فهرست مطالب

Basic & Clinical Pathophysiology - Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2019
  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Reza Taghizadeh, Fatemeh Haji Ebrahim Tehrani, Iman Ansari *, Ashraf Pirasteh Pages 1-5
    Background and Objective
    Neonatal sepsis (NS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates. Correct and early diagnosis of NS can prevent its complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the levels of thyroid hormones and procalcitonin (PCT) with NS.
    Materials and Methods
    In this case-control study, 40 term neonates with proven NS diagnosis and 40 term neonates whose NS were rejected due to negative paraclinical findings were compared in terms of thyroid hormone levels, PCT and C reactive protein (CRP). Data were analyzed using SPSS v.17.
    Results
    The most common clinical finding was fever in both groups, while there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.1). The results of laboratory tests showed that the CRP levels ​​in the NS group were significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.03). In terms of thyroid hormones, although TSH and T4 were higher in the NS group, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.94 and P = 0.22, respectively). In addition, PCT measurements and comparisons showed that this parameter was significantly higher in the NS group (P = 0.01).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study demonstrated that CRP and PCT levels in NS neonates were significantly higher than non-NS neonates, while there was no significant difference in the level of thyroid hormones in the two groups. Further studies are recommended in this area.
    Background and Objective
    Neonatal sepsis (NS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates. Correct and early diagnosis of NS can prevent its complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the levels of thyroid hormones and procalcitonin (PCT) with NS.
    Materials and Methods
    In this case-control study, 40 term neonates with proven NS diagnosis and 40 term neonates whose NS were rejected due to negative paraclinical findings were compared in terms of thyroid hormone levels, PCT and C reactive protein (CRP). Data were analyzed using SPSS v.17.
    Results
    The most common clinical finding was fever in both groups, while there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.1). The results of laboratory tests showed that the CRP levels ​​in the NS group were significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.03). In terms of thyroid hormones, although TSH and T4 were higher in the NS group, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.94 and P = 0.22, respectively). In addition, PCT measurements and comparisons showed that this parameter was significantly higher in the NS group (P = 0.01).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study demonstrated that CRP and PCT levels in NS neonates were significantly higher than non-NS neonates, while there was no significant difference in the level of thyroid hormones in the two groups. Further studies are recommended in this area.
    Keywords: Neonatal sepsis, Thyroid hormones, Procalcitonin, C-Reactive protein, Diagnosis
  • Mahdiyeh Jafarpour Fard, Manizheh Karami *, Mohammadreza Jalali Nadoushan Pages 6-11
    Introduction & Objective

    Male fertility depends on the proper function of a complex system of organs. Harmful effects of morphine on male reproduction and fertility are well documented. Dopamine facilitates sexual behavior in different animal species. The antagonizing of dopamine D2 receptors with sulpiride was aimed to investigate the interaction of dopaminergic system with morphine-induced infertility.

    Materials and Methods

    A total of 48 adult male Wistar rats with a weight range of (220-320 g) were studied. In the first category, morphine (5 mg/kg) was injected i.p. The next groups received sulpiride (1-4 mg / kg) alone and prior (20 min) to morphine (5 mg / kg). The control group received only saline (1 ml / kg). All rats were sacrificed under deep anesthesia a week after. Their testicles were collected for examination. LH, FSH and testosterone were measured in the sera. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

    Results

    Significant decreases in dimensions of testicles were observed in groups’ rats that receiving morphine or sulpiride prior to the morphine. Seminiferous tube destruction was observed in morphine and in group that receiving sulpiride prior to morphine; destruction was increased with increasing dose of sulpiride. Significant decrease of serum testosterone level was observed in rats receiving morphine and high dosage of sulpiride. Significant increase in serum testosterone level was observed in group receiving sulpiride prior to morphine.

    Conclusion

    It seems that dopamine has an interacting effect with morphine on induction of male infertility and its mechanism is probably carried out through dopamine D2 receptors.

    Keywords: Sulpiride, Dopamine, Infertility, Morphine, male Rat
  • Asieh Dehghani, Farshad Roghani Dehkordi * Pages 12-19
    Background and Objective

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common diseases today. Among the diagnostic methods, angiography is the main and gold standard in the diagnosis Since angiography is an invasive procedure, this procedure complications range widely from minor problems with short term sequelae to life threatening ones may cause irreversible damage or even death.

    Materials and Methods

    This paper is a review study and papers published within the period of 2002-2017 were assessed. To obtain related scientific documents, web surfing was conducted in Persian and English using various keywords including angiography, coronary artery disease, angiography complications, patient satisfaction, femoral angiography, radial angiography, ulnar angiography, superficial palmar branch of ulnar artery, and snuff box angiography. Papers related to this subject were extracted from the Web of Science (ISI), PubMed, Magiran, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Ovid, and SID databases.

    Results

    Out of the 100 retrieved studies, 31 (3 cross sectional, 1 analytical descriptive, 7 descriptive studies, 6 reviews, 2 RCT, 5 Cohorts, 1 Case Report, and 6 Case series) were entered into this study. In addition, 69 records were excluded for wrong statistics reported, duplicate studies, lack of enough information, and lack of relevance to this study.

    Conclusion

    According to most studies, the procedure via hand for angiography is better than the lower extremity (femoral). In addition, it seems that the use of distal upper extremities for angiography is better than the radial and ulnar method. However, more research evidence is strongly warranted.

