فهرست مطالب

Basic and Clinical Neuroscience - Volume:10 Issue: 5, 2019
  • Volume:10 Issue: 5, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Vida Mehdizadehfar, Farnaz Ghassemi*, Ali Fallah Pages 409-418
    Introduction

    Many theories have been proposed about the etiology of autism. One is related to brain connectivity in patients with autism. Several studies have reported brain connectivity changes in autism disease. This study was performed on Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies that evaluated patients with autism, using functional brain connectivity, and compared them with typically-developing individuals.

    Methods

    Three scientific databases of ScienceDirect, Medline (PubMed), and BioMed Central were systematically searched through their online search engines. Comprehensive Meta-analysis software analyzed the obtained data.

    Results

    The systematic search led to 10 papers, in which EEG coherence was used to obtain the brain connectivity of people with autism. To determine the effect size, Cohen’s d parameter was used. In the first meta-analysis, the study of the maximum effect size was considered, and all significant effect sizes were evaluated in the second meta-analysis. The effect size was assessed using a random-effects model in both meta-analyses. The results of the first meta-analysis indicated that heterogeneity was not present among the studies (Q=13.345, P>0.1). The evaluation of all effect sizes in the second meta-analysis showed a significant lack of homogeneity among the studies (Q=56.984, P=0.0001).

    Conclusion

    On the whole, autism was found to be related to neural connectivity, and the present research showed the difference in the EEG coherence of people with autism and healthy people. These conclusions require further studies with more extensive data, considering different brain regions, and novel analysis techniques for assessing brain connectivity.

    Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Electroencephalography, Coherence, Meta-analysis
  • Arash Sarveazad, Asrin Babahajian, Naser Amini, Jebreil Shamseddin, Mahmoud Yousefifard* Pages 419-432
    Introduction

    The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation (PTNS) in the control of fecal incontinence (FI).

    Methods

    Two independent reviewers extensively searched in the electronic databases of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scopus for the studies published until the end of 2016. Only randomized clinical trials were included. The studied outcomes included FI episodes, FI score, resting pressure, squeezing pressure, and maximum tolerable pressure. The data were reported as Standardized Mean Differences (SMD) with 95% confidence interval.

    Results

    Five articles were included in the present study (249 patients under treatment with PTNS and 239 in the sham group). Analyses showed that PTNS led to a significant decrease in the number of FI episodes (SMD=-0.38; 95% CI: -0.67-0.10; P=0.009). Yet, it did not have an effect on FI score (SMD=0.13; 95% CI: -0.49-0.75; P=0.68), resting pressure (SMD=0.12; 95% CI: -0.14-0.37; P=0.67), squeezing pressure (SMD=-0.27; 95% CI: -1.03-0.50; P=0.50), and maximum tolerable pressure (SMD=-0.10; 95% CI: -0.40-0.24; P=0.52).

    Conclusion

    Based on the results, it seems that the prescription of PTNS alone cannot significantly improve FI.

    Keywords: Fecal incontinence, Tibial nerve, Electrical nerve stimulation, Tibial neuromodulation
  • Raheleh Mollajani, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Mehdi Tehrani Doost* Pages 433-442
    Introduction

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by several impairments in communications and social interactions, as well as restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Interventions applied for this disorder are based on multi-modal approaches, including pharmacotherapy. No definitive cure or medication has been introduced so far; therefore, researchers still investigate potential drugs for treating ASD. One of the new medications introduced for this purpose is bumetanide. The present article aimed to review the efficacy of this drug on the core symptoms of ASD and its potential side effects. 

    Methods

    We searched all papers reported on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and adverse effects of bumetanide on animal models and humans with ASD. The papers were extracted from the main databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. 

    Results

    The findings revealed that cortical neurons have high chloride ion (Cl−)i and excitatory actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the valproic acid animal model with ASD and mice with fragile X syndrome. Bumetanide, which has been introduced as a diuretic, is also a high-affinity-specific Na+-K+-Cl− cotransporter (NKCC1) antagonist that can reduce Cl− level. The results also indicate that bumetanide can attenuate behavioral features of autism in both animal and human models. Moreover, the studies showed that such medication could activate fusiform face area in individuals with ASD while viewing emotional faces. Also, recent findings suggest that a dose of 1 mg/d of this drug, taken twice daily, might be the best compromise between safety and efficacy.

