فهرست مطالب

جامعه شناسی کاربردی - سال سی‌ام شماره 4 (زمستان 1398)
  • سال سی‌ام شماره 4 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • یعقوب فروتن* صفحات 1-20

    مطابق نظریه گذار جمعیت ‎شناختی دوم، در جوامع معاصر طیف فزاینده ای از شکل های نوظهور خانواده مشاهده می شود. موضوع محوری این پژوهش، مطالعه این شکل های نوظهور در قالب مولفه های چهارگانه مشتمل بر خانواده بی فرزندی، خانواده تک فرزندی، خانواده تک والدی و زندگی مشترک بدون ازدواج است. تلاش شده است شواهد پژوهشی سبب شناخت بهتر برخی از مهم ترین الگوها و تعیین کننده های مرتبط با چگونگی نگرش نسبت به این مولفه های چهارگانه شوند. مباحث این مقاله بر تجزیه و تحلیل های یک بررسی پیمایشی مبتنی اند و جمعیت نمونه آن را در کل تعداد 4267 نفر مردان و زنان 15ساله و بالاتر ساکن در نقاط شهری و روستایی شهرستان های منتخب ایران تشکیل داده اند. تجزیه و تحلیل های اولیه نشان دهنده چهار الگوی کلی است؛ اول اینکه، میزان نگرش مثبت به الگوی خانواده بی فرزندی بسیار اندک (کمتر از 2 درصد) است. دوم اینکه، حدود یک دهم جمعیت مطالعه شده به الگوی خانواده تک فرزندی نگرش مثبت دارند. الگوهای سوم و چهارم نیز به خانواده تک والدی و زندگی مشترک بدون ازدواج یا زوج زیستی مربوط اند و حدود یک پنجم جمعیت مطالعه شده نسبت به این شکل های نوظهور خانواده نگرش مثبت دارند. در عین حال، این الگوهای کلی به طور معناداری از سه دسته عوامل تعیین کننده شامل متغیرها و تعیین کننده های جمعیت شناختی پایه (مانند محل سکونت، وضعیت تاهل، سن و سطح تحصیلات)، متغیرهای مرتبط با مولفه های دین و دینداری و متغیرهای معطوف به نگرش جنسیتی تاثیر می گیرند. مطابق نتایج تحلیل های چندمتغیره، متغیرهای مستقل پژوهش مشتمل بر جنسیت، محل سکونت، گروه سنی، تحصیلات و وضعیت تاهل 5/16 درصد از تغییرات نگرش به خانواده تک والدی، 5/17 درصد از تغییرات نگرش به تک فرزندی و 19 درصد از تغییرات نگرش به زوج زیستی را تبیین می کنند. در مجموع، یافته های این پژوهش در چارچوب الگوی دوگانه سنت گرایی - نوگرایی جمع بندی و تبیین می شوند؛ یعنی هرچه جنبه نگرش سنتی ضعیف تر و بر قوت نگرش مدرن و غیرسنتی افزوده شود، میزان نگرش مثبت به شکل های نوظهور خانواده تشدید می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: گذار جمعیت شناختی دوم، شکل های نوظهور خانواده، خانواده بی فرزندی، خانواده تک فرزندی، خانواده تک والدی، زوج زیستی، ایران
  • اعظم نقوی*، فهیمه زمانی فروشانی صفحات 21-34

    مراقبان خانگی در تمام دنیا در کنار متخصصان نظام سلامت از بیماران مراقبت می کنند؛ اما برای این مراقبت حقوقی دریافت نمی کنند و در بیشتر موارد نیازهای آنها نادیده گرفته می شود. هدف پژوهش حاضر، مطالعه تجربه مادران دارای فرزند توانخواه از خستگی یا رضایت ناشی از شفقت ورزی است. روش انجام این پژوهش کیفی و از نوع تحلیل مضمون براون و کلارک است. برای این منظور دو مجموعه از داده ها تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. مجموعه اول داده ها براساس مصاحبه عمیق با 12 مادر بود که دست کم یک فرزند توانخواه داشتند و به روش نمونه گیری گلوله برفی انتخاب شدند و مجموعه دوم از داده ها براساس خاطرات 8 مادر توانخواه بود که در کانال رسمی یکی از انجمن های خیریه منتشر شده بود. یافته های به‎ دست آمده در این پژوهش در سه مضمون اصلی گذار از هویت مادرانه به هویت مراقب، حمایت ادراک شده و برکت نگهداری از فرزند دسته بندی شد. براساس یافته های به دست آمده مصاحبه شوندگان ابتدا گذاری ناگهانی از هویت مادرانه به مراقبتی داشته اند و همزمان با این گذار حمایت اجتماعی کمی را ادراک می کنند. مادران فعالانه به دنبال درمان اند و با در پیش گرفتن راهبردهای معنوی یا فردی با این گذار سازگار می شوند و رضایت ناشی از شفقت را تجربه می کنند. نتایج پژوهش می توانند در تهیه پروتکل های مداخله ای برای تسهیل فرایند سازگاری با تغییرات عمیق در روال زندگی مادران مراقب و توانمندسازی آنها برای گذاری موفق کمک کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: مراقب خانگی، ناتوانی های حسی - حرکتی، خستگی ناشی از شفقت ورزی، رضایت ناشی از شفقت ورزی
  • فرناز دسترس، بیژن خواجه نوری* صفحات 35-58

