فهرست مطالب

Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal - Volume:6 Issue:4, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mojtaba Nakhaei Pour, Hossein Ali Rangkooy, Fereshteh Jahani, Ameneh Golbaghi, Hosein Shojaee, Farah Abady, Leila Nematpour* Pages 225-232
    Background

    Volatile organic compounds are the major environmental pollutants causing adverse effects on the human health and the environment, therefore, tremendous effort has been put toward eliminating these compounds.

    Methods

    In this study, the effect of synthesized nanoparticles on the removal of styrene from gas phase by photocatalytic process under UV irradiation in the cylindrical photoreactor was studied. The activated carbon-zinc oxide (AC-ZnO) catalysts were prepared at different weight ratios (6%, 12%, and 18%) of ZnO. The prepared catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Brunauer Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The effects of various parameters, such as concentrations of styrene, various weight percentage (wt%) of nanoparticles, and UV irradiation, were investigated. The efficiency of the AC-ZnO catalyst was determined based on its adsorption capacity, breakthrough time, and removal efficiency.

    Results

    It was revealed that the photocatalytic removal efficiency of styrene was high in the presence of both ZnO nanoparticle and AC under UV light. Under optimal conditions, the efficiency of UV/ACZnO 18%, UV/AC-ZnO 12%, and UV/AC-ZnO 6% catalysts was 77%, 86%, and 83%, respectively. By increasing the concentration of input styrene, the photocatalytic removal efficiency was reduced, while the adsorption capacity of styrene increased.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, the AC-ZnO 12% exhibited higher activity compared to other photocatalysts. Also, the amount of stabilized ZnO nanoparticles on the activated carbon affects the elimination rate of styrene.

    Keywords: Photocatalysis, Activated carbon, Styrene, Zinc oxide
  • Mahta Fooladi, Roxana Moogouei*, Seyed Ali Jozi, Farideh Golbabaei, Golnaz Tajadod Pages 233-240
    Background

    Phytoremediation is one of the available and simple techniques for removing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) from indoor air. This study aimed to evaluate phytoremediation of low concentrations of BTEX by Hyrcanian plants including Ruscus hyrcanus and Danae racemosa.

    Methods

    The test chamber was used to evaluate the removal of BTEX. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were injected into the chamber using Gastight syringes (Hamilton) to generate the concentration of 10 (benzene), 20 (toluene), 20 (ethylbenzene), and 50 (xylene) μL/L

    Results

    Ruscus hyrcanus was able to remove BTEX (10, 20, 20, and 50 μL/L) from air after 3 days. D. racemosa could uptake BTEX (10, 20, 20, and 50 μL/L) from air after 4 days. Removal efficiency was calculated based on leaf area and volume of the chamber. R. hyrcanus showed the highest removal efficiency ranged from 8.5075 mg/m3/h.cm2 for benzene to 86.66 mg/m3/h.cm2 for xylene. The increase in BTEX phytoremediation was assessed after repeated exposures. A significant phytoremediation efficiency was obtained after the third injection of BTEX to the chamber. Afterwards, the effects of BTEX on anatomical and morphological structure of plants were studied. The results of Photomicrography showed that tissue structures of leaves and stems changed. Study of D. racemosa and R. hyrcanus stems showed that vascular bundles also changed. The development of crystal in vacuole of spongy parenchyma was the main anatomical change of R. hyrcanus and D. racemose compared to the control samples.

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded that R. hyrcanus and D. racemosa can be used for phytoremediation of indoor air pollution.

    Keywords: Volatile organic compounds, Air pollution, Indoor, Plant leaves, Sick building syndrome
  • Tivany Edwin*, Taufiq Ihsan, Aufa Rahmatika, Nanda Darlis Pages 241-246
    Background

    Lake Diatas is one of the important lake which is influenced by agricultural activities around the lake, and chlorpyrifos is widely used as a pesticide in this area. This study aimed to analyze the damage of the gill tissue of Oreochromis niloticus L. and Cyprinus carpio L. as two freshwater fish, which are mostly caught to be consumed by the residents in Lake Diatas, Indonesia, that were exposed to chlorpyrifos.

