فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology - Volume:12 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:12 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Fatemeh Ghaemimanesh* Page 1
  • Pooria Gill , Arash Hadian Amree * Pages 2-8

    In recent decades, different methods have been introduced for the genotyping of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations in nucleic acid sequences. These methods have several applications ranging from agriculture to medicine. The Loopmediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was first introduced by Notomi et al. Since then, different methods derived from LAMP have been extensively applied in detecting pathogens. The LAMP method is an isothermal technique that amplifies the target DNA segment using four different primers that have been uniquely designed for recognizing six distinct zones on the objective gene; the process of reaction continues at a constant temperature via a strand displacement reaction. Amplifying and detecting the targeted zone can be accomplished in one stage. Although the LAMP method is mostly used for pathogen detection, several studies have used this method for genotyping. The present article reviewed various studies that used the LAMP method for SNP detection. The outcomes indicated that the LAMP technique could be a reliable and alternative technique for genotyping. Further studies are recommended to use this approach for genotyping.

    Keywords: AS-LAMP, Genotyping, LAMP, Single nucleotide polymorphisms
  • Amira Orabi *, Mohammad Maarouf, Mustafa Alammori Pages 9-16
    Background

    Leishmaniasis is one of the major emerging health problems worldwide and Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) is most prevalent in the Middle East due to conflict and environmental factors, and there is no effective prevention strategy available until now. An effective vaccine has not been developed to date. DNA vaccines are considered a promising approach to protect against this infection. In this study, since vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) enzyme has an essential role in the life cycle of eukaryotes, V-ATPase subunit F gene has been chosen to design DNA vaccine and evaluate its immunogenicity in BALB\c mice.

    Methods

    Genomic DNA was isolated from promastigote culture, synthesized complementary DNA (cDNA) after standardization of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) conditions. The V-ATPase subunit F gene was placed into plasmid PCI. Then, recombinant plasmids were transformed into competent cells. Cloning was confirmed by PCR, restriction enzyme assays, and finally, DNA sequence analysis, after making miniprep from positive colonies and finally the gene was sequenced. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously three times at an interval of two weeks with designed vaccine. BALB\c mice were challenged with 106 promastigotes of L. tropica 7 days post-immunization. IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-4 were quantified by RT-qPCR.

    Results

    The present study proved the existence of subunit F gene in Syrian strain of L. tropica (LCED Syrian 01) promastigotes genome. Its expression was also proved in these parasites and the gene length was 414 bp.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that vaccination of BALB\c mice with this gene induced partial protection against Leishmania by reduction of lesion size by 41.9% and parasite burden reduction by 3-log in the dLNs when compared with control group. IFNγ\IL-4 was 1.6 after challenge test, so the immune response consisted of both Th1 and Th2.

    Keywords: BALB, c mice, DNA vaccine, Leishmania tropica, Parasite load, RT-PCR, V-ATPasesubunit F
  • Farzaneh Peighambarzadeh , Anahita Najafalizadeh , Nafiseh Esmaeil , Abbas Rezaei , Farzaneh Ashrafi , Mazdak Ganjalikhani Hakemi * Pages 17-23
    Background

    Regarding to the increase of cancer deaths in recent years and disability of common therapies to eradicate cancers, as well as expansion of Natural Killer (NK) cell therapy, it seems so vital to find new useful therapies against cancers. Breast cancer is the second main cause of cancer death among women. As it is impossible for a majority of patients to receive NK cell therapy, an attempt was made to establish a low-cost and efficient method for expanding and activating NK cells against breast cancer cell line (MCF7).

    Methods

    NK cells were isolated from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) applying either MACS based NK cell enrichment kit or antibodies and complement as cytotoxic method. Then, the NK cells were cultured in Stem Cell Growth Medium (SCGM) with feeder layer (irradiated PBMCs) along with PHA or OKT3. IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21 were used to expand NK cells and finally their cytotoxic activity was investigated by flow cytometry.

    Results

    Highly pure NK cells were obtained and no significant difference between the two isolation methods was found. Using IL-2 plus IL-15, the number of NK cells increased up to100 fold after 16 days. No significant effect was observed after IL-21 treatment.

    Conclusion

    Our data indicated that cytotoxicity method can be considered a lowcost alternative for NK cell isolation kits. It seems that culturing NK cells for 14 days in either PHA or OKT3 supplemented SCGM medium would be more effective than culturing for 16 days in the presence of IL-21.

    Keywords: Interleukins (IL), Immunotherapy, Natural killer cells
  • Jafar Mahmoudian, Mahboobeh Nazari *, Roya Ghods, Mahmood Jeddi Tehrani, Seyed Nasser Ostad, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani, Sedigheh Vafaei, Mohammad Mehdi Amiri, Amir Hassan Zarnan Pages 24-31
    Background

    Placenta-specific 1 (PLAC1), as a new Cancer/Testis Antigen (CTA), is frequently expressed in a variety of cancers and localized to cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Surface expression of cancer target antigens is of great importance that enables antibody-mediated cancer immunotherapy. The aim of the current study was to express the intact human PLAC1 protein on plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell as a model for future anti-PLAC1-based cancer immunotherapy.