    هدف این مطالعه، بررسی رابطه بین عوامل جامعه شناختی و رفتار زیست محیطی شهروندان شهر شیراز است و در آن از الگوی رفتار زیست محیطی کالموس و اجی من (2002) به منزله چارچوب نظری استفاده شده است. روش پژوهش، پیمایش و جمعیت آماری شامل همه افراد بالای 15 سال در 11 منطقه شهر شیراز است که براساس فرمول کوکران حجم کل نمونه 384 نفر محاسبه شده است. نمونه های آماری با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ای به دست آمده اند و ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات پرسش نامه بوده است. طبق نتایج به دست آمده، 8/60 درصد از افراد نمونه رفتار زیست محیطی متوسط، 3/20 درصد پایین و 1/6 درصد بالا داشته اند. در سطح روابط دومتغیره، یافته ها نشان می دهند بین عوامل جامعه شناختی سن، آگاهی زیست محیطی، دانش زیست محیطی، پیوند عاطفی با محیط زیست، نگرش زیست محیطی، مرکز کنترل، ارزش زیست محیطی، اولویت، مسئولیت و انگیزه و بین عوامل زمینه ای شامل جنسیت، وضعیت اشتغال و میزان درآمد با رفتار زیست محیطی رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. نتایج حاصل از رگرسیون چندمتغیره نشان می دهند متغیرهای مستقل آگاهی زیست محیطی، پیوند عاطفی با محیط زیست، جنسیت، سن، درآمد و مرکز کنترل، 7/41 درصد متغیر وابسته رفتار زیست محیطی را تبیین می کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: رفتار زیست محیطی، دانش زیست محیطی، ارزش زیست محیطی، آگاهی زیست محیطی
  • مهری شمس قهفرخی* صفحات 59-76

    هدف این مطالعه، تعیین عوامل موثر بر پیشرفت تحصیلی دانش آموزان پایه چهارم در درس ریاضیات با تاکید بر اشتغال مادران است؛ عواملی مانند تحصیلات پدر، تحصیلات مادر، جنس و منابع آموزشی در خانه و محل مدرسه. بدین منظور از داده های تیمز[1] سال 2015 ایران استفاده شده است. ارتباط بین موفقیت در درس ریاضیات و متغیرهای ذکرشده در سطح دانش آموز و مدرسه، با الگوی خطی سلسله مراتبی دوسطحی و با استفاده از نرم افزار HLM بررسی شد.یافته ها نشان دادند در سطح دانش آموز، اشتغال مادران، جنس و دسترسی به منابع آموزشی در خانه، ارتباطی با پیشرفت تحصیلی فرزندان ندارند؛ اما بالابودن تحصیلات پدر و مادر سبب افزایش پیشرفت تحصیلی فرزندان می شود. همچنین نشان داده شد نمرات ریاضی دانش آموزان در مدارس مختلف تفاوت دارد و دانش آموزان تحصیل کننده در مدارس شهری نسبت به دانش آموزان تحصیل کننده در مدارس روستایی نمره بیشتری در درس ریاضیات کسب کرده اند. در کل، متغیرهای سطح اول (دانش آموز) تغییرپذیری بیشتری را نسبت به متغیر سطح دوم (مدارس) تبیین می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: اشتغال مادران، پیشرفت در درس ریاضیات، منابع آموزشی در خانه، محل مدرسه، تیمز
  • مسعود زارع مهرجردی، حسین میرزایی*، غلام رضا حسنی در میان صفحات 77-96

    در این پژوهش، اعتماد به منزله یکی از مهم ‎ترین ارکان پیوستگی و گسست قراردادهای تجاری با تکیه بر پرونده های دعاوی حقوقی - اقتصادی بررسی شده است. در ظاهر به نظر می رسد دو مفهوم اعتماد و مبادلات اقتصادی از یکدیگر مستقل اند؛ اما درنهایت، نقش بسزایی در بازتولید یکدیگر در سطوح مختلف دارد. در این پژوهش، ابتدا مفهوم اعتماد در سطوح مختلف تعریف شده است، سپس مفهوم های اعتماد و بی اعتمادی با عنوان عوامل اجتماعی - فرهنگی دخیل در تداوم یا شکست قراردادهای تجاری، با استفاده از الگوی لویسکی و بانکر (1995) به همراه نظریه مک الیستر (1995) تبیین شده‎اند؛ درنهایت، با بررسی پرونده های حقوقی - اقتصادی و با استفاده از روش اسنادی، نقش اعتماد در تداوم یا شکست شراکت های تجاری در سطح بین فردی تحلیل و تفسیر شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: اعتماد، جامعه شناسی اقتصادی، حقوق، حک‎شدگی، اقتصاد بین ‎ فردی
  • رضا زندی، یونس وکیل الرعایا*، محسن فرهادی نژاد صفحات 97-112

    با خروج نخبگان و بازنگشتن آنها به کشور، ژن های نخبگی هم به کشورهای نخبه پذیر منتقل و سبب تضعیف جریان توسعه یافتگی در کشور می شوند. هدف کلی این پژوهش طراحی الگوی نگهداشت ژن نخبگی در کشور با تاکید بر وزارت های علوم و بهداشت است. روش به کار رفته، ترکیبی از نوع اکتشافی متوالی است. 25 نفر از استادان نخبه وزارت های علوم و بهداشت در بخش مصاحبه شرکت داشتند که با روش نمونه گیری قضاوتی - هدفمند انتخاب شدند. در بخش کمی، نمونه شامل 163 نفر از استادان با شرایط خاص بود که به روش تصادفی انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده های کیفی پژوهش، مصاحبه نیمه ساختارمند بود. در بخش کمی از روش دلفی فازی برای اجماع نظرهای خبرگان و از روش مدل معادلات ساختاری برای تعیین بار عاملی بین متغیرهای آشکار و پنهان و روایی و پایایی استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش بیان کننده وجود 553 مضمون پایه و 5 مضمون سازمان دهنده (عوامل: جاذبه، دافعه، مداخله‎ گر، فردی و نگهدارنده) در حوزه نگهداشت ژن نخبگی بودند. در روش دلفی فازی پس از سه راند که خبرگان به اجماع رسیدند، از 96 سوال پرسش نامه 5 سوال حذف شد و براساس مدل معادلات ساختاری مشخص شد عوامل جاذبه، دافعه، فردی، مداخله گر و نگهدارنده، درصد واریانس بالایی از عوامل نگهداشت ژن نخبگی را تبیین می کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: ژن نخبگی، مهاجرت نخبگان، تحلیل مضمون، دلفی فازی، تحلیل عاملی
  • حجت الله وحدتی*، هدی پورزارع، مژگان باقری صفحات 113-126

