and the medium collected in the two groups: with eosin B and controls and sent for 1HNMR spectroscopy. The spectra were analyzed on MATLAB interface and the altered metabolites in the culture medium and eosin-affected biochemical pathways were identified by Human Metabolome Database and Metaboanalyst website.

    Results

    The results revealed eosin B had an effective gametocytocidal activity against P. falciparum. The significant metabolites changed in the medium were thiamine, Asp, Asn, Tyr, Lys, Ala, Phenylpyruvic acid, NAD+ and lipids. The main pathways identified were aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, Phenylalanine metabolism, Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and lysine degradation.

    Conclusion

    Eosin B exhibited substantial gametocytocidal activity and affected important drug targets in the Plasmodium.

    Keywords: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Gametocyte, Eosin B, Lactate dehydrogenase, Metabolomics, 1HNMR
  • Zainabur RAHMAH, Teguh WAHJU, SARDJONO, Loeki ENGGAR FITRI, Adilah ULFIATI, Maimun ZULHAIDAH ARTHAMIN, Eviana NORAHMAWATI Pages 604-613
    Background

    Placental malaria involves the sequestration of infected erythrocytes and infiltration of monocytes, helper T cells (CD4), cytotoxic T cells (CD8) as well as T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) in placental intervillous space. These may interferes the nutrient and oxygen transport, causing placental hypoxia and insufficiency that may affect the fetal growth. This study aimed to prove whether the infiltration of lymphocytes in placental malaria mice increases the expression of HIF-1α thus causes fetal Low Birth Weight (LBW).

    Methods

    Nine pregnant BALB/c mice that infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain on day 9 post mating were used as treatment group and 8 non infected pregnant mice were used as control group. The mice were sacrificed on day 18 post mating; then the fetus was weighed individually and the placentas were isolated separately. Expression of CD4, CD8 and HIF-1α were counted by immunohistochemistry using CD4 monoclonal Ab (Santa cruz, sc-59031 CD4) and CD 8 monoclonal Ab (NeoMarker RM-9116-S0) as well as anti-HIF-1α antibody (H1α67) ChIP Grade from Abcam.

    Results

    There was a higher expression of CD8, CD4 and HIF-1α in infected placenta compare to normal placenta. Analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed expression CD8 and CD4 caused an increase expression of HIF-1α in placenta (t ≥1.96). Expression of HIF-1α caused low fetal weight (t ≥1.96).

    Conclusion

    In placental malaria, the expression of CD4 and CD8 induce placental hypoxia characterized by increased expression of HIF-1α that causes LBW.

    Keywords: Placental malaria, CD4, CD8, HIF-1α, Low birth weight
  • Doaa Doaa A. AHMED, Mona A. RABBO, Manal JAMJOOM, Hala S.SALEM, Marwa A. GHIETH Pages 614-622
    Background

    Giardiasis is one of the commonest intestinal parasitic diseases that affects wide range of age groups. We aimed to detect the pattern of Giardia intestinalis assemblages among symptomatic patients at the age of 2 up to 40 years.

    Methods

    Stool samples were collected from 278 patients and examined microscopically and genetically for giardiasis. Giardia was diagnosed using wet mount examination and subjected to molecular assays targeting three genes, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) using semi-nested PCR (nPCR), β-giardin (bg) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) using nPCR. Amplified products were subjected to genotyping using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) targeting gdh and bg genes.

    Results

    Among 48 samples positive by microscopy and by a minimum of one of the three used genes, genotyping was successful among 23 samples (47.9%). Assemblage B was more prevalent (16/23, 69.6%), than assemblage A (4/23, 17.4%) and 3 (13%) isolates were identified as assemblage B at gdh locus which later were identified as assemblage A at bg locus. Sub-assemblage AII (3/4, 75%) and sub-assemblage BIII (12/15, 66.7%) were predominate at gdh locus. Age groups was an estimated risk factor for infection with assemblage B with a peak (87.5%) during 6 to 12 years (P<0.05), diarrhea and abdominal pain (OR (95%CI) 654 (.094, .963); .201 (.048, 1.009), respectively) were significantly associated with assemblage B.

