فهرست مطالب

Poultry Science Journal - Volume:7 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:7 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • E Nobakht, M Muhaghegh Dolatabady* Pages 95-100

    Today, the use of oak as a replacement feed in poultry diets is well documented. However, oak contains polyphenol compounds (tannins) as antinutrient factors resulted in limited usage in the poultry rations. Generally, consumption of feeds containing tannin could affect gene expression level of immune system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of oak acorn on the expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) genes in the bursa Fabricius tissue of broiler chickens. For this purpose, broiler chickens were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 15% and 20% oak acorn in 6 weeks experimental period. Total RNA was extracted from bursa Fabricius tissue of 6 chickens for each treatment (18 broiler chickens) on day 42. To investigate the expression of IL-2, IL-13 and IFN-γgenes, their expressions were normalized with β-actin gene as a reference gene. REST, 2009, V2.0.13 software was used for analysis of gene expression data. The results showed that the expression levels of IL-2 and IL-13 genes in bursa Fabricius tissue were not significantly different for 15% oak acorn treatment compare to control group, but the mRNA expression levels of IL-2 and IL-13 were significantly lower in 20% of oak acorn in respect to control and 15% oak acorn diets (P < 0.05). However, expression of IFN-γ gene was not observed in any samples of the three treatments. According to the results of this study, it seems that increasing the amount of oak acorn in diet of broiler chicken with increase tannin content most likely could suppress the expression of IL-2 and IL-13 genes in bursa Fabricius tissue.

    Keywords: IFN-γ, Oak acorn, Interleukin, Broiler chicken, Immune system, Gene expression
  • MJ Mahmoodi, M Azadbakht *, A Asghari, B Dastar Pages 101-108

    Bird eggs should have high internal and external quality to maintain the economic life of the product and hence recognizing and understanding thefactors affecting egg quality have great importance. In this experiment, 18 healthy eggs were selected and then exposed to a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field. After this stage, 6 samples of them were immersed in sunflower oil and stored for two days. In the next step, length and width, failure force, thickness and weight of eggshell were measured. Then, the amount of shell density, volume spherical coefficient, and egg shape index were obtained using the desired formulas. Due to the effect of the calculated parameters on the failure force of eggshells, and in order to remove this effect, the calculated failure force was divided on the calculated parameter. The results of experiment showed that the highest ratio of failure force of eggshell on the parameters was related to the samples placed in the magnetic field and no immersed with sunflower oil. As in all cases was significantly different from control samples. The lowest amount was also attributed to control samples. In general, it was concluded that the presence of samples in the magnetic field increases the shell's resistance to failure, but samples that are immersed in sunflower oil had a lower failure force than those which are not immersed in sunflower oil. Finally, it can be concluded that with the presence of eggs in a high-power magnetic field, we can see an increase in the resistance force to the shell failure.

    Keywords: Egg, Shell, Failure force, Magnetic field
  • DN Fajri, MF Ulum * Pages 109-118

    Hen’s native chicken reproductive organ health status evaluation is important for raising Indonesian native chicken in order to support protein supply for people demand. This study aimed to discover the images of Indonesian hen’s native chicken reproductive organ using ultrasonography. There were 18 hens that used in this study and divided into two groups, 15 hens for brightnessmode ultrasonography imaging and three hens for color Doppler ultrasonography imaging. The 15 hens that were used for brightness-mode ultrasonography divided into three groups based on body weight i.e. 1.2 kg, 1.3 kg, and 1.5 kg, and it’s also divided in two groups based on their age less and more than one year old. The transcutaneous ultrasonography performed in this study. The transducer lubricated by ultrasound transmission gel and positioned on caudal femur with an approximately angle 30 degree against abdomen wall. The results showed that follicles were ease to found and appeared as anechoic oval to round form confined by a hypoechoic layer at left position of ultrasound scanning. Furthermore, follicles were difficult to scanning in hens with age under than a year. The number and size of follicles and eggs were affected by body weight. In-vivo ultrasound image of eggs showed enhancement artifact and specular reflection, while in-vitro ultrasound image of eggs showed acoustic shadowing. The uterine organ showed as an anechoic structure with several parts having multiechoic that representing plica uterina. Further, the color Doppler ultrasound images can be used for identification of ovarium vascularisation profile. In general, it can be stated that ultrasonography is a useful non-invasive supporting diagnostic tool to evaluate the health status of hen’s reproductive organ.