    هدف این مقاله، بررسی اثر مستقیم و غیرمستقیم فضیلت سازمانی ادراک شده بر خودانگیختگی سازمانی است. بدین منظور اثر غیرمستقیم فرض شده از دیدگاه هویت اجتماعی (شناسایی سازمانی، افتخار و احترام)، شناسایی سازمانی و افتخار و احترام به منزله واسطه های رابطه فضیلت سازمانی و خودانگیختگی بررسی می شوند. پژوهش حاضر ازنظر هدف، کاربردی، و با توجه به روش گردآوری داده ها، توصیفی پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری را کارکنان دانشگاه لرستان تشکیل داده اند. نمونه آماری پژوهش بر مبنای فرمول کوکران 220 نفر تعیین شد و شرکت کنندگان با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش، پرسش نامه استاندارد بود که روایی آن با روایی صوری و پایایی آن با آلفای کرونباخ تایید شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده های گردآوری شده از روش مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری و نرم افزارهای SPSS.23 و Smart PLS.3 استفاده شد. این پژوهش نشان می دهد ارتباط مثبت بین فضیلت سازمانی و خودانگیختگی سازمانی وجود دارد. نتایج حاصل از مطالعات میدانی نشان می دهند افتخار به طور سریال و متوالی، رابطه بررسی شده (رابطه بین فضیلت سازمانی و خودانگیختگی) را ازطریق شناسایی سازمانی میانجی گری می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: هویت اجتماعی، فضیلت سازمانی، خودانگیختگی، دانشگاه لرستان
  • جمیله اسفندیارپور، علی مرادی*، اسماعیل جهانبخش صفحات 127-150

    هدف اصلی این مقاله، بررسی رابطه بین میزان اخلاق محیط زیستی و سرمایه اجتماعی با فرهنگ محیط زیستی با تاکید بر شهر کرمان برای دو مقطع زمانی ده سال پیش و در حال حاضر است که با روش پیمایشی و استفاده از ابزار پرسش نامه انجام شده است. جامعه آماری شامل افراد بالای 16سال ساکن در مناطق چهارگانه شهر کرمان است که براساس آمار سال 1395 معادل 634132 نفرند. از این جمعیت تعداد 384 نفر براساس فرمول نمونه گیری کوکران انتخاب شدند و پس از گردآوری داده ها 374 پرسش نامه مبنای تحلیل های آماری قرار گرفت. تحلیل های آماری با استفاده از دو نرم افزار SPSS و AMOS انجام شد. نتایج نشان می دهند رابطه بین اخلاق محیط زیستی با میزان فرهنگ محیط زیستی در ده سال پیش (71/0=r) و در زمان حاضر برابر (33/0=r)، فرهنگ محیط زیستی با میزان سرمایه اجتماعی در زمان حاضر (41/0=r) و در ده سال پیش (35/0=r)، معنادار است. نتایج حاصل از آزمون تحلیل واریانس نشان می دهند میانگین فرهنگ محیط زیستی برای سه گروه سنی مطرح شده با هم تفاوت معنادار دارد. همچنین میانگین فرهنگ محیط زیستی برای طبقات اجتماعی مختلف با هم تفاوت دارد. نتایج حاصل از رگرسیون چندگانه نشان می دهند دو متغیر سرمایه اجتماعی و اخلاق محیط زیستی 50 درصد از تغییرات درونی متغیر وابسته یعنی فرهنگ محیط زیستی در شهر کرمان را تبیین می کنند. نتایج حاصل از مدل معادله ساختاری (AMOS) نشان می دهند تاثیر متغیرهای سرمایه اجتماعی، اخلاق محیط زیستی و متغیر پایگاه اقتصادی - اجتماعی بر متغیر وابسته معنادار است.

    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ محیط زیستی، اخلاق محیط زیستی، سرمایه اجتماعی، پایگاه اقتصادی - اجتماعی
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  • Foroutan Yaghoob * Pages 1-20
    Introduction

    According to the second demographic transition theory, the contemporary societies are facing an increasing range of emerging forms of family, which is the central focus of the present study.  One of the main characteristics of the past centruries so-called ‘Golden Age’ was the importance of family and the stability of marital union. On the contrary, contemporary societies are witnessing substantial challenges in family ties and marital union. Some of these family challenges are the increasing proportion of unmarried individuals, growing age of marriage, substantial fall in birth and fertility rate, the increasing trends of divorce, childlessness, one-child family, single-parent family, and cohabitation. In particular, this article presents research-based evidence to explore patterns and determinants associated with attitudes toward emerging forms of family identified by childlessness, one-child family, single-parent family, and cohabitation.