    Methods

    Acclimatization was performed for 14 days and continued with toxicity test for 30 days. Chlorpyrifos exposure was tested at various concentrations. Fish gill tissue was observed microscopically in 10, 20, and 30 days of exposure, and damages were scored based on the level of gill tissue damage.

    Results

    It was revealed that O. niloticus L. experienced edema, proximal basal hyperplasia, fusion, hyperplasia in all secondary lamellae, and necrosis at the higher exposure concentration. While C. carpio L. experienced fusion, hyperplasia, clubbing, necrosis, and obvious degradation of gill tissue of fish after 30 days of exposure to chlorpyrifos. There was a significant difference in the damage of fish gill tissue between each variation treatment (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    According to the results, the higher the concentration of chlorpyrifos and the longer the exposure time, the higher the level of damage in gill tissue.

    Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Lakes, Gills, Toxicity tests
  • Zabihollah Yousefi, Alireza Ala*, Esmaeil Babanezhad, Reza Ali Mohammadpour Pages 247-255
    Background

    There are many concerns about the migration of phthalates into bottled water. These compounds are hazardous to consumers. In this study, the risk factors of the use of various brands of drinking water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers under different storage conditions were examined.

    Methods

    Phthalate esters were measured and analyzed using air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Subsequently, the risk of exposure to the desired compounds was evaluated by calculating the risk factor and excess cancer risk. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 24 software.

    Results

    The average concentration of phthalate esters (DEHP, DBP, DIBP, DEP, and DMP) after 5 and 15 days of storage at incubator temperature of 42°C, and after 15, 45, and 75 days at incubator temperature of 25°C by increasing the initial level of the conditions was 7.28, 8.99, 1.78, 5.6, 6.45, and 8.55 ppb, respectively. The risk factor of non-carcinogenic effects of phthalates for consumers was low and can be ignored (HQ<1). Also, the risk of additional cancer due to the presence of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in bottled water is very low (4.8551×10-6).

    Conclusion

    However, due to the increase in the concentration of phthalate esters in bottled water by increasing the storage time and temperature, as well as increasing the ethylene hexyl phthalate content from its established limit, the use of bottled water kept in unsuitable conditions for the society, and especially the sensitive groups, is not appropriate.

    Keywords: Phthalate esters, Bottled water, Storage conditions, Risk assessment, Various brands
  • Ahmet Çalık* Pages 257-268
    Background

    Clean air action plans have been prepared and are still being implemented in Turkey to control and prevent air pollution, and improve the air quality. The plans reveal a picture of the current situation and available inventory information. However, in order to implement the identified plans in real life, they need to be prioritized. This study aimed to identify and prioritize clean air action plans for Turkey using a framework of both fuzzy and crisp evaluations.

    Methods

    In this study, priorities of the plans were identified and analyzed with a decision-making model. A three-step research methodology was provided. First, literature was reviewed regarding sustainable development and action plans. Second, in order to narrow and specify action plans, the nominal group technique (NGT) was implemented. Finally, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and best-worst method (BWM) surveys were applied to environmental engineers and experts working on sustainable development to prioritize the action plans.

    Results

    It was revealed that heating dimension is considered as the most important criterion with the weight of 0.7469 in fuzzy AHP and 0.758 in BWM. AP1 with a weight of 0.3356 in fuzzy AHP and AP3 with a weight of 0.3289 in BWM were the most important sub-criteria, which are the plans for reducing coal use ranked at the forefront in reducing air pollution.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, there is no significant difference in the priority ranking results. The results of fuzzy AHP and BWM are very similar. For example, traffic criterion has the best performance in both methods in the evaluation of decision makers. In addition, the main and sub-criteria with the lowest priority are the same in these two methods.