    Keywords: Chicken hen, Ultrasonography, Brightness mode, Reproductive organ, Color doppler mode
  • K Nasiri Kazemi, M Fard *, M Rezaei, S Yousefi Pages 119-129

    Effects of sodium selenite (SS) in offspring of broiler breeders has been reported, but the comparison between SS and different level of methionine on offspring has received limited, so this study was conducted to investigate sodium selenite and methionine effects on concentration of selenium in egg and serum of Iranian native broiler breeders. An experiment was conducted in 3 × 3 factorial experiment with three levels of sodium selenite (0.0, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/kg of diet) and three levels of methionine (0.23, 0.31 and 0.33 % of diet) to investigate reproductive performance and immune status of broiler breeders (64-74 wks). The higher methionine levels increased the egg weight until the dose of 0.31% of diet (P < 0.05). In this experiment, 0.5 mg/kg SS with 0.31 % methionine in the diet was found to increase egg weight (P < 0.05). The highest salable chicks were obtained by supplementing 0.3 mg/kg SS (P= 0.07). Increasing the level of methionine from 0.23 to 0.33% without SS and also, supplementation SS at 0.3 mg/kg with 0.33 % methionine exhibited higher serum selenium, although, no effect of methionine levels was observed on concentration of selenium in serum and transfer rate. Concentration of selenium in eggs and serum were significantly affected by interaction of SS and methionine levels in diet. An increment in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) level tended to increase with SS (0.5 mg/kg) and methionine (0.33%) interaction (P=0.06). The results showed that increasing the level of methionine increases the immune response against influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that higher level of methionine at 0.31% could improve egg weight and Influenza and ND titers, SS at dose of 0.5 could increase concentration of selenium in serum, whereas increasing of SS levels significantly raised embryonic mortality.

    Keywords: Methionine, Broiler breeder, Sodium selenite, Immune response, Antioxidant enzyme
  • S Sugiharto *, T Yudiarti, I Isroli, E Widiastuti, HI Wahyuni, TA Sartono, AN Al Baarri, N Nurwantoro Pages 131-140

    The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of feeding multistrain probiotic on breast muscle characteristics of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infected broilers. Three hundred and thirty six Lohmann MB-202 day-old-chicks were divided to four treatment groups, including CNTRL (chicks receiving basal diet and not infected), APEC (chicks receiving basal diet and infected with APEC), APEC-AGP (chicks taking in basal diet containing 0.04% zinc bacitracin and infected with APEC) and APEC-PROB (chicks taking in basal diet containing 0.5% probiotic Bacillus and infected with APEC). At day 35, birds were randomly taken and slaughtered, and from which the breast muscles were collected for the determination of breast meat characteristics. The breast meat of CNTRL had lower (P < 0.05) pH values than APEC-AGP and APEC-PROB birds. The breast muscles from CNTRL exhibited higher (P < 0.05) water holding capacity (WHC) and water content than that from infected groups. Crude fat was higher (P < 0.05) in APEC-AGP and APEC-PROB than that of CNTRL and APEC meats. Crude ash was higher (P < 0.05) in APEC-PROB meat than that in other meats. The L* (lightness) values were higher (P < 0.05) in meats from APEC and APEC-AGP than in CNTRL and APEC-PROB meats. The a* (redness) values were higher (P < 0.05) in meat of CNTRL than in APEC-AGP and APEC-PROB. The samples from APEC-AGP had the highest (P < 0.05) values of b* (yellowness). Palmitic, stearic and linoleic acids were higher (P < 0.05) in meat from CNTRL and APEC compared to that from APEC-AGP and APEC-PROB. Oleic acid was higher (P < 0.05) in CNTRL than in APEC-AGP and APEC-PROB meats. CNTRL meat had higher (P < 0.05) antioxidant activity than APEC and APEC-AGP meats. The 21, 42.7, 40, 51 and 53 kDa bands were intense in all meat samples from APEC group, but less intense in some samples from CNTRL, APEC-AGP and APEC-PROB groups. In conclusion, APEC infection posed a negative effect on broiler meat characteristics. Probiotic seemed to counteract infection and thereby alleviate the detrimental effect of APEC infection on meat traits.

    Keywords: Infection, Probiotic, Antibiotic, escherichia coli, Broiler chicken meat
  • H Habibi *, N Ghahtan Pages 141-150

    Herbal plant supplements are one of the important natural growth promoters used as alternatives to commercial antibiotics. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of spice and Herbal plant products on the growth, carcass qualities, biochemical, Microbial Count and immune response factors in Japanese quail meat. A total of 360 fourteen-day-old Japanese quails female were randomly distributed into 9 groups with 4 replicates (10 quail/rep). Treatments included two levels (0.1 and 0.2%) of each herbal plant (Trachyspermum copticum, Majorana hortensis, Stachys lavandulifolia, Zingiber officinale) product and a control group that received a diet free of herbal products. From the results of this study, it was concluded that the dietary T. copticum, M. hortensis and S. lavandulifolia had no significant effect on live weight of Quail (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that the use of Z. officinale and M. hortensis increased the percentage of organs weight and Z. officinale increased water holding capacity, moisture (P < 0.05). The results of the present study revealed a significant effect of T. copticum herbal plant supplements on decreasing Total Bacterial Counts, Total coliform count, Triglyceride, cholesterol, pH and increasing Phosphorus and Calcium. In this experiment, S. lavandulifolia increased Ash and Dry matter (P < 0.05), while, T. copticum-0.2%, Z. officinale-0.2% and S. lavandulifolia-0.2% were found to increase the titres of Avian Influenza, and M. hortensis-0.2% increased the titres of Newcastle disease antigens. The study also demonstrated a prominent preservative effect of T. copticum, S. lavandulifolia, Z. officinale, M. hortensis and hence, T. copticum, S. lavandulifolia, Z. officinale and M. hortensis can be considered as a natural food additive in Quail and Quailproducts.

