فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:10 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:10 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Javad Yasbolaghy Sharahi, Zahra Ahovan, Donya Taghizadeh Maleki, Zahra Riahi Rad, Zohreh Riahi Rad, Mehdi Goudarzi, Aref Shariati, Narjess Bostanghadiri, Elham Abbasi, Ali Hashemi * Pages 3-10
    Objective

    Burn wound infection is a severe complication of thermal injury. Patients with severe burn injuries need urgent care to diminish complications after severe burns. Wound infections are commonly considered one of the most serious burn complications, particularly those that are caused by extensively drug-resistant (XDR) bacteria with few therapeutic choices. The objective of this study was to determine in vitro activity of meropenem and curcumin, alone and in combination, against antibiotic-susceptible Gram-positive, and antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic susceptible gram-negative bacteria isolated from burn wound infections.

    Materials and Methods

    The antimicrobial activity of meropenem and curcumin was investigated alone and in combination, against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacterial (XDR) strains isolated from burn patients. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin on human’s epithelial cell lines, was determined.

    Results

    In this study, minimum inhibitory concentrations of meropenem decreased considerably in the presence of curcumin (2- to 16-fold reductions), with synergy observed. Curcumin exerted no cytotoxic effect at concentrations 256-512 µg/ml on human epithelial cell lines.

    Conclusion

    We suggest that curcumin-antibiotic combinations may provide an alternative approach for treating infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) bacteria.

    Keywords: Curcumin, Meropenem, Extensively drug-resistant (XDR), Antibacterial, Wound, Infections
  • Ghaidafeh Akbari * Pages 11-23
    Objective

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is growing. CVDs are the major cause of mortality and have become one of the most important health challenges in developing countries. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural phytochemical which has been widely used against multiple conditions. The present review was designed to evaluate molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of this agent against CVDs.

    Material and Methods

    Data discussed in this review were collected from the articles published in databases such as Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, and Scientific Information Database between 1993 and 2018.

    Results

    According to the experimental studies, GA has protective actions against CVDs through increasing antioxidant enzymes capacity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and decreasing serum levels of cardiac marker enzymes, modulation of hemodynamic parameters, recovery of electrocardiogram aberrations, and preservation of histopathological changes.

    Conclusion

    GA has potential cardioprotective action. Therefore, it has been suggested that this agent can be administered in underlying of CVDS.

    Keywords: Gallic acid, Cardiovascular diseases, Molecular mechanisms ‎
  • Reza Soleimani, Mojgan Mohammadi, Seyed Ahmad Saghebi, Ali Taghipour, Ali Khorsand Vakilzadeh, Jalil Tavakkol Afshari * Pages 24-34
    Objective

    In Persian medicine (PM), wet-cupping therapy (WCT) is the most utilized approach. WCT is mostly done between the shoulders, which is referred to as “hejamt-e-aam” in the Persian language. CD4+T cells also refer to T helper lymphocytes play a critical role in the immune system. Naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into at least four subsets, T helper 1 (Th1), T helper 2 (Th2), T helper 17 (Th17), and T regulatory (Treg) cells. The master regulator controlling each subset have been defined as follows, Tbet (Th1), Gata3 (Th2), RORγt (Th17), FoxP3 (Treg). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of WCT and dry-cupping therapy (DCT) on the ratios of Th1/Th2 and Treg /Th17 in healthy individuals.

    Material and Methods

    Participants were divided randomly into two groups of 41 men in the WCT group and 40 men in the DCT group. Blood was taken, before, one and four weeks after the intervention. RNA was extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the expression of T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt, and Foxp3 genes were determined by using SYBR green RT-PCR technique.

    Results

    The results showed that WCT increased the expression ofGATA-3, RORγt, and Foxp3 transcription factor genes (p=0.009, p=0.001, and p=0.021, respectively). Although in the WCT group, the ratio of Foxp3/RORγt increased (p=0.048), but the ratio of T-bet/GATA-3 (Th1/Th2) decreased (p=0.971).

    Conclusion

    Our findings indicated that WCT may regulate the T subsets of lymphocyte and reduce inflammation.