    Material & Methods

    This analysis is based on a survey conducted in rural and urban areas of Ahvaz, Babolsar, Bojnord, Esfarayen, GonbadKavos, Kamyaran, Khoramabad, Mahmoudabad, Hamadan, and Saghez. The survey includes 4267 males and females aged 15 years old and over. The main independent variable of this analysis is the emerging forms of family, which is measured and identified by childlessness, one-child family, single-parent family, and cohabitation. In addition, the dependents variables of this study are classified in three major categories. The first category of independent variables referes to demographic factors: age, gender (males, females), place of residence (rural and urban areas), marital status, and level of education. The second category of independent variables is related to gender attitude. It is measured in this analysis by the attitude of individuals towards the male-breadwinner model and women’s employment outside the home. The last category of independent variables includes religiosity. It is measured in this analysis in three ways: individuals’ self-assesment about their religiosity, their attitudes towards women’s dress codes or hijab, and attitude towards women’s right to decide about dress codes or hijab.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusion

    On the basis of the preliminary results of this analysis, the following general patterns can be highlighted. First, childlessness is substantially unacceptable as only 2 percent of people hold positive attitude toward this emerging form of family. Second, about one-tenth of people are positive towards one-child family. Third, a relatively greater proportion of people hold positive attitudes towards both single-parent family and cohabitation since around 20 per cent of people are positive towards each of these two emerging forms of family. Moreover, these general patterns are significantly affected by three groups of determinants. It includes determinants related to gender attitudes, religiosity, and basic demographic determinants such as age, place of residence, marital status, and education. For example, the unmarrieds are more likely than the marrieds to hold a positive attitude towards the emerging forms of family. It is even more visible and stronger among the divorced ones, as compared with both singles and the marrieds. The divorced individuals are twice as likely as both singles and the marrieds to hold a positive attitude towards the emerging forms of family. This applies to the all emerging forms of family considered in this study: one-child family, single-parent family, and cohabitation. Another example relates to the effect of educational level: the higher the level of education, the greater the proportion of positive attitude towards the all emerging forms of family including one-child family, single-parent family, and cohabitation. Another demographic determinant in this analysis is age composition which plays a significant role in the attitude towards emerging forms of family: while the older age cohorts are more conservative and largely hold negative attitude towards the all emerging forms of family, the opposite exists among the younger age cohorts. For instance, the proportion of positive attitude towards cohabition amongst the youger cohort aged 15-24 years old is more than 5 times greater than the corresponding proportion amongst the older cohort aged 50 years and above. This also reflects an overwhelming generational gap with regards to the social perception towards the emerging forms of family.In conclusion, the results of this study can be mainly summerized and explained by the traditiaonalism-modenization model, suggesting that the positive attitudes towards emerging forms of family are substantially associated with modern and liberal beliefs: the stronger the later, the higher the former.

    Keywords: Second Demographic Transition, emerging forms of family, childlessness, one-child family, single-parent family, cohabitation, Iran
  • Azam Naghavi *, Fahimeh Zamani, Forooshani Pages 21-34
    Introduction

    Family caregivers around the world care for the patients alongside the professionals with a difference that they do not get paid. Since the role of caregiving often happens suddenly and without prediction, the family might not have a predetermined plan and the available resources cannot be matched to their needs. This creates a pressure for caregivers and currently has affected many people around the world. According to the Global burden of disease study, it is estimated that around 15 percent of the world population suffer from some type of disabilities. It is also estimated that around 93 million children are living with severe or moderate disability (cited in WHO, 2011). In the majority of the cases, mothers are the primary caregivers. The aim of this research was to study the experiences of mothers of children with disability and the main question was whether and how mothers experience compassion fatigue and/or compassion satisfaction.

    Materials and Methods

    Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis approach was employed to analyze two sets of data. The first set of data were collected through in-depth interviews with 12 mothers with at least one child with a disability and the second set of data came from memories of 8 mothers with a child with disability that was published online in a NGO supporting families of children with special needs. The interviewees were mothers between 35 and 67 years old, the majority had one child with a severe disability, one participant cared for two and one participant cared for three children with severe disability. The children were between 10 and 48 and mothers were the primary caregivers the whole time. Participants were selected through snowball sampling. The other set of data were interviews published online with mothers who were caregivers of a child with disability. The interviews were analyzed until reaching to the saturation point. Data were analyzed using Braun and Clarke (2006) six stages of thematic analysis. Three main themes including pathway from motherhood identity to caregiver identity, perceived social support, and the blessing of caregiving were drawn from the data.  
     

    Discussion of Results & Conclusion

    The results were categorized into three themes: pathway from motherhood identity to caregiver identity, perceived social support, and the blessing of caregiving.According to the findings, mothers will experience a sudden transition from mothering to caregiver role and will face grief over losing their wishes for their children future. The majority of participants talked about their shock and disbelief after hearing the bad news. They felt they were suddenly thrown out of their calm life to a situation without readiness. Mothers suddenly faced with news that, apart from their motherhood role, had to take a new role of caregiving.Women mentioned that they had little perceived social support from families, friends, relatives or even their husband. It is observed that emotional problems and compassion fatigue that women were experiencing were mostly drawn from social stigma and social isolation rather than the caregiving itself. Somatization and pain were the common effects of caregiving that women complained about but all women believed that caregiving were a blessing for them. In fact, after accepting the new situation, women actively looked for coping strategies and available services.  However, they were not passive and they were actively looking for a way to cope with the transition from motherhood to caregiver and experience compassion satisfaction. Taking a break, traveling, making herself busy, advocacy, and spirituality were some of the coping strategies women mentioned. Employing coping strategies and looking at the caregiving role as a blessing, leads to compassion satisfaction for participants. The result of this study can be helpful in creating interventions to facilitate adjusting with deep changes in the mother caregivers and empowering women toward a successful transition.

