فهرست مطالب

Trends in Phytochemical Research - Volume:2 Issue: 2, 2018
  • Volume:2 Issue: 2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Ataa Said, Elsayed Ali Aboutabl, Farouk Rasmy Melek, Gehad Abdel Jaleel Raheem Abdel Jaleel, Mona Raslan * Pages 65-74
    Characterization of phytoconstituents in the 70% methanolic extract of Cissus rotundifolia (Forssk.) Vahl. was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Furthermore, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was performed to assist in the structural elucidation of compounds. Twenty-seven compounds were identified. The identified compounds were four acids, sixteen phenolics, two steroidal saponins, two coumarins, two stilbenoids and one triterpene. Astragalin 1, β-amyrin 2 and 1β-hydroxy-kryptogenin-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranoside 3 were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were identified by spectral analysis including 1D and 2D NMR. The plant extract and the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant activity relative to that of ascorbic acid as a standard. The cytotoxicity of the plant extract, the isolated compounds and the standard doxorubicin was evaluated using the three human tumor cell lines HT116, MCF-7 and PC-3. The plant extract exhibited significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 while showing no activity against the other cell lines. The isolated compounds 1-3 showed no activity against the used cell lines.
    Keywords: Cissus rotundifolia (Forssk.) Vahl, HPLC-ESI-MS, Tandem mass, Free radical scavenging activity, Cytotoxicity
  • Maryam Hassani *, Shirin Hasani Pages 75-82
    In this study Nano–capsules based on chitosan (CS) and Arabic Gum (GA) with Thyme essential oil (TEO) as an active ingredient were prepared using emulsion method. The nano–capsules were characterized by their Encapsulation efficiency (EE), morphologies, Particle size distributions, Zeta potential and Release (RE). Results showed that nano–capsules produced by using relative ratio CS: GA (1.5%:8.5%) clearly showed the highest Encapsulation efficiency (77.67%) and Zeta potential value (+ 43.17 mV). In vitro release studies demonstrated a prolonged release for the samples with larger CS ratio. Most nano–capsules sizes ranged from 385.2 to 756.1 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed nano–capsules had a rough surface without the spherical shape for all samples. Quantitative values of antioxidant activity of Thyme essential oil and nano–encapsulated essential oil were studied. The essential oils were investigated for their antibacterial activity against common Gram–positive and Gram–negative pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) by Disk diffusion and dilution method (MIC). Our results reported the better antioxidant and antibacterial effects of the encapsulated TEO in comparison with free TEO. Finally, the mixture of CS: GA at (1.5%:8.5%) can be suggested as suitable wall material for Thyme essential oil encapsulation.
    Keywords: Nano–capsules, Thyme essential oil, Chitosan, Arabic Gum, Antioxidant, Encapsulation efficiency
  • Md Rafiul Haque *, Shahid Hussain Ansari Pages 83-90
    Arq zeera (AZ), a poly herbal unani formulation has been used traditionally as a remedy for reducing body fat and gastric disorder. The current study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic activity of AZ against rat model of high fat diet (HFD) - induced obesity. AZ was prepared and administered orally 7.75 ml/kg/twice a day for 4 weeks to HFD- induced obese rat. Body weight and serum biomarkers were evaluated. Stability testing of AZ was also carried out. At the end of study, HFD significantly (p< 0.001) increased body weight, cholesterol, triglycerides, pancreatic lipase activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as compared to normal diet control group. AZ-treated rats significantly (p< 0.001) reduced body weights, cholesterol, triglycerides, pancreatic lipase activity and MDA levels as compared to HFD control. These results suggest that AZ has an antihyperlipidemic action against HFD-induced obesity in rats, possibly through lipid lowering action, reduction of intestinal absorption of dietary fat, and increased antioxidant defense.
    Keywords: Arq Zeera, Unani formulation, High fat diet, body weight, Pancreatic lipase
  • Ramazan Erenler *, Ibrahim Demirtas, Tunay Karan, Fatih Gul, Omer Kayir, Omer Karakoc Pages 91-96
    Origanum, widely used for food and pharmaceutical industry, belonging to the Lamiaceae family, is an aromatic and medicinal plant. The aerial parts of the Origanum onites L. were dried at shade and was extracted with methanol. Rosmarinic acid, gentisic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxylbenzaldehyde, p-cumaric acid, ferullic acid, apigenin-7-glucoside, and narigenin were found in O. onites methanol extract. Quantitative analyses of these compounds were determined by LC-TOF/MS and rosmarinic acid was the main constituent (32.05 mg/100 g dried plant). The essential oil was isolated by steam distillation and compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil included the carvacrol (88.71%) as a main product. p-Cymene (3.09%) was found as a second chief product. The essential oil exhibited excellent insecticidal activity on Sitophilus granaries and Sitophilus oryzae pests. However, methanol extract revealed the moderate activity on S. granarius pet.
    Keywords: Essential oil, Insecticidal activity, Origanum onites, Quantitative analysis
  • Babatunde Joseph Oso *, Oyedotun Oyeleke, Olaniyi Soetan Pages 97-102