    Conclusion

    Recent studies provided some evidence that bumetanide can be a novel pharmacological agent in treating core symptoms of ASD. Future studies are required to confirm the efficacy of this medication in individuals with ASD.

    Keywords: Bumetanide, Diuretics, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
  • Sohrab Saberi Moghadam*, Farid Samsami Khodadad, Vahid Khazaeinezhad Pages 443-450

    One of the interesting topics in neuroscience is problem solving and decision-making. In this area, everything gets more complicated when events occur sequentially. One of the practical methods for handling the complexity of brain function is to create an empirical model. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is known as a powerful mathematical-based tool often used in industrial environments. We proposed an MPC and its algorithm as a part of the functionalities of the brain to improve the performance of the decision-making process. It is well known that the decision-making process results from communication between the prefrontal cortex (working memory) and hippocampus (long-term memory). However, there are other regions of the brain that play essential roles in making decisions, but their exact mechanisms of action still are unknown. In this study, we modeled those mechanisms with MPC. We showed that MPC controls the stream of data between prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in a closed-loop system to correct actions.

    Keywords: Decision-making process, Model predictive control, Memory structure, Prefrontal cortex, Hippocampus
  • Soheila Erfani, Ali Moghimi, Nahid Aboutaleb*, Mehdi Khaksari Pages 451-460
    Introduction

    Nucleobinding-2 (NUCB2) or nesfatin-1, a newly identified anorexigenic peptide, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Brain ischemia-reperfusion induces irreversible damages, especially in the hippocampus area. However, the therapeutic effects of NUCB2 have not been well investigated in cerebral ischemia. This study was designed for the first time to investigate the protective effects of NUCB2/Nesfatin-1 on the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and reactive astrogliosis level in the CA1 area of hippocampus in an experimental model of transient global cerebral ischemia.

    Methods

    The male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups (sham, NUCB2, ischemia-reperfusion, and ischemia-reperfusion+NUCB21) (n =7). The model of cerebral ischemia was prepared by common carotid arteries occlusion for 20 minutes. Nesfatin-1 (20 µg/kg) and saline (as a vehicle) were injected (intraperitoneally) at the beginning of the reperfusion period. The assessment of the protein expression levels was performed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining.

    Results

    NUCB2 significantly reduced the Bax and GFAP protein levels in the CA1 area after ischemia (P<0.05). Also, NUCB2 increased Bcl-2 protein level (P<0.05). NUCB2 exerted protective effects against ischemic injury by the inhibition of astrocytes activation as an inflammatory response and decreased neuronal cell apoptosis.

    Conclusion

    The present study provides the possible neuroprotective view of nesfatin-1 in the treatment of ischemia injury model in rat hippocampus.

    Keywords: Nucleobinding-2 (NUCB2), Nesfatin-1, Apoptosis, Astrogliosis, Hippocampus, Ischemia
  • Azam Sadeghian, Yaghoub Fathollahi, Mohammad Javan, Amir Shojaei, Nastaran Kosarmadar, Mahmoud Rezaei, Javad Mirnajafi Zadeh*, Meysam Zare Pages 461-468
    Introduction

    Synaptic plasticity has been suggested as the primary physiological mechanism underlying memory formation. Many experimental approaches have been used to investigate whether the mechanisms underlying Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) are activated during learning. Nevertheless, little evidence states that hippocampal-dependent learning triggers synaptic plasticity. In this study, we investigated if learning and memory in the Barnes maze test are accompanied by the occurrence of LTP in Schaffer collateral to CA1 synapses in freely moving rats.

    Methods

    The rats were implanted with a recording electrode in stratum radiatum and stimulating electrodes in Schaffer collaterals of the CA1 region in the dorsal hippocampus of the right hemisphere. Following the recovery period of at least 10 days, field potentials were recorded in freely moving animals before and after training them in Barnes maze as a hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory test. The slope of extracellular field Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials (fEPSPs) was measured before and after the Barnes maze test.

    Results

    The results showed that the fEPSP slope did not change after learning and memory in the Barnes maze test, and this spatial learning did not result in a change in synaptic potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus.

    Conclusion

    Spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test are not accompanied by LTP induction in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses.