    Keywords: Family caregiver, Sensory-motor Disability, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction
  • Farnaz Dastras, Bijan Khajenoori * Pages 35-58
    Introduction

     The environmental crisis seems to be one of the major challenges that mankind faces in the current century. The term environmental behavior comes from contemporary conditions in which social studies investigate the environmental behavior. Explaining the environmental behaviors of individuals is one of the important issues in environmental sociology.  Environmental behavior is a behavior that a person encounters in the environment. Individuals of each society, in terms of their particular social- cultural context and their personality, have different approaches toward the environment. These behaviors may be quite positive, pro-environmental or vice versa, totally negative, and contrary to the environment. In the last two decades of the twentieth century, human activities and environmental damages have become very important. The world which faces more than six billion people in the future should be sensitive to this issue. Recently, environmental issues have social meaning and also have cultural-social roots. Shiraz city, as one of the cities that has involved in numerous environmental crises, such as the water crisis, the crisis of the destruction of historical gardens, the massive production of garbage and all kinds of other crises, should be given special attention.This study aims to examine the sociological factors contributing to the environmental behavior among Shiraz citizens. 

      Material & Methods

    This research was conducted in 2017 through a survey method. The study population includes all people over 15 years old in 11 zones of Shiraz.  According to the latest statistics, the population of Shiraz is 1,565,572, and based on the Cochran formula, the total sample size is 384 people. By using the map of Shiraz according to the latest changes by the Shiraz municipality, along with the number of households, questionnaires in each zone were provided and distributed. In the next step, the building blocks were randomly selected in each zone. From each block, households and from each household, one person was studied. Statistical samples were obtained using multi-stage cluster sampling. A questionnaire was used to collect data. The number of questionnaires distributed in zones 1 to 11 are: 42 in zone 1, 45 in zone 2, 51 in zone 3, 67 in zone 4, 37 in zone 5, 33 in the zone 6, 47 in zone 7, 9 in zone 8, 35 in zone 9, 35 in zone 10 and 26 in zone 11, respectively. Research hypotheses were analyzed using SPSS software. Kollmuss and Agyeman’s (2002) Environmental Behavior Model has been used in this study as the theoretical framework. To sum up, according to the multi-stage cluster sampling method and based on Cochran formula, questionnaires were distributed among 384 cases in 11 zones of Shiraz.

      Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    In this research, it was tried to identify the environmental behavior of citizens of Shiraz from a sociological point of view. Considering that Shiraz city is one of the most important metropolises involved in environmental hazards, no organized research has been conducted to investigate this phenomenon in Shiraz. The city of Shiraz, as one of the major metropolises of the country suffers from multiple environmental crises. Thus, the results of this study can be used by other researchers. According to the results, 60.8% of people reported moderate level of environmental behavior, while 20.3% and 1.6% reported low and high levels of environmental behavior, respectively. Correlation test showed that the sociological factors including age, environmental awareness, environmental knowledge, emotional involvement, environmental attitude, locus of control, values, responsibilities and priorities, and motivation on one hand and contextual variables such as gender, employment status, and income on the other hand had significant relationships with environmental behavior. The results of multivariate regression equation test showed that environmental awareness, emotional involvement, gender, age, income, and locus of control were able to explain 41.7% of environmental behavior.

    Keywords: Environmental behavior, Environmental Knowledge, Environmental Value, Environmental awareness
  • Mehri Shams * Pages 59-76
    Introduction

    Accepting the reality of women's employment as a social phenomenon is evident, as, with many other social phenomena, this phenomenon has many positive and negative consequences. One of the implications of maternity employment is its impact on the educational achievement of children. In this study, this issue has also been addressed. The change in the role of women in the society leads to changes in the family organization, in this way, it is necessary to explain and predict the positive and negative consequences of family change and, if necessary, provide appropriate strategies. This issue is also important because, after recognizing the factors affecting the educational achievement of children, relying on the impact of mothers' employment, managers and planners lead to appropriate decisions and policies. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors influencing the 4th-grade students' mathematics achievement such as father's education, mother's education, gender, educational resources at home and at school, with emphasis on mothers' employment. Hence, in view of the objectives of this study, the key questions are whether the fourth-grade children with working mothers have more achievement than their counterparts with non-working mothers? Is the success of students in mathematics influenced by parenting education, gender, and educational resources at home? What are the most important determinants of the educational achievement of the children who are studying at 4th-grade in mathematics? What is the effect of schools (school location in terms of urban and rural) on the development of the 4th -grade children in mathematics?

    Material & Methods

    The research method in this study is quantitative and is based on secondary data. To achieve the study objectives, the multilevel method and the HLM software have been used to analyze the data. The statistical population of this study is all Iranian students studying 4th-grade in the year 2015. The sample of (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) TIMSS 2015 in Iran consists of 3823 students (1863 girls and 1960 boys) and 248 schools. The statistical sample at 2015 is selected by using a two-stage cluster sampling method among schools in each country in the year 2015, which has two preliminary and final stages, simultaneously and seamlessly.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The findings of this study on the educational achievement of the students showed that at the level of the student, the mothers' employment, gender, and access to educational resources at home, are not significant but parents’ education is a positive and significant variable. It has also been shown that students' mathematical scores vary from one school to another; in another words, the students at schools in urban areas are better in mathematics scores than those studying in rural schools. In general, variables in the first level (students) explain more variance than the second level variables (schools).According to the results of this study, as well as the results of most of the literature in this regard, which indicate that the quality of time that parents spend on caring for their children is more important than the quantity of time spent with them. Although parents, especially mothers, may have less time with their children or child due to their working conditions and the length of time they are away from their children, but if parents, especially mothers, address the physical and mental needs of their children, they are not considered as an obstacle to the development of children. Therefore, it seems necessary that planners and policymakers, through the media, educational facilities, and educational assistance, try to inform families and improve the quality of communication between parents and children. Along this vein, school administrators and teachers, through holding meetings with parents, emphasize the need to improve the quality of time that parents spend with their children, and especially those who are students.  Also, according to the results of this study, students studying in rural schools will have less educational achievement in math than those studying in urban schools. Planners and policymakers need to pay more attention to rural schools in their planning. Further, considering that today’s children are the fathers and mothers of the future, and considering the results of this study, it is necessary to improve the educational level of the present and future parents, both in urban and rural areas, so that in the future we can see the quantitative and qualitative improvement of future generations.