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different solvents with different polarities on the antioxidant properties of the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. The phenolics and flavonoids in the extracts were quantified through colorimetric tests, while the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated through the assessments of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging potential. The quantitative evaluations of the phytochemical compositions indicated that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the amounts of phenolics and flavonoids in the extracts. The antioxidant activities measured by FRAP, TEAC and DPPH• scavenging methods revealed significant (p<0.05) differences amongst the extracts. Methanolic extract was found to have the highest TEAC and FRAP contents with the values of 244.12±21.76mg/100g and 304.78±5.71mg/100g respectively and lowest IC50 value in the results obtained from DPPH• scavenging assay (64.33±2.63µg/ml). The results showed that methanol could be an appropriate extraction solvent for phytomedicines from X. aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich that could be helpful in the treatment and management of free-radical-associated oxidative damage.
    Keywords: Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A, Solvent, Polarity, phenolics, Flavonoids, antioxidant activity
  • Rajendra P. Patel, Rakshapal Singh, Raj Kishori Lal *, Pankhuri Gupta, Anju Kesarwani, Nitu Goyal Pages 103-110
    The present study was performed to explore genetic and chemotypic variability among five Ocimum species. Genotypes were evaluated from pooled data over three locations for two consecutive years (2007-2009). High genotypic coefficient variation and phenotypic coefficient variation was observed for leaf area (63.55 and 63.80, respectevely), essential oil yield (40.37 and 41.0, respectevely) and leaf width (33.91 and 39.29, respectevely). Maximum heritability estimate in broad sence was observed for leaf area (99.20%) and leaf length (98.79%) and essential oil (98.36%). High genetic advance over mean was observed for the essential oil yield (80.59%), leaf width (74.43%), leaf length (69%) and essential oil content (64.71%). In addition, path coefficient analysis showed maximum positive direct effects of plant canopy (4.21), leaf width (3.8), followed by essential oil (2.49%) and fresh herb yield (0.95). The essential oils of Ocimum species were grouped in four chemical groups of compounds. The accessions of O. tenuiflorum, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum were found to be rich with phenylpropanoids.The results clearly showed variation in important economic traits can facilitate selection for further improvement inOcimum genotypes.
    Keywords: Genetic advance, Chemodiversity, heritability, Ocimum, Path coefficient analysis
  • Kota Sobha *, Pradeep Dumpala, Hariseetharam Prasad Dachepalli, Ratna Kumari Anantha Pages 111-118
    The phytochemical composition, total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of the aqueous extracts of six south Indian leafy vegetables viz. Amaranthus viridis L, Hibiscus cannabinus L, Spinacea oleracea L, Mentha spicata L, Murraya koenigii L and Coriandrum sativum L were tested, characterized and the antioxidant potential evaluated. Also, aqueous leaf extracts of A. viridis and H. cannabinus were demonstrated for their ability to form silver nanoparticles. All the aqueous extracts demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins (except M. koenigii) and terpenoids (except S. oleracea) while phlobatannins (only in M. spicata), steroids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and proteins were absent in all the leaves tested. Carbohydrates were found only in the aqueous extract of H. cannabinus. The total phenolic content was the order of 0.9, 0.2, 1.8, 0.8 and 2.1 mgGAE/g of the leaves for A. viridis, H. cannabinus, M. spicata, M. koenigii and C. sativum respectively while S. oleracea did not respond to total phenolic content assay by FC method. Ascorbic acid, present in all the leafy vegetables with the lowest value of 0.3 mg/g in M. spicata and highest value of 1.9 mg/g in C. sativum. A highly significant DPPH radical scavenging activity was found in H. cannabinus (82.76%) followed by M. spicata (78.08%) and C. sativum (69.76%) at an extract concentration of 31.25 mg/ml while A. viridis, S. oleracea and M. koenigii showed 72.95%, 58.27% and 75.38% respectively at a concentration of 50 mg/ml. FT-IR spectral characterization of the extracts and the synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) indicated the presence of N-H amines, O-H stretch, C-H out of plane bending vibrations, C=C stretching of alkenes, C=O stretch of amide and C≡C stretch of alkynes. The leafy vegetables can be used for the synthesis of lead compounds which will cure diseases.
    Keywords: Leafy vegetables, Phytochemical constituents, Antioxidant potential, Total Phenolic Content, Ascorbic acid, silver nanoparticles
  • Paula Carrión Prieto, Jesús Martín Gil, Ignacio A. Fernández Coppel, Norlan M. Ruíz Potosme, Pablo Martin Ramos * Pages 119-124

    In this work, ‘Siberian chewing gum’, a natural product derived from Pinus sibirica’s resin to which healing effects on mouth, stomach and duodenum chronic ulcers are attributed, has been characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal analysis techniques. With regard to the vibrational spectrum, the band at 1693 cm-1, ascribed to ν(CO) terpenic oxo groups, suggests the presence of diterpenes, while the existence of hydroxystilbenes and their glycosides is consistent with the absorption bands in the 3380-3080 cm-1, 1800-1300 cm-1 and 1000-450 cm-1 regions. On the other hand, the thermal behavior of the Siberian chewing gum, elucidated by thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques, resembles that of arabinogalactan, albeit with a more delayed decomposition.

    Keywords: ATR-FTIR, DSC, DTA, Pinus sibirica, Siberian chewing gum, TG, DTG