    Conclusion

    It is recommended to suspect infection with giardiasis assemblage B by physicians during late childhood presenting with diarrhea and abdominal pain

    Keywords: Giardiasis, Assemblage, Genotyping, PCR-RFLP, gdh, bg, tpi
  • Nahdatul Fatihah MOHD FADIL, Tengku Idzzan Nadzirah TENGKU IDRIS, Shahhaziq SHAHARI, Mun Yik FONG, Yee Ling LAU Pages 623-630

    The genus Sarcocystis consists of intracellular coccidian protozoan parasites with the ability to invade muscle tissue and mature into sarcocysts, causing the zoonotic disease sarcocystosis. These parasites have an obligatory two-host life cycle, which correlates with prey-predator relationship. The distribution and prevalence of Sarcocystis in reptiles remains unclear, despite several previous reports. In this study, 54 faecal samples of various snake species and four faecal samples of several lizard species in Malaysia were examined for Sarcocystis through PCR amplification of the 18S rDNA sequence. Fourteen snake faecal samples were positive via PCR; however, only eight samples (14%) were found positive for Sarcocystis species, whereas four were positive for other genera and the identity of another three samples were unable to be determined. Further phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that the snakes were infected with either S. singaporensis, S. lacertae, or undefined Sarcocystis species which are closely related to either S. singaporensis or S. zuoi. Sarcocystis nesbitti infection was not identified in any of the infected snakes. This is the first report of identification of S. lacertae in the black-headed cat snake.

    Keywords: Sarcocystis, Sarcocystosis, Snake, 18S rDNA, Phylogenetic analysis, Malaysia
  • Faezeh KARAMI, Dara DASTAN, Mohammad FALLAH, Mohammad MATINI* Pages 631-638
    Background

    Trichomoniasis is one of the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infections worldwide which drug-resistant cases of the infection are rising. The aim of the study was to assessment the in vitro activity of Foeniculum vulgare and its main essential oil component on Trichomonas vaginalis. Also phytochemical investigation of F. vulgare essential oil was performed.

    Methods

    Five T. vaginalis isolates subjected to susceptibility testing against essential oil and extracts of F. vulgare and anethole using microtiter plate method. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of the natural products was assessed in comparison with metronidazole. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector was applied for chemical investigation of the essential oil.

    Results

    After 48 hours incubation, the most potent antitrichomonal agents were the methanolic and hexanic extract with MLC of 360 µg/ml and followed by the essential oil and anethole (1600 µg/ml). The isolates were sensitive to metronidazole with a mean MLC of 13.7 µg/ml. E-Anethole (88.41 %) was the major constituent of F. vulgare essential oil.

    Conclusion

    The results suggested in vitro antiprotozoal properties of F. vulgare and anethole against T. vaginalis. Therefore further studies are needed to evaluate their in vivo effects and toxicity.

    Keywords: Anethole, Essential oil, Extract, Foeniculum vulgare, Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Karam SHARIFI, Bibi Razieh HOSSEINI FARASH, Fatemeh TARA, Azad KHALEDI, Karim SHARIFI, Seyed Ali Akbar SHAMSIAN* Pages 639-645
    Background

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis by IgG avidity test in pregnant women.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 250 blood samples were collected from pregnant women with the first month of their pregnancy referring to health centers of University in Mashhad during 2016. Samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min for separation of serum and were kept in the -20 until use. To detection of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis, anti-Toxoplasma antibodies (IgG and IgM, and IgG avidity tests were performed using ELISA. Then, data analyzed using SPSS software by Frequency, Pearson Chi-Square, Likelihood Ratio, and Exact tests. And P<0.05 was statistically considered as significant.