    Keywords: Maternal Employment, Mathematics Achievement, Educational Resources at Home, School Location, (Trends in International Mathematics, Science Study) TIMSS
  • Masoud Zare Mehrjardy, Hossein Mirzaei *, Gholam Reza Hasani Darmiyan Pages 77-96
    Introduction

    This research studies the impact of economic behaviors on trust (and distrust) as a socio-cultural indicator of the behavior of the participants of an economic partnership. It also tries to analyze the role of the time variable in changing interpersonal trust. There are series of conventions, rules, and habits within a society that shape economic transactions and facilitate the maintenance of trust. These series are vital for the boom of commodity exchanges or the emergence of co-operatives. The relation between social context and economic transactions is multi-layered and multifaceted and is a key factor in explaining the economic dynamics of a region or country. Also, economics consider the contract as the business commitment of individuals and organizations to each other; however, without internal and external control restrictions, commercial contracts do not have full operational guarantees. Hence, theorists believe that strong trust is one of the best alternatives to costly contracts. Trust can also be known as a backup and even a strong alternative to the law, and also as a contract monitoring tool. Trust is influenced by various variables, including the time factor. Scientists believe that trust changes in frequent interactions over time and place. The main question of this research is how interpersonal economic behaviors ultimately lead to the breakdown of business and economic treaties. Also, how do the unregistered relationships, especially interpersonal trust, distrust, and interest-seeking, manifest themselves in the behavior of businessmen? And what is the role of time in trust changes? In this research, the trust had been separated on 3 levels based on Lewicki and Bunker’s approach. First, Calculus-based trust (CBT) that operates on cost-benefit dichotomy. As long as the cost of cutting off economic activities is more than short-term benefits, the contract may be ongoing. Second, knowledge-based trust (KBT) is based on the ability to understand others to predict their behavior. Even if prediction conditions are not available at times, repetitive interactions and multiple relationships will increase the perception of individuals from the other side. Third, identification-based trust (IBT) that is based on increasing the identification of the other side. Accordingly, individuals are inclined to recognize the desires, intentions, and values of each other because they know that they have common interests and it is very important in maintaining interaction and communication to identify whether the interests of individuals are protected by the other side. In addition to the levels laid out in the Lewicki and Bunker’s theory, affection-based trust (ABT) was also presented by McAllister which was historically ignored by researchers. McAllister claims anger as an example and believes that, as a rule, anger is one of the main emotional experiences arises in the process of breaking trust. Therefore, in all interactions, including economic interactions, emotional connections are found in interpersonal relationships.   

    Material & Methods

    Documentary as a qualitative method was used in this research. Also, 113 samples were selected by purposive sampling out of 200 available lawsuits. Finally, using qualitative content analysis, the obtained data were analyzed and interpreted by the authors.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The findings show that trust is a dynamic indicator and changes in nature over the time. The longer time passes, the more trusting relationships will increase in interpersonal economic relationships. Also, according to the results, we found that the higher initial trust boosts the likelihood of long-term economic relationship sustainability. Accordingly, the necessary condition for the formation of ABT is the existence of a prime positive level of trust as well as a minimum of the time index of trust in the same way. In the absence of any of these elements, the economic relationship between the ABT levels will not be formed. At the same time, at the level of confidence in CBT, the necessary condition is the intention of the participants to establish an economic relationship. On the other hand, in KBT, at least the time of trust without initial distrust is a necessary condition for the formation of an interpersonal economic relationship.

    Keywords: interpersonal trust, Economic Sociology, law, Embeddedness
  • Reza Zandi, Younos Vakilalroaia *, Mohsen Farhadi Nejad Pages 97-112
    Introduction

    Elite migration can be defined as a kind of phenomenon or social issue that has both positive and negative effects and, under specific conditions, it results in desirable advancement of the developing countries. Considering negative effects, elite migration causes the country to face problems in terms of science, research, economics, politics and sociology, and the development cycle will be interrupted. On the other hand, taking the desirable results into consideration, the short-term migration of elites to developed countries make them scientifically richer and once they return to the country, they can effectively contribute to the development of the economic cycle and motivate the human resources inside their country. Therefore, the overall purpose of this research is to design an elite gene retention model emphasizing graduates of higher education and Ministry of Health. 

    Material & Methods

    In the present study, in order to design and examine the developmental model, mixed sequential exploratory method has been used. Regarding the qualitative section, the primary framework of qualitative pattern of retaining the elite gene was measured using scientific texts and interviewing experts through alignment method. Qualitative research method is a case study which was designed by using thematic analysis and the network of contents including three levels of basic, organizing, and inclusive themes. In the next step, by collecting quantitative data, the model was evaluated by the descriptive-survey method. For the starters, 35 intellectually-qualified professors (associate professors and above, having the experience of living and studying in foreign countries for more than 3 years, graduated from one of the top 500 universities in the world, and teaching at the top universities in Iran) were selected as the potential participants using judicial-purposeful sampling. Subsequently, in the quantitative section, 163 elite professors possessing highly special conditions were picked using Morgan table. The research tool in the qualitative section was semi-structured interviews of the library study and in the quantitative section, a questionnaire was used. In the quantitative section, a questionnaire consisting of 97 questions, which were obtained from the results of the qualitative section, was designed and distributed among the elite professors. It was examined using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis method and Smart PLS2 software. 