    Keywords: Coronary angiography, Coronary angioplasty, Coronary artery disease
  • Gholam Ali Naderi *, Mehrdad Roghani, Elham Esmaeil Jamaat, Elham Zahedi, Ashkan Sanaeirad Pages 20-27
    Background and Objective
    Currently, hyperlipidemia is a major health-threatening factor in developed and developing countries. Hyperlipidemia induced by high cholesterol (HC) diet rapidly increases the risk of cardiovascular and liver diseases. F. vulgare is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments and has hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic and cardiovascular activities. This study was done to evaluate the effect of F. vulgare hydroalcoholic extract on serum lipid profiles and liver enzymes in adult Wistar rats.
    Materials and Methods
    In this experimental study, 28 male rats (190-220 g) were divided into four different groups including: Control, HC diet, Control plus Fennel extract, and Fennel extract-treated high cholesterol-fed groups. Rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HC group) or normal rat chow (control group) for 8 weeks. The extract was administered at a dose of 150 mg/kg, once daily for 3 weeks. The blood samples were collected from retroorbital sinus. Then, the measurements of serum biochemical parameters were performed. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test.
    Results
    Our study showed that the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, LDL, LDH, ALT, and ALP significantly increase in HC group and the level of HDL in HC group significantly decreases by HC diet compared to control group (p<0.001) after 8 weeks. The levels of TG, total cholesterol, LDL, LDH, ALT, and ALP significantly reduced by treatment with fennel extract and the level of HDL in fennel extract-treated HC-fed group was significantly higher compared to HC group (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    The results from the present research showed hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of F. vulgare that leads to protection of the liver and cardiovascular system from high cholesterol damage in rats.
    Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare, Liver enzymes, Lipid profiles, Hypercholesterolemia
  • Taher Torabi, Alireza Azizzadeh Delshad *, Mehrdad Roghani Pages 28-32
    Background and Objective
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine disorder with cognition decline. Dietary restriction (DR), also known as calorie restriction (CR), and reduction of foodstuff intake in rodents result in increased lifespan with protective potential. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of DR on dendritic spine loss in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats.
    Materials and Methods
    Rats were grouped into control, diabetic, and diabetic with DR. For induction of diabetes, STZ (i.p.) at a dose of 60 mg/kg was used. DR was applied from one month before till 2 months after diabetes induction. Finally, dendritic changes of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal and prefrontal cortex were assessed using Golgi impregnation method.
    Results
    Our histochemical findings showed a significant reduction of dendritic mushroom spines of pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA1 and prefrontal areas in the diabetic rats that was significantly attenuated in the presence of DR.
    Conclusion
    DR application could appropriately prevent dendritic spine loss and in this way may have a beneficial effect on cognitive abilities in diabetic condition.
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Streptozotocin, Dietary restriction, Dendritic spines
  • Shaghayegh Saffari, Seyed Mohsen Miresmaeili, Seyedeh Parisa Chavoshi Tarzjani, Shekoofe Alaie, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli * Pages 33-38
    Background
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation and degeneration of the central nervous system (CNS). High levels of neurofilament light chain (NFL) and neurofilament heavy chain (NFH) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been associated with a wide range of neurological diseases including MS. Subjects and
    Methods
    Peripheral blood samples were collected from 40 relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 40 healthy control subjects to extract genomic DNA. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing technique. Genotypic and allelic distributions were compared between cases and controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of MS associated with selected SNP.
    Results
    The results of the present study revealed that there were significant differences in the distribution of neurofilament light gene (NEFL) genotypes and allele frequencies between Iranian RRMS patients and controls. In Iranian RRMS patients, there was a significant association between NEFL gene polymorphism rs2979687 and the risk of MS.
    Conclusion
    Our data indicate that there was a significant association between -374A>G NEFL gene polymorphism and risk of MS in Iranian patients. Probably, we can use it as a potential prognostic genetic marker. Further large prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, NEFL, Polymorphism, Iranian
  • Mohammad Mehdi Attarpour Yazdi *, Sareh Sadat Hosseini Pages 40-43
    Background and Objective
    Acinetobacter baumanii and pseudomonas aeruginosa are common opportunistic gram-negative bacteria related to hospital-acquired infections. Multidrug resistant microorganisms have emerged as the causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the existence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from hospitalized patients in one burn hospital in Tehran, Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    From June 2015 to May 2016, 82 isolates were collected from burn patients hospitalized in one burn hospital in Tehran, Iran. A total of 82 isolates of gram-negative, non-fermentative bacilli including pseudomonas aeruginosa (58 isolates) and Acinetobacter baumanii (24 isolates) were tested for susceptibility to selective antibiotics by disk diffusion recommended in CLSI guidelines. All the resistant isolates were subjected to PCR assay for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes that encode ESBL.
    Results
    Resistance to gentamicin was 83%, but resistance to cephalosporins was higher than gentamicin. Out of the 47 pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance isolates, 24 and 9 isolates were CTX-M and TEM procedure, respectively. Among 8 Acinetobacter baumanii isolates that were resistant to all antibiotics, 7 and 1 isolates were CTX-M and TEM producer, respectively. In addition, bla SHV gene was not detected in any of the isolates.
    Conclusion
    High level of resistance to most antibiotics tested and high prevalence of bla CTX-M gene in this study, indicating the careful detection of antimicrobial resistant strains is needed in order to prevent further resistance to antimicrobial agents in Iran.
    Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, bla CTXM, blaTEM, bla SHV