    Keywords: Synaptic plasticity, Hippocampus, Barnes maze test, Spatial memory
  • Zahrasadat Hosseini*, Roya Delpazirian, Hosseini Mohajeri, Peyman Hassani Abharian Pages 469-474
    Introduction

    The current study aims to measure the validity, reliability, and psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the Video Gaming Addiction Test (VAT).

    Methods

    A total of 280 young men (14-20 years old) (Mean±SD age: 17.22±1.8 years), including excessive gamers and normal subjects, entered the study. They answered VAT, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The VAT was translated and then back-translated. For testing reliability, we used the Cronbach alpha, split-half method, and Guttman method. Also, convergent and discriminant validity were tested to examine the construct validity of the translated version of VAT.

    Results

    The Cronbach alpha for the total scale was 0.81. Also, after splitting questions in half, the Cronbach alpha values for these halves were 0.71 and 0.69. Six Guttman lambdas were calculated with 0.75 minimum and 0.82 maximum, all showing good reliability of the test. Convergent validity was tested by testing the correlation between VAT and VAS. The Pearson correlation was fond 0.73, showing a strong relationship between the two factors (P<0.001). For testing discriminant validity, the association of VAT with CD-RISC was tested, showing no correlation between these scales (r=-0.157; P=0.09).

    Conclusion

    The Persian translation of the VAT is valid and reliable, and it is appropriate for research and clinical use with acceptable properties, similar to the original version.

    Keywords: Video gaming Addiction test, Reliability, Validity, Psychometric properties
  • Mazaher Rezaei* Pages 475-484
    Introduction

    There are two alternative explanations of the Stroop phenomenon. Several studies have revealed that the difference in performance on congruent and incongruent trials can arise from response interference. On the contrary, many authors have claimed that Stroop interference might occur at earlier processing stages related to semantic or conceptual encoding. The present study aims to determine the number and nature of the factors necessary to account for the multiple components of Stroop interference.

    Methods

    The sample consisted of 247 undergraduate and postgraduate students. We employed the computerized version of the Stroop task adapted to the Iranian population. An exploratory principal components analysis was conducted on the correlations of 6 variables (reaction time under congruent and incongruent conditions, omission error under congruent and incongruent conditions, and commission error under congruent and incongruent conditions).

    Results

    Two factors were extracted. The first factor may be semantic interference, and the second factor may be response interference.

    Conclusion

    The findings of this research are consistent with the multiple-stage account, claiming that Stroop interference is because of both semantic and response interferences.

    Keywords: Stroop, Stroop interference, Semantic interference, Response interference
  • Linda Grüßer*, Rosmarie Blaumeiser Debarry, Rolf Rossaint, Matthias Krings, Benedikt Kremer, Anke Höllig, Mark Coburn Pages 485-496
    Introduction

    Organotypic Hippocampal Brain Slices (OHBS) provide a better alternative to in vivo models to scrutinize Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). We followed a well-established TBI protocol but noticed that several factors might influence the results in such a set-up. Here, we describe a structured approach to generate more comparable results and discuss why specific eligibility criteria should be applied.

    Methods

    We defined necessary checkpoints and developed inclusion and exclusion criteria that took into consideration the observed variation in such a model. Objective measures include the identification and exclusion of pre-damaged slices and outliers. In this study, six steps were outlined.

    Results

    A six-step approach to enhance comparability is proposed and summarized in a flowchart. We applied the suggested measures to data derived from our TBI-experiments, examining the impact of three different interventions in 1459 OHBS. Our exemplary results show that more precise findings are ensured through equal requirements set for all slices.

    Conclusion

    Results in a TBI experiment on OHBS should be critically analyzed as inhomogeneity may occur. In other words, a structured approach to comparing the results should be followed to ensure achieving more precise findings. Further research is recommended to confirm and further develop this framework.

    Keywords: Organotypic hippocampal brain slices, In vitro model, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Propidium Iodide (PI), Eligibility, Framework
  • Samer Mohsen, Saeid Mahmoudian, Saeed Talbian, Akram Pourbakht* Pages 499-514
    Introduction

    Tinnitus is a common disorder with a considerable amount of distress that affects the patient`s daily life. No objective tools were approved for measuring tinnitus distress. It can be estimated only by subjective scales and questionnaires, albeit, the Electroencephalography (EEG) studies have reported some alterations regarding tinnitus distress network. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and the recorded EEG data. 