    Discussion of Results & Conclusion

    The data obtained from content analysis method and the formation of themes network suggest that the framework of the qualitative model of elite gene retention includes five aspects of attraction factors, repulsion factors, individual factors, intervention factors, and retention factors. Regarding attraction, factors such as social welfare, job security, income, job independence, proper job opportunities and economic prosperity in the West were recognized as the most important factors. The prominent factors on repulsion were extreme administrative bureaucracy, severe inflation, improper lifestyle, injustice, and inefficient working culture. Factors on individual aspect include human security, dissatisfaction with the social system, and individual stagnation. Distance (physical and mental), unpleasant news, visa and accommodation facilities are of intervening factors. Finally, retention aspects were recognized as organizational downsizing, revision in payments, implementation of meritocracy and dissatisfaction with Western culture. Using the Fuzzy Delphi method, the experts reached agreement in three stages. During three stages of opinion poll since 2018, five questions regarding spreading smuggling, lack of research, lack of progress in manufacturing and industry, providing commuting opportunities, and reducing human resources were selected from the list. Moreover, out of 29 factors, 24 were finally approved and five factors on freedom constraints, job mobility, lack of proper nutrition, dissatisfaction with the West, and localizing the educational system were taken off the model. Conducting Confirmatory Factor Analysis method, R2 values indicate that a high portion of variance in elite gene retention factors are under the influence of attraction, repulsion, individual, intervention, and retention factors. The values obtained for each of the factors are as follows: attraction factors (0.92), repulsion factors (0.827), individual factors (0.748), intervention factors (0.753), and retention factors (0.899). In the present study, in addition to the aforementioned factors of attraction, repulsion, individuals, and intervention, we tried to identify the important factors in retaining elite in the country as well. Therefore, using experts' opinions and field studies, retention factors were picked. In previous studies, suggestions have been proposed to prevent the elite migration, but in none of these studies, retention factors have been mentioned as an important item along with the rest. Meritocracy, organizational downsizing, scientific and research facilities, credit management and job security were among the most important factors in retaining elite.

    Keywords: Elite Genes, Elite Migration, content analysis, fuzzy Delphi, Factor Analysis
  • Hojatollah Vahdati *, Hoda Purzare, Mozghan Bagheri Pages 113-126
    Introduction

    Although the modern business world is rapidly expanding from many competitive aspects, it unfortunately pays little attention to issues such as organizational virtuousness (Moshabaki Esfahani & Rezaei, 2014: 22). Organizational virtuousness and organizational spontaneity as a moral and transcendental aspect of the organization have been somewhat understated. In this research, we try to introduce these two aspects of the organization. One of the higher aspects in an organization that is not related to spontaneity is organizational virtue (Rego, Ribeiro & Cunha, 2010, p. 216). It has been considered recently due to its effective role in organizations and especially its impact on employee performance (Cameron, Bright, & Caza, 2004, p. 780). In an organization which is perceived as virtuous, employees believe that their organization has attractive values and beliefs that may incorporate their organizational membership into their social identity. These social identity processes can play an important role in explaining the relationship between perceived organizational virtuousness (POV) and employee outcomes – if one considers their association with employee outcomes (Blader & Tyler, 2009; Cole & Bruch, 2006; Restubog et al., 2008; Riketta, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and indirect effects of POV on organizational spontaneity. The assumed indirect effect is investigated through the social identity perspective. As such, organizational identification, pride and respect are examined as mediators of the POV-spontaneity relationship.  The following is a summary of the variables:  organizational spontaneity is a construct capturing extra role and active positive employee behaviors, and is different from that of organizational citizenship behavior which does not exclude role-prescribed and passive employee behaviors as organizational spontaneity does (George & Brief, 1992). Social identity is a multidimensional concept incorporating a cognitive component; that is, identification and two evaluative components, which according to Tyler and Blader (2003) are pride and respect. Pride reflects employees’ evaluation of the status of their group (e.g. organization), and respect refers to employees’ evaluation of their own status within their group (e.g. organization) (Blader & Tyler, 2009). Organizational virtuousness “is intimately tied to what is good to and for human beings” (Cameron, 2003, p. 50). Virtuousness has inherent values and is not subservient to the desire to gain profits (Cameron & Winn, 2012). Organizational virtuousness refers to a constellation of virtues in the aggregate, as organizations, similar to individuals, display more than one virtue (Cameron & Winn, 2012).

    Material & Methods

    The current research is an applied one by means of purpose, and descriptive and correlational in terms of data gathering method. The research population consists of the staffs of Lorestan University. Using Cochran formula, a sample of 220 individuals was selected and participants were selected by stratified random sampling. The sampling method is random. Gathering the data was conducted by literature review and field study. To attain model fit and test of the hypotheses, structural equation modeling method and the third version of smart PLS were applied.