    Keywords: Air pollution, Cities, Decision making, Surveys, questionnaires
  • Mohammad Ghasemian, Ensiyeh Taheri, Ali Fatehizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Amin* Pages 269-276
    Background

    This study aimed to evaluate an anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) for biological hydrogen production, and also to investigate its capability to treat synthetic wastewater.

    Methods

    A five-compartment AMBR (9 L effective volume) was made by Plexiglas and seeded with thermal pretreated anaerobic sludge at 100°C for 30 minutes. The AMBR was operated at mesophilic temperature (37 ± 1°C) with continuous fed of synthetic wastewater at five organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.5 to 8 g COD/L.d.

    Results

    It was revealed that as the OLR increased from 0.5 to 8 g COD/L.d, the hydrogen production and also volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) improved. Increasing the OLR over this range, led to a decrease in the average hydrogen yield from 1.58 ± 0.34 to 0.97 ± 0.45 mol H2/mol glucose. The concentration of both volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and solvents kept increasing with OLR. During the AMBR operation, the dominant soluble end products (SEPs) were acetic and butyric acids in all of the OLRs studied.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results, the hydrogen yield was related to the acetate/butyrate fermentation. The artificial neural network (ANN) model was well-fitted to the experimental obtained data from the AMBR, and was able to simulate the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and hydrogen production.

    Keywords: AMB reactor, Fatty acids, Fermentation, Hydrogen, Wastewater treatment
  • Rozhan Feizi, Nematollah Jaafarzadeh, Hamideh Akbari, Sahand Jorfi* Pages 277-282
    Background

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in lipstick and eye pencil cosmetics of different grades in the markets of Iran.

    Methods

    This descriptive study was conducted in Ahvaz city in 2018. Sixty different samples of lipstick and eye pencil of three common brands were selected and analyzed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and the results were compared with standard values recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The analysis of lipsticks was based on producer country and colors and producer country only for eye pencil.

    Results

    The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 41.86 and 53.42 µg/g, respectively. Concentrations of lead were higher than those of Cd in lipsticks, while for eye pencil, Cd showed higher concentrations. The overall results indicated that in all brands and colors of lipsticks, only 33% of the samples had Pb content less than the FDA limit, and among lipstick samples, 44% had Cd concentration less than the FDA limit of 3 μg/g, however, in 100% of the eye pencil samples, the concentration of Cd was higher than the recommended value of 3 μg/g.

    Conclusion

    Given the health risks of exposure to heavy metals and in order to increase community awareness about the harmful effects of cosmetics, it is necessary to monitor the concentration of these toxic elements in these products and encourage the manufactures to meet the FDA standards.

    Keywords: Lead, Cadmium, Cosmetics, Environmental pollution
  • Marie Albert*, Mohamed Lemdan, Damien Cuny, Patrick Duriez, Joséphine Escutnaire Pierre, Yves Gueugniaud, Eric Wiel, Hervé Hubert, Christophe Di Pompeo Pages 283-289
    Background

    Air pollution is increasingly associated with cardiovascular events. As for ozone (O3) pollution, results are inconsistent though O3 levels are associated with hospital admissions, global mortality, and respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality.

    Methods

    In this time-stratified case-crossover study, the associations between short-term exposure to O3 (on an hourly and daily scale) and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) were investigated. Specific subgroups were explored by sex, age, diabetes status, for OHCA during non-holiday periods. Data were collected in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, France, in 2015. Data were statistically analyzed using conditional logistic regression (CLR).

    Results

    The study included 1039 cases of OHCA. Significant negative associations were found between OHCA and O3 levels measured in 3 or 4 days before the arrest for all the people, and 1, 2 or 3 days before the arrest for men. As for OHCA during non-holiday periods, there was no significant negative associations but a positive association was revealed for women between OHCA and O3 levels measured in 5 days before the arrest (OR=1.53, P = 0.008).

    Conclusion

    According to the results, OHCA should be investigated during non-holiday periods to control potential confounders that would lead to negative associations. Women might be a susceptible subgroup to O3 pollution.

    Keywords: Heart arrest, Ozone, Air pollution, Epidemiology, Environmental health