    Methods

    In the first approach, entire human PLAC1 gene including its own Signal Peptide (SP) was cloned into pIRES2-EGFP and LeGO-iG2 vectors and expressed in CHO-K1 cells. In the second approach, cytosolic and Signal-Anchor (SA) sequence of Transferrin Receptor Protein 1 (TFR1) were fused to extracellular portion of PLAC1 and expressed as above. Expression of PLAC1 was then assessed using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western Blot (WB), Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Immunofluorescence (IF) and Flow Cytometry (FC).

    Results

    The first approach resulted in the expression of PLAC1 in submembranous but not in the surface of transfected CHO-K1 cells. Using the chimeric human PLAC1 construct, the same intracellular expression pattern was observed.

    Conclusion

    These results indicated that there are some yet unknown PLAC1 localization signals employed by cancer cells for surface expression of PLAC1.

    Keywords: Eukaryotic cells, PLAC1 protein expression, Protein transport
  • Elly Munadziroh , Evi Umayah Ulfa, Amaliah Labiqah , One Asmarani , Ni Nyoman Tri Puspaningsih* Pages 32-36
    Background

    The Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitors (SLPI) has many biological functions including anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and immuno-modulatory. Previous studies have shown that gene-encoding human SLPI have successfully been expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) with a C-terminal polyhistidine tag (His-tag). The aim of this research was to investigate the inhibition activity of N-terminal His-tag position (NSLPI) and C-terminal His-tag position (CSLPI). We hypothesized that a His-tag close to an active site SLPI domain may interfere with the inhibition activity of SLPIs.

    Methods

    A NSLPI and CSLPI were constructed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR products were then ligated into pET-30a plasmid and transformed into E. coli TOP10. Recombinant plasmids were verified by using restriction analysis and nucleotide sequence analysis. pET-NSLPI and pET-CSLPI were then subcloned in E. coli BL21(DE3) for its expression. The SLPI protein was expressed using Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside induction (IPTG). The inhibition effect of both SLPI against Porcine Pancreatic Elastase (PPE) enzyme was tested using the Nsuccinyil-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-4-nitroanalide (NPN) substrate.

    Results

    The SLPI gene was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21. Fusion proteins of NSLPI and CSLPI were generated with His-tag in the N-terminal and Cterminal position, respectively. The inhibition effect of NSLPI and CSLPI on PPE indicated that both SLPI were active. The inhibition activity of NSLPI was 66.7%, higher than CSLPI by 44.4%.

    Conclusion

    The His-tag position on the C-terminal of SLPI reduced the inhibition activity of SLPI.

    Keywords: Escherichia coli, Gene expression, Poly histidine, Secretory leukocyte proteaseinhibitor
  • Farzaneh Zarghampoor, Abbas Behzad Behbahani *, Negar Azarpira *, Saeed Reza Khatami, Maryam Fanian, Mahdokht Hossein Aghdaie, Gholamreza Rafiei Dehbidi Pages 37-43
    Background

    Despite the ease of conventional splicing by overlap-extension (SOEing) PCR technique in theory, when splicing more than two fragments, and especially if one of the complementary sequences is A-T rich, the attachment of the fragments would be challenging. A new rapid and highly efficient SOEing PCR assay was developed for simultaneous splicing of multiple DNA fragments and induction of site-directed mutagenesis in a single tube.

    Methods

    The method was adapted for splicing human beta-globin UTRs to OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, C-MYC, LIN28A, and destabilized GFP for the construction of chimeric DNA fragments for in vitro transcription. In addition, the native Kozak sequence of beta-globin (K1) was replaced by the strongest Kozak sequence (K2) using site-directed mutagenesis to enhance the expression of target genes.

    Results

    ChimericGFPd2/K1, GFPd2/K2, OCT4, and KLF4 were created by the optimized conventional SOEing PCR. The single tube method was able to create the chimeric SOX2, C-MYC, and LIN28A in high quality and quantity in comparison with the conventional SOEing PCR. Moreover, using single tube SOEing PCR, the reaction time and materials that are required in the conventional SOEing PCR were significantly reduced. Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry examinations indicated highly efficient translation of K2 sequence in comparison with the K1sequence.

    Conclusion

    Single tube SOEing PCR is a valuable method to construct more multiple fragments with high yield. The method can successfully be applied for construction of various kinds of complex chimeric genes.

    Keywords: Beta-globins, Mutagenesis, Polymerase chain reaction, Site-directed, Untranslatedregions
  • Sina Alizadeh , Shiva Irani , Azam Bolhassani *, Seyed Mehdi Sadat Pages 44-51
    Background

    The delivery of exogenous genes into cells for functional expression is required for development of DNA vaccine and gene therapy in medicine and pharmacology. Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPPs) were considered to mediate gene and drug delivery into living cells. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate the efficiency of an arginine-rich CPP, HR9, in HCV NS3 gene delivery compared to TurboFect cationic polymer and supercharged +36 GFP into HEK-293T cells.