    Discussion of  Results & Conclusions

    To measure reliability, composed reliability and Chronbach's alpha were exploited which both were appropriate. To designate validity, the average variance was used and implied that the current research verifies the model goodness of fit. The quotients of R2 and Q2 criteria were used to examine the structural model fit. The amount of R2 and Q2 for the constructs of respect, pride, social identity and organizational spontaneity are, respectively, 0.288, 0.462, 0.657, 0.663 and 0.345, 0.281, 0.289, 0.292. Considering fitness of measurement and structural components of the model, the overall model fit was extracted by index of GOF=0.40 that is the strong fitness of the research model.Once the T amounts are in the range of more than 1.96, the related parameters are significant and the hypotheses are verified (Tenenhaus, & Amato, 2010). The study accumulates further evidence that treating employees with care and respect can bring benefits to organizations. Perceiving organizational virtuousness makes employees identify their organization and view organizational successes as their own. Thus, they become more willing to benefit the organization.
    Employees should feel that the organization creates an environment of organizational virtuousness. When employees perceive that their managers consistently work to promote social betterment and have positive human impact, they are more likely to identify the organization and be more willing to support it. Organizations should incorporate specific goals to facilitate and promote virtuous acts in organizations. Managers and employees who consistently promote integrity, compassion, and/or forgiveness should be rewarded, and virtuous acts should be communicated

    Keywords: Social Identity, Organizational Virtuousness, spontaneity, Lorestan University
  • Jamileh Esfandiarpour, Ali Moradi *, Esmaeel Jahan Bakhsh Pages 127-150
    Introduction

    In the recent decades, lack of consideration for the environmental effects of various industrial activities, services, and production is the most important factor threatening the human and natural environment in Kerman, Iran. Other environmental issues of this society are reports by official bodies of Kerman on water shortages in Qantas caused by excessive extraction of ground waters, destruction of natural fields, deterioration of rivers into sewers caused by irresponsible behavior, closing down a number of factories, industrial and mining sites by the Department of Environment for failure to meet the standards, hunting of the local wildlife, rangeland and forest fires, excessive use of private and outdated automobiles and their environmental effects, excessive water consumption, excessive use of water, natural gas, and electricity during peak hours, and so on. Numerous issues in combination with the absence of systematic data in this regard aggregates the need for research in this area. Therefore, considering the environmental crisis and frequent droughts as well as new phenomena, including dust storms, it is essential to discuss the transformation of environmental culture in the city of Kerman. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to define the relationship between the environmental ethics and social capital and the environmental culture of the citizens of Kerman in the past decade as well as the present time. Also, the study attempts to determine the predictor variables of the environmental culture for the three various aspects of awareness, attitude, and behavior and for the environmental culture as a whole.

    Material & Methods

    This study was carried out using the quantitative approach and survey research method. A questionnaire was employed as the data collection method for the study. The statistical population consists of people aged 16 years and over residing in the four districts of Kerman, which comprise a population of 634132 individuals according to the 2016 statistics. In this paper, three different age groups were considered: 16-29, 30-49, and 50 and over. The reason for the selection of this age groups was to account for their behavior in the past 10 years, therefore the age requirements had to be defined in a way that the individual’s current age allows for the recollection of their behavior with respect to the environment. It is important to note that the questionnaire was defined for two time intervals, in a way that the respondents were required to explain their environmental behavior in the past ten years in items for present day. In this research, the Cochran formula was used to determine the sample size. The sample size is 384 persons as calculated by the Cochran formula.The research employed random cluster sampling by distributing 400 questionnaires between the respondents, and 374 of the questionnaires were recollected and used for statistical analysis. To describe and analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics with the SPSS software were used. In this study, the environmental culture was measured in three aspects of environmental knowledge with 5 parameters (recycling with 5 items, efficient use of water with 5 items, air pollution with 5 items, environmental species with 7 items, and dust storms with 5 items), environmental attitude with 25 items in five paradigms (limitation of growth with 5 items, non-anthropocentrism with 5 items, negation of human exemptionalism with 5 items, and dust storms with 3 items),  and the environmental behavior with 4 paradigms (efficient energy use with 5 items, efficient use of water with 5 items, air pollution with 6 items, environment-friendly recycling with 5 items, and local ecosystem with 3 items).

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The results show that there is a significant relationship between the environmental ethics and environmental culture. It can be inferred that the interest in the environment is a metaphysical value and pro-environment attitudes are present among the prosperous groups, as their needs for food and security are fulfilled. In this respect, the behaviors can be measured as right or wrong based on this principle: an action is right if it preserves and promotes the biotic beauty, integrity, and evolution and is wrong if it disrupts this condition. Also, there is a significant relationship between social capital and environmental culture. It can be argued that the social capital as an important source of the individuals’ social actions can affect their environmental behaviors. Undoubtedly, as the level of social collaboration, integrity, trust, and participation, as important paradigms of social capital, grow between the people of a society, it is reflected in the society’s civil behaviors and environmental culture and increases the sense of responsibility of the people. Based on the obtained results, it can be said that there is no significant difference between the mean awareness and environmental behavior of the three different age groups. However, the mean of environmental attitude is different for each age group. It can be inferred that the attitudes of different age groups with respect to environmental changes are not equal and the people aged 50 and over show a higher mean. It means that this age group have a more pro-environment attitude compared to the other age groups. Also, the results show that the mean of environmental culture for individuals with high socio-economic status is higher compared to the individuals of lower socio-economic status (employment, income, education, and housing status). As a result, it can be inferred that those who have a higher socio-economic status have moved beyond the basic needs and reached the levels of elevated social needs. Therefore, the sense of environmentalism for these people is higher compared to the groups with a fragile socio-economic status who focus more on the basic needs of life. Also, people with higher socio-economic status are more aware of their environmental responsibilities; therefore, project an improved attitude and a more responsible behavior towards the environment, resulting in an elevated environmental culture.

    Keywords: Environmental Culture, Environmental Ethics, Social Capital, Social Economic Status