    Keywords: Wet Cupping Therapy, Subsets of T lymphocyte, Persian Medicine
  • Ali Soleimanzadeh *, Mehdi Kian, Sajjad Moradi, Soraya Mahmoudi Pages 35-49
    Objective
    Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is an evergreen tree with fruits that have potent antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate alleviative effects of carob fruit hydro-alcoholic extract (CFHAE) against reproductive toxicity induced by lead (Pb) in male mice.
    Material and Methods
    Forty-two NMRI adult male mice were randomly categorized into 7 groups (N=6). Group I was the control group and received no treatment. Group II was the sham group and received 0.2 ml distilled water per day. Group III (Pb group) received Pb acetate 1000 ppm/kg/day. Groups IV and V received CFHAE 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. Groups VI and VII received both Pb 1000 ppm/kg/day and CFHAE at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively at the same time. The groups were treated by gavage. After 35 days, sperm parameters (count, motility, morphology, viability, DNA damage, and teratozoospermia index), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione content (GSH), antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx) activity, MDA levels, and sex hormones (FSH, LH, and testosterone) concentrations in serum, testicular expression of Nrf2 and iNOS genes and histopathological alterations were evaluated.
    Results
    Our findings revealed that co-administration of CFHAE with Pb significantly (pNrf2 and iNOS genes compared with Pb group. Also, CFHAE ameliorated histopathological alterations in testis tissue caused by Pb.
    Conclusion
    CFHAE can alleviate reproductive toxicity following Pb exposure in male mice.
    Keywords: Ceratonia siliqua, Pb poisoning, Oxidative stress, Lipid Peroxidation, Nrf2, Inducible nitric oxide synthase, Male reproductive system
  • Maryam Kheiry, Mahin Dianat *, Mohammad Badavi, Seyed Ali Mard, Vahid Bayati Pages 50-57
    Objective
    In cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory response plays an important role and affects heart function. As a flavonoid compound, p-coumaric acid (pCA), commonly exists in many fruits and vegetables and has a therapeutic effect on inflammatory diseases due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of the present study was to investigate pCA anti-inflammatory effect and the miRNAs (miRs) signaling pathway involved in cardiac inflammation following lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury (ALI).
    Material and Methods
    Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: control (received saline for 10 days, i.p.), LPS (received saline for 10 days+5 mg/kg LPS on day 8, intratracheally), pCA (received pCA 100 mg/kg for 10 days, ip), and LPS+pCA (received LPS+pCA). The level of IL-1β, IL-18 in heart tissue and IL-1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined by ELISA kits. Also the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in heart tissue and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung tissue were measured, and pCA effect on miR- 146a in heart tissue was analyzed.
    Results
    Data showed that 100 mg/kg of pCA significantly suppressed LDH activity (p<0.05), IL-18 (p<0.05) and IL-1β (p<0.01) level in heart tissue. Also, in BAL, IL-1β and MPO levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001). Finally, pCA modulated activation of miR-146a (p<0.05) in LPS -induced cardiac injury.
    Conclusion
    These findings indicated that LPS causes cardiac dysfunction and pre-treatment with pCA, as an anti-inflammatory agent, improved cardiac inflammation through modulation of miR-146a, and reducing cytokines and LDH activity.
    Keywords: LPS, p-Coumaric acid, Acute lung injury, miRNA 146a, Cardiac inflammation
  • Babak Daneshfard, Mahdi Shahriari, Alireza Heiran, Majid Nimrouzi *, Hassan Yarmohammadi Pages 58-69
    Objective
    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is one of the main side effects of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. In this trial, we evaluated the efficacy of chamomile in management of neutropenia.  
    Materials and Methods
    This randomized triple-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 2-18-year-old children with ALL. Participants in each group daily received 2.5 ml of either chamomile syrup or placebo syrup for a period of 30 days. Participants’ white blood cell (WBC), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC), as well as their quality of life were evaluated. 
    Results
    The study was completed with a total of 40 patients.  An increasing trend of ANC was observed in the treatment group despite the decreasing trend in placebo group, which was statistically significant between the two groups (P Interaction=0.019, 95% confidence intervals=15.076–171.324). No serious side effects were reported.
    Conclusion
    Using chamomile syrup as a complementary therapy in children with leukemia could improve their immunity (as it increased WBC) by minimizing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.
    Keywords: Chamomile, chemotherapy, Leukemia, Matricaria chamomilla, Neutropenia, Persian Medicine
  • Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Hamed Ghazavi, Mohammad Mahdi Vahedi, Kimia Tarah, Zahra Yavari, Azar Hosseini, Azita Aghaee, Hasan Rakhshandeh * Pages 70-77
    Objective
    Sleep disorders are among the most common psychiatric and medical conditions. In the present study, the hypnotic effect of Tanacetum parthenium was studied in mice. 
    Material and Methods
    The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of T. parthenium and three fractions of it, namely water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and n-hexane fraction (NHF), were intraperitoneally (ip) administrated to mice 30 min before injection of sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, ip). Then, 30 min after administration of HAE, motor coordination (rota-rod test) was evaluated. Besides, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was evaluated in PC12 cells using the MTT assay.