    Keywords: Herbal plant, Japanese quail, Growth promoter, Immune response
  • A Koushandeh, M Chamani *, A Yaghobfar, AA Sadeghi, H Baneh Pages 151-161

    This study aimed to investigate and compare nonlinear growth models (NLMs) with the predicted performance of broilers using an artificial neural network (ANN). Six hundred forty broiler chicks were sexed and randomly reared in 32 separate pens as a factorial experiment with 4 treatments and 4 replicates including 20 birds per pen in a 42-day period. Treatments consisted of 2 metabolic energy levels (3000 and 3100 kcal/kg), 2 crude protein levels (22 and 24%) and two sexes. Ten birds in each pen tagged and their weekly BW records were collected individually to evaluate the accuracy of predicted BW by ANN as an alternative to nonlinear regression models (Logistic, Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy, and Brody). Based on the goodness of fit criteria and error measurement statistics, the NLMs fitted the age-weight data better than ANN. The findings indicated that the performance prediction of broiler chicks using the Gompertz model (R2 = 0.9989) was more accurate than other NLMs (R2 = 0.9628 to 0.9988) and ANN (R2 = 0.95839). Therefore, the application of the Gompertz model is suggested to predict the BW changes of Ross 308 broiler chicks over time.

    Keywords: Broiler, Growth Curve, nonlinear model, Artificial neural network
  • B Ahmadipour *, M Kalantar, H Hassanpour Pages 163-169

    Securigera securidaca (Fabaceae) or goat pea is growing wild in West Asia, Europe and Africa as an annual herb. In Persian, it is called “Gandeh Talkheh”. The seeds of goat pea are applied in the traditional medicine to treat different dysfunctions e.g., hyperlipidemia and hypertension. This study was done at altitude of 2100 m above sea level. The effects of dietary Securigera securidaca seed (S. securidaca) were studied on hematological parameters, ascites incidence, and gene expression in the liver in chickens under cold temperature condition. Number of 200 broiler chicks (1-day-old male, Ross 308 breed) were randomly divided into 20 floor pens and reared for 42 days. Experimental groups were defined by the inclusion of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, and 4 g/kg S. securidaca in the diets. The results of the experiment showed that broiler chickens fed a diet containing 2 to 4 g/kg S. securidaca seed had lower abdominal fat and relative liver weight as well as right ventricular ratio to total ventricles (RV/TV) compared to control, while nitric oxide and hematocrit were higher (P<0.05). The transcript of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes were influenced in the liver by feeding S. securidaca Seed. Liver NOS and GPX mRNAs were considerably increased in the groups supplemented S. securidaca seed (3 and 4 g/kg) compared to the control birds (P < 0.05). In conclusion, S. securidaca medicinal herb effectively improves pulmonary hypertensive response in broiler chickens.

    Keywords: Chicken, Gene expression, Securigera securidaca, Pulmonary hypertension, Hematological parameter
  • HI Hantanirina *, RN Rabearimisa, NARR Andrianantenaina, JN Rakotozandriny Pages 171-181

    The purpose of the present study is to get a better knowledge of the Malagasy indigenous race of hen through its egg physical characteristics and its laying performance in order to promote villager poultry production. This study was undertaken within a local family farm, of the rural Township of Ambalamahasoa, Haute Matsiatra Region, Madagascar, with 25 hens and 4 roosters in age to reproduce. From 180 collected eggs and 4 incubation tests with three repetitions, the results showed that: 1 – Eggs were light weighted (average weight=45.49±4.63g), of small calibers (average length=4.82±0.22cm; average diameter = 3.61±0.15cm) but of normal format (average IF=0.75±0.03) 2 – they were presenting a good fertility rate (73.94%) with a high hatching percentage (90.16%) and a low embryonic death rate (9.84%). The mother-hen is both a good brooder and a good local reproducer. Egg physical variability reflects a broad genetic diversity within the indigenous race among the poultry population; which could constitute an asset for villager poultry production promotion and poultry biodiversity conservation in Madagascar.