    Methods

    The recombinant pEGFP-NS3 was constructed and their accuracy was confirmed by digestion and sequencing. Then, the recombinant plasmid was transfected into HEK-293T cells by TurboFect, +36 GFP and HR9 gene delivery systems. The expression of NS3 protein was assessed by fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and western blotting.

    Results

    Our data indicated that HR9 peptide was able to form stable complexes with plasmid DNA and increased its delivery into HEK-293T cells in a non-covalent manner. Furthermore, treatment of cells with HR9 and HR9/DNA complexes resulted in a viability of 90-95% indicating this CPP was not cytotoxic. The analysis of zeta potential and size showed the importance of interactions between positively-charged HR9/pEGFP-NS3 complexes and negatively-charged plasma membranes.

    Conclusion

    The non-toxic HR9 CPP can be considered an effective carrier for delivering plasmid DNA harboring Hepatitis C virus (HCV) gene in therapeutic vaccine design.

    Keywords: Cell penetrating peptide, DNA, Gene delivery system, Hepatitis C virus, Vaccines
  • Shahrzad Soleymani Fard , Masoud Sotoudeh , Kioomars Saliminejad , Mansour Yazdanbod , Habibollah Mahmoodzadeh , Shaghayegh Kouchaki , Marjan Yaghmaie , Seyed Asadollah Mousavi , Reza Malekzadeh , Kamran Alimoghaddam *, Seyed Hamidollah Ghaffari Pages 52-60
    Background

    Zinc-finger Enhancer Binding protein (ZEB1) acts as a transcription factor to promote cancer progression through regulating Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). It is well-known that ZEB1 mRNA expression is directly induced by both Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR). Moreover, Androgen Receptor (AR) and PR could bind to the same regulatory element. Since it has been shown that AR overexpresses in Gastric Cancer (GC) as a male-predominant tumor, the goal of this study was to evaluate whether AR could regulate ZEB1 expression in GC.

    Methods

    The expression profile of ZEB1 in 60 fresh GC and adjacent non-tumor tissues and 50 normal gastric specimens was assessed by qRT-PCR, and the association of ZEB1 expression with clinicopathological features was investigated. Furthermore, possible correlation between ZEB1 and AR was evaluated to elucidate a novel prognostic marker using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Finally, molecular interaction of ZEB1 and AR was assessed using a potent AR antagonist in GC cells.

    Results

    Among GC patients, 70.2% (40/57) overexpressed ZEB1 and 64.91% (37/57) overexpressed AR relative to normal gastric tissues. ZEB1 overexpression was significantly correlated with the AR overexpression in GC patients. Moreover, ZEB1 overexpression was remarkably associated with lower overall survival; however, it was not an independent prognostic factor. Evidence shows that simultaneous evaluation of ZEB1 and AR expression could independently predict survival of GC patients (HR= 2.193, p=0.047).

    Conclusion

    These findings have clinical importance suggesting simultaneous evaluation of ZEB1 and AR expression as a potential prognostic marker. Moreover, AR may regulate ZEB1 expression in GC cells proposing a possible promising targeted therapy for GC patients.

    Keywords: Androgen receptor, Enzalutamide, Gastric cancer, Prognostic marker, Targetedtherapy, ZEB1
  • Hamid Reza Karbalaei Heidari *, Mozhdeh Partovifar, Mina Memarpoor Yazdi Pages 61-65
    Background

    In the present work, a newly isolated marine bacterium, Micrococcus sp. MP76, from coastal area of Persian Gulf around Bushehr province, Iran, was identified with the ability to produce bioactive compounds.

    Methods

    The pigment production was optimized by changing carbon and nitrogen sources in bacterial growth media at 28C and 220 rpm for 5 days. Partial purification of the pigment was carried out using suitable solvents.

    Results

    Maximum pigment extract was achieved (1.4 g/l) when cultured in the medium containing 0.5% (v/v) molasses, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 1% (w/v) sea salt, 0.01% (w/v) potassium phosphate, and 0.05% (w/v) yeast extract, pH=7.0. Antibacterial effect assessment of the extract against pathogenic bacteria revealed the MIC values in the range of 4.2-7.5 mg/ml depending on different pathogens. The pigment extracted from medium supplemented by molasses and ammonium sulfate had 81% radical scavenging activity, and its IC50 value was 0.28 mg/ml.

    Conclusion

    The newly isolated strain of Micrococcus genus from the Persian Gulf revealed a valuable source to access worth medicinal ingredients when cultured under optimized conditions.

    Keywords: Antibacterial effect, Antioxidant activity, Bioactive compounds, Marine bacteria, Persian Gulf
  • Zohra Benaouf *, Imen Benbahi , Oussama Djorf , Zahira Souidi , Reda Kechairi Page 66