    Results

    Total prevalence of IgG and IgM was 23.2% and 7.2%, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the mean age and IgG level (P<0.05). It was not found any correlation between the history of raw meat consumption, cats keeping, education, and residency site. Moreover, 16 people (6.4%) had IgM antibody, of which, 10 cases (62.5%) with low avidity for IgG and 1 people (6.2%) with moderate avidity and 5 cases (31.3%) with high avidity for IgG. Moreover, 76% of pregnant women were seronegative.

    Conclusion

    More than half of the women (62.5%) with positive IgM antibody in their serum had a low avidity for IgG which revealed an acute infection among pregnant women. Toxoplasma infection should be considered as an important factor that affects the pregnancy and IgG avidity as an important test for screening the women who need the treatment.

    Keywords: IgG avidity, Pregnant women, Toxoplasmosis, Iran
  • Rahim NEMATI*, Aliasghar BAHARI, Pezhman MAHMOODI, Alireza SAZMAND Pages 646-651
    Background

    Resistance to benzimidazole (BZ) compounds is common in Teladorsagia circumcincta populations in sheep and goats worldwide. Given the importance of anthelmintic resistance and shortage of information on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this prevalent nematode in Iran, this study was conducted.

    Methods

    From June to September 2016, abomasa of 139 sheep of different sexes and ages in Amol City slaughterhouse, northern Iran were examined for isolation of nematodes. Totally 45 male T. circumcincta confirmed by both microscopical and nested-PCR-RFLP methods were included in this study. Susceptibility or resistance of each single T. circumcincta worm to benzimidazoles was assessed using allele-specific PCR.

    Results

    Frequency of genotypes in the present study were 33.33% heterozygote BZ and 66.67% BZ homozygote sensitive. No homozygote resistant worm was found.

    Conclusion

    Resistance against BZs in T. circumcincta of sheep has occurred at a low prevalence in the north of Iran. However, mutated genes might get dominant under drug selection in future. Hence, periodic investigations for early detection of mutated alleles in nematode populations using accurate and sensitive molecular methods such as PCR-RFLP is recommended.

    Keywords: Sheep, Anthelmintic resistance, Teladorsagia, Single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, β-tubulin
  • Abraham Octavio RODRÍGUEZ, DE LA FUENTE, Ricardo GOMEZ FLORES, José Antonio HEREDIA ROJAS, Edna Marbella GARCÍA MUÑOZ, Javier VARGAS VILLARREAL, Magda Elizabeth HERNÁNDEZ GARCÍA, Francisco GONZÁLEZ SALAZAR, Jesús Norberto GARZA GONZÁLEZ, Michaela BELTCHEVA, Omar Heredia Rodriguez Pages 652-656
    Background

    There is an increasing interest in using physical factors such as magnetic fields as antimicrobial strategy, with variable results. The current study was aimed to evaluate the influence of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on the axenically-cultured parasite protozoans Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia growth.

    Methods

    Bioassays were developed using T. vaginalis, GT-13 and G. lamblia IMSS-0989 strains cultured at 37 ºC in TYI-S-33 medium. The following treatment regimens and controls were considered: (a) cells exposed to ELF-EMFs, (b) untreated cells, (c) cells treated with Metronidazole, used as positive controls, and (d) cells co-exposed to ELF-EMFs and Metronidazole. When cultures reached the end of logarithmic phase, they were exposed to ELF-EMFs for 72 h, in a standardized magnetic field exposure facility. For determining cytotoxic effects, trophozoite density was blindly evaluated in a Neubauer chamber.

    Results

    A significant decrease in trophozoite growth was observed for T. vaginalis, in magnetic field-treated cultures. On the other hand, cultures co-exposed to ELF-EMFs and Metronidazole showed no significant differences when compared with cultures treated with Metronidazole alone. On the contrary, an increased trophozoite density was observed in G. lamblia cultures after exposure to magnetic fields. An absence of a synergistic or antagonistic effect was observed.