    Keywords: Poultry, Madagascar, Performance, Indigenous race, Natural incubation, Egg physical characteristic
  • M Cahyadi *, R Fauzy, R Dewanti Pages 179-184

    The present study was conducted to determine egg production traits and egg quality characteristics in black and brown lines of Japanese quail. A total of 500 quails comprising 400 females and 100 males obtained from two breeding centers were raised according to the standard procedure for Japanese quail. They were grouped in according to their plumage colours. Age at first egg-laying has been recorded. Egg production and hen day production (HDP) have also been calculated. Additionally, samples of 240 composite quail eggs, 60 eggs per line, have been randomly selected at the age of 88, 89, and 90 days. Those eggs were used to determine the quality of egg including egg weight, shell thickness, shell weight, shape index, air cavity, albumen index, yo lk index, Haugh unit (HU), and yolk color score. Furthermore, the data were analysed using general linear model (GLM) and Tukey’s test was p erformed to evaluate the pairwise differences among quails. The results showed that egg production traits were not different among lines, except age at first egg-laying (P < 0.0001). Moreover, brown plumage lines have higher egg weight, shell thickness, shell weight, shape index, yolk index, albumen index, HU, and yolk colour score than black plumage lines (P < 0.0001), on the other hand, egg air cavity of black plumage lines were higher than brown plumage lines, 1.71 versus 0.88 mm (P < 0.0001). It can be c oncluded that brown plumage line has better both exterior and interior qualities of egg than black plumage line. These findings may be useful to determine appropriate breeding program for laying quail in the future.

    Keywords: Black line, Brown line, Egg quality, Japanese quail, Production trait
  • M Abdolmaleki, AA Saki *, MY Alikhani Pages 185-194

    A total of 540 one-day old male broilers Ross 308 were allocated to 6 treatments in a completely randomized designed with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and probiotics) with 6 replicates and 15 birds in each. Factors include aflatoxin B1 (control, 500 ppb) and probiotics (control, 108 cfu/mL Bacillus sp. MBIA2.40, 0.2 g Gallipro per kg). Results showed that adding 500 ppb AFB1 to broiler diets resulted in a significant decrease of body weight gain and feed intake (P < 0.05). The highest of feed conversion ratio was observed in AFB1 group (P < 0.05). Average body weight gain was significantly increased while feed conversion ratio decreased by Bacillus sp. MBIA2.40 and Gallipro compared with control group (P < 0.05). The supplementation of Bacillus sp. MBIA2.40 and Gallipro in contaminated diets relieved the negative effects of aflatoxin on performance. Increased serum aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were observed in diet contaminated with AFB1 compared with other groups (P < 0.05). The lowest antibody production against Newcastle disease and sheep blood cells and also the lowest skin response to phytohemagglutinin were observed in the AFB1 group (P < 0.05). Villus height and width were significantly increased by probiotics diets without AFB1 in compared with others (P < 0.05). The crypt depth was significantly higher by birds fed AFB1 rather than that others (P < 0.05). Improving villus height, width and crypt depth by the diets containing probiotics + AFB1 were found as similar as the control diet (P > 0.05). In general, the results of this study showed that adding of Bacillus sp. MBIA2.40 and Gallipro in contaminated diets reduce negative effects of AFB1 and consequently these probiotics (especially Bacillus sp. MBIA2.40) have a protective effect against aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

    Keywords: Broiler, Gallipro, Bacillus sp, Aflatoxin B1, Aflatoxigenic
  • A Yaghobfar, H Javaheri Barfourooshi *, S Hamedi Pages 195-204

    This study conducted to determine the effect of guanidino acetic acid consumption and management methods on the enhancement of aged rooster's reproduction. A total of 486 broiler breeders (Ross 308) were used in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment from week 41 to 62. Three levels as 0, 1200, and 1600 (mg/kg) of guanidino acetic acid, as a precursor of creatine (CreAmino) in combination with three management methods (no-management, spiking, and, intra-spiking methods) were evaluated. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sperm were determined every other week. At the end of the experiment, three roosters from each treatment were slaughtered and their testicles were evaluated for morphological and histological characteristics. The volume of sperm was a significant reduction in CreAmino (1200 mg/kg) + spiking. Sperm progressive motility reduced in CreAmino (1200 mg/kg) + nomanagement and CreAmino (1600 mg/kg) + intra-spiking. Also, CreAmino (1200 mg/kg) +no-management, increased the weight of the testicles. CreAmino (1600 mg/kg) + spiking showed the highest number of spermatozoa. The results showed that using 1600 mg CreAmino in combination with management methods, spiking and intra-spiking, can reduce and delay the occurrence of signs of aging in roosters. So, with using this level of CreAmino it is expected fertility in broiler breeder flock improved.

    Keywords: Spiking, Fertility, Creatine, Intra-spiking, Elderly rooster