    Results
    HAE 50-200 mg/kg increased the sleeping time. EAF was the only fraction which could prolong the sleep duration and decrease sleep latency. The LD50 value was 4.8 g/kg. The extract induced no cytotoxic effects in PC12 cell line.
    Conclusion
    The results suggested that T. parthenium potentiates pentobarbital hypnosis without causing toxic effects. Probably, its effects are mediated by the components present in EAF of this plant.
    Keywords: Pentobarbital, PC12, Sleep, Tanacetum parthenium, Herbal Medicine
  • Zohreh Arab, Mahmoud Hosseini, Fatemeh Mashayekhi, Akbar Anaeigoudari * Pages 78-88
    Objective
    Stressors have an important role in sickness behaviors. We checked the effect of Zataria multiflora (ZM) extract against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety and depression behaviors in rats.
    Material and Methods
    Rats were distributed in the following groups (n=10): Control, LPS (1 mg/kg), LPS-ZM50, LPS-ZM100 and LPS-ZM200. LPS was syringed intraperitoneally (ip) 2 hr before performing behavioral tests. LPS-ZM groups were treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg (ip) of ZM extract 30 min before LPS administration. Open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming (FS) tests were done. White blood cell (WBC) was counted in all groups.
    Results
    In OF, pretreatment with ZM extract augmented the number of lines crossed and traveled distance in central and peripheral areas. The rats treated with ZM extract spent more time in the central zone and less time in the peripheral area compared to the LPS group. In EPM, the number of entries into the open and closed arms and stop time in the open arms in LPS-ZM groups were higher than the LPS group. The stop time in the closed arms of ZM-LPS groups was less than the LPS group. In FS test, swimming and climbing time in groups treated with ZM extract was more than the LPS group while their immobility time was less. WBC count in the LPS-ZM100 and LPS-ZM200 was lower than that of the LPS group.  
    Conclusion
    Based on the results, pretreatment with ZM extract restituted anxiety and depression caused by LPS in rats. This effect of ZM was associated with amelioration of LPS-promoted inflammation.
    Keywords: Zataria multiflora, Lipopolysaccharide, Anxiety, Depression
  • Bouri Sara, Zemmama Hanane, El Ayoubi Idrissi Khadija, Berraho Mohamed Amine, Abdellaoui Abdelfattah, Badiaa Lyoussi *, Rammouz Ismail, Achour Sanae Pages 89-100
    Objective
    Cannabis use is considered a major clinical problem associated with a poorer outcome in patients with schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of cannabis us among patients with schizophrenia. The assessment consists in comparing some factors related to substance use in a population of schizophrenic patients between cannabis users and non-users.
    Materials and Methods
    Four hundred and three participants who were examined prospectively during their hospitalization answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, GAF, BIS-10, CDSS, and MARS. The consumption of cannabis was investigated using urine toxicological analysis. Sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic data were also recorded.
    Results
    The prevalence of cannabis use among schizophrenic inpatients was 49%. Patients with cannabis use were younger (31.7 vs 34.9 years old, p<0.001), more often male (52 vs 20% female, p<0.001), and they presented more often a history of imprisonment (68.8% vs 31.2%, p<0.001). Patients who were users of cannabis had a lower age at onset of the disease than non-users (23.6 vs 24.8 years, p=0.029), and more often with poor medication adherence (p=0.001). Logistic regression revealed that factors associated with cannabis use among schizophrenics were the age, gender, history of imprisonment and poor medication adherence.
    Conclusion
    The study showed that a high prevalence of cannabis use among patients with schizophrenia which was associated with negative overall outcomes. Determining comorbid substance use disorders among schizophrenic patients is crucial as it may contribute to establish a better therapeutic strategy.
    Keywords: Cannabis, Schizophrenia, Toxicological analysis, Prevalence, Comorbidity
  • Eziuche Amadike Ugbogu, Chukwumaobim Daniel Nwoku, Victor Chibueze Ude *, Okezie Emmanuel Pages 101-113
    Objective
    This study aimed at evaluating the bioactive constituents and the toxicological profile of the aqueous fermented seed extract of P. macrophylla.
    Material and Methods
    The chemical constituents of fermented P. macrophylla were assessed using GC-MS. For acute toxicity study, one-time doses of up to 5000 mg/kg of the extract were orally administered to male and female rats whereas 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of the P. macrophylla extract were orally administered daily for 14 days in sub-acute toxicity investigation. Biochemical, haematological and lipid profiles were assessed following standard methods.
    Results
    Bioactive compounds such as citronellol and oxirane, tetradecyl- (hexadecylene oxide) were identified in the extract. In acute toxicity test, no death or sign of toxicity was identified. For sub-acute study, ALT decreased significantly (p<0.05) while HDL-C had dose-dependent increases. No effect (p<0.05) on haematological parameters except on platelets was found. No histopathological changes were observed.
    Conclusion
    Our results demonstrated that the extract of fermented P. macrophylla caused no toxic effects in the rats at the tested doses. Therefore, they may be termed safe for consumption and therapeutic uses.
    Keywords: Pentaclethra macrophylla, Bioactive compounds, lipid profile, Hepatic enzyme, Histopathology