    Conclusion

    ELF-EMFs induced T. vaginalis and G. lamblia growth alterations, indicating a potential effect in cell cycle progression.

    Keywords: Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, Magnetic fields, Parasite growth
  • Khadijeh TAHERKHANI, Ameneh BARIKANI, Mojtaba SHAHNAZI, Mehrzad SARAEI* Pages 657-663
    Background

    Intestinal parasites are one of the health challenges in developing countries. Decreasing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) is one of the main aims of health services in these countries. This study was designed to determine the current status of IPIs in rural residents of Takestan a town located in North West of Iran.

    Methods

    A total of 2280 rural residents of Takestan were randomly selected. Data were collected through questionnaire by interviews and laboratory findings obtained by microscopic examination of stool sample including wet smear and formalin ethyl-acetate concentration. A P <0.05 was considered significant, statistically.

    Results

    In total, 8.7% (199/2280) of participants were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of polyparasitism was 0.7% in study population. Hymenolepis nana was the only helminthic infection which was detected (1/2280). Blastocystis, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia were the most common IPIs with prevalence of 3.6%, 2.9%, and 1.6%, respectively. Statistically, the prevalence of IPIs showed significant differences among villages (P<0.01) and age groups (P<0.001), and also habit of eating raw vegetables (P<0.005), whereas, the difference was insignificant in terms of sex, education level, and occupation.

    Conclusion

    The prevalence of IPIs in rural residents of the study area is considerably low and this reduction was very impressive about helminthic infections.

    Keywords: Prevalence, Intestinal parasites, Human, Iran
  • R. Heru PRASETYO* Pages 664-667

    This reported case occurred in non-endemic taeniasis area, and neither the patient nor her family members had habit of eating raw beef. So previously there was no suspicion of taeniasis, moreover the main complaint in the case of a 24-yr-old Javanese woman living in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, was that she wished to get pregnant. She scared of getting pregnant, because she felt weak and unfit which was not pretty good for fetus that will be conceived. Other complaint was only sometimes diarrhea. Laboratory test showed eosinophilia (12%). It caused suspicion of intestinal parasitic infection. The examination of stool specimen showed gravid proglottids and the eggs were identified from Taenia saginata tapeworm. Treatment with albendazole successfully expelled the adult worm, and as days passed by, she felt better and healthier, and after seven months we found her to be pregnant.

    Keywords: Taenia saginata, Pregnancy, Parasitology
  • Naeem RAVANBAKHSH, Navid RABIEE, Jalal AHMADI* Pages 668-673

    Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus parasite that frequently involves liver and lungs. Primary intracranial hydatidosis is a rare condition which can be life threatening if ruptured. Here we report an unusual case of primary intracranial hydatid cyst without any other organ involvement, diagnosed in a 12-year-old boy in Emam Reza hospital, Birjand, Iran in November 2016, in order to focus on the importance of proper diagnosis and management, especially in endemic areas.

    Keywords: Echinococcosis, Brain, Cysts, Iran
  • Sercan ÖZKAÇMAZ* Pages 674-678

    Hydatidosis, is a parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Although the disease most commonly affects liver and lungs, almost all organ and tissue involvements are documented. Rupture into pericardial space which may lead to pericardial effusion, pericarditis and pericardial tamponade, can be seen especially in the patients with cardiac hydatidosis. But rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst into the pericardial space through a transdiaphragmatic fistula is very rare. In this report, we present imaging findings of a type III hepatic hydatid cyst lesion which ruptured spontaneously into pericardial space and caused pericardial effusion.

    Keywords: Hydatidosis, Rupture, Computed tomography, Pericardial effusion
  • Jiafei ZHAN, Ning WANG, Ruiqi HUA, Nengxing SHEN, Yue XIE, Xiaobin GU, Weiming LAI, Xuerong PENG, Guangyou YANG Pages 679-681
  • International Movement of Livestock and Lack of Regulation for Internal Parasites Monitoring
    Alireza SAZMAND Pages 682-683