    Methods

    A total of 33 chronic tinnitus cases (9 females) with the mean age of 42.67 years were recruited. Their THI scores were collected, and a 3-minute EEG recorded with eye closed at resting-state. The correlation analysis was performed on THI scores and the current density in the selected Region of Interests (ROIs) concerning the distress network for the eight frequency bands. The patients grouped depending on the THI cutoff point of 56 into low and high THI groups, and then the groups were compared for source analysis and functional connectivity between ROIs using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography.

    Results

    A significant positive correlation was seen between THI scores and the electrical activity in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC), the prefrontal cortex, and the parahippocampus for an alpha band (P<0.05) and in the ACC for beta (P<0.01). Source analysis showed significant differences with increased activity in the high THI group for alpha, beta and gamma bands. Functional connectivity was also elevated in the high THI group between the ROIs in alpha and beta bands.

    Conclusion

    THI can be a useful tool for measuring tinnitus distress, and it has a high correlation with EEG data.

    Keywords: Tinnitus, Tinnitus-related distress, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Correlation, Electroencephalography, Functional connectivity
  • Iraj Alimohammadi, Fakhradin Ahmadi Kanrash*, Jamileh Abolaghasemi, Ali Shahbazi, Hanieh Afrazandehh, Kazem Rahmani Pages 515-526
    Introduction

    Noise is an environmental stressor and can cause or exacerbate mental disorders, and affect the individual performance in certain conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the combined effects of noise and smoking on the cognitive performance of the workers in the automotive industry.

    Methods

    This research is a descriptive-analytical study with a cross-sectional design conducted on 300 workers randomly assigned into two groups of noise-exposed and nonexposed. They were examined using computerized tests, including the Tower of London test (TOL), Continuous Performance test (CPT), and Stroop test. The sound pressure levels were measured based on an 8-hour equal-loudness contour in each group according to ISO 9612 standard, using the Testo CEL-815 sound level meter.

    Results

    The study of combined effects of noise and smoking on 12 CPT indicators using the 2-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicate that noise and smoking factors had a significant impact on the mean number of errors and correct responses in the third 50-stimuli stage, the mean number of errors and correct responses in the second 50-stimuli stage with P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.012 and P<0.001 for smoking respectively, but only noise affected the other 7 indicators (P<0.001).

    Conclusion

    Smoking and noise have negative impacts on concentration, attention, and cognitive processing speed, which can lead to an individual’s mistakes and delayed decision making at the workplace.

    Keywords: Stroop test, Smoking, Noise, Occupational, Cognitive science
  • Leila Kamali Dolatabadi, Masoumeh Emamghoreishi*, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Hamze Badeli Sarkala Pages 527-540
    Introduction

    Global Cerebral Ischemia (GCI) causes neuronal damage with subsequent neurological and cognitive impairments. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, which makes it a potential candidate for improving GCI-induced impairments. This study aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin on the neurological and memory deficits, as well as spatial neuronal distribution in the CA1 region after GCI in rats.

    Methods

    56 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups of sham (n=14), control (n=14), curcumin 50 mg/kg (n=14), and curcumin 100 mg/kg (n=14). Each group was divided into the two subgroups of short-term (7 days) and long-term (28 days) treatment periods. The neurological severity score (NSS), passive avoidance task, and the traction test were performed at postoperative days of 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. The novel object recognition test and Voronoi tessellation were carried out on days 7 and 28 after GCI.

    Results

    Curcumin 100 mg/kg significantly decreased neurological severity score on postoperative days of 7 and 28 compared with the control (P<0.001) and curcumin 50 mg/kg groups (P<0.05-P<0.001). Also, curcumin 100 mg/kg significantly increased step-through latency times on postoperative days of 3-28 and 14-28 compared with the control (P<0.05-P<0.001) and curcumin 50 mg/kg groups (P<0.01-P<0.001). Moreover, it increased the novelty preference index during the novel object recognition test in the 28-day treatment subgroup after GCI. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) could maintain the neuronal aggregation in the CA1 region after GCI at a level near to what is generally observed in normal rats.

    Conclusion

    Curcumin could improve memory and neurological deficits and restore irregular neuronal distribution in the CA1 region after GCI in a time-dependent manner, and its higher dose was more effective than its lower dose. Curcumin may have beneficial effects on reducing brain complications after ischemia.

    Keywords: Curcumin, Global cerebral ischemia, Memory, Neurological deficit, Tessellation, Brain, Rat