فهرست مطالب

Bulletin of Emergency And Trauma - Volume:7 Issue: 4, 2019
  • Volume:7 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 19
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  • Mohammed Ayalew, Henok Tegegn, Ousman Abdela * Pages 339-346
    Objective
    To derive findings from different studies done on drug related hospital admissions and comprehensively express the incidence and preventability of drug related hospital admissions; identify the common types of drug related problems that caused hospital admission, and identify factors associated with drug related hospital admission.
    Methods
    Literatures that assessed hospitalization due to drug related problems were searched online using Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. The relevant reference lists of retrieved articles were also searched manually on Google. Prospective and retrospective studies conducted anywhere in the world on drug related hospitalization, published from January 2012 to January 2017 as an original article and written in English language were included.
    Result
    The prevalence of drug related hospital admission varies from 1.3% to 41.3% with the average rate of 15.4%. Among hospitalized patients 2.7% were died due to drug-related problems (DRPs). Drugs that were frequently reported as causing drug related admission were antithrombotic drugs, antihypertensive drugs, analgesics, anti-diabetics, antipsychotics, and anti-neoplastic drugs.  Poly pharmacy, old age and female sex were mentioned as determinants for drug related hospitalization by a number of studies. About one third of drug related hospital admissions were definitely preventable and more than 40% were also potentially preventable.
    Conclusion
    Drug related problems contribute for more than 15% of hospital admissions. Higher risk of admission due to DRPs was observed in patients who were on poly pharmacy and those who were old. As most of drug related hospital admissions were preventable an emphasis should be given for preventive strategies to avoid complications and costs associated with admission.
    Keywords: Drug related problems, Hospital admission, Adverse drug reaction, Review, Emergency visit
  • Thara Tunthanathip *, Suphak Udomwitthayaphiban Pages 347-354
    Objective
    To determine the factors associated with mortality in penetrating brain injury (PTBI) and proposed the nomogram predicting the risk of death.
    Methods
    A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all patients who had sustained PTBI between 2009 and 2018. Collected data included clinical characteristics, neuroimaging findings, treatment, and outcomes. Prognostic factors analysis was conducted using a forest plot. Therefore, the nomogram was developed and validated. For the propose of evaluation, the nomogram’s sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) were determined for validating the optimal cut-off point of the total scores.   
    Results
    During the study period, 62 individuals enrolled. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with the morality were normal pupils’ reactivity to light (OR 0.04, p < 0.001), hypotension (OR 9.91, p<0.001), hypoxia (OR 10.2, p=0.04), bihemispheric injuries (OR 19.0, p=0.001), multilobar injuries (OR 21.5, p< 0.001), subarachnoid hemorrhage (OR 6.9, p= 0.02), intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 26.6, p= 0.006), basal cistern effacement (OR 28.8, , p<0.001),  midline shift >5 mm (OR 0.19, p<0.001) were significantly associated with death. In multivariable analysis, hypotension (OR 8.82, p=0.03), normal pupils’ reactivity to light (OR 0.07, p =0.01), midline shift >5 mm (OR 18.23, p<0.007) were significantly associated with death. The nomogram’s sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and AUC for predicting mortality (total score ≥ 100) were 80%, 92.6%, 72.7%, 95.0%, and, 0.86 respectively. 
    Conclusions
    PTBI is the fatal injury depend on both clinical and neuroimaging parameters. The nomogram is the alternative method providing prognostic parameters toward implication for clinical decision making.
    Keywords: Penetrating brain injury, Traumatic brain injury (TBI), Nomogram
  • Veldurti Ananta Kumar, Narayanam Sai Kiran *, Valluri Kumar, Amrita Ghosh, Ranabir Pal, Vishnu Reddy, Amit Agrawal Pages 355-360
    Objectives

    To assess the impact, timing, the intra and early post-operative complications and the survival outcome of tracheostomy in critically ill neurosurgery patients.

    Methods

    This study was a retrospective data mining where data was collected from hospital records from 175 consecutive patients who underwent tracheostomy in the department of Neurosurgery at the Narayna Medical College Hospital, Nellore, India from Jan 2016 to April 2018. A proforma was used to note down the details on the patient status before and after tracheostomy: Glasgow coma scale (GCS), procedure and intra and post-operative complications, type of tracheostomy cannula, details of decannulation, respiration difficulties, and problems with wound, swallowing difficulties, and voice difficulties, stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital and survival status of the patient.

    Results

    In our series, mean age of TBI cases was 47.42±16.62; mean hospital stay and ICU stay was 18.81±10.22 and 12.58±7.36 days respectively. In all age groups, more tracheostomy was needed in cranial injury cases and surgery was major intervention. Commoner complications were mucous deposition (6.86%), blockage of tracheostomy canula (6.29%), bleeding from multiple attempts (6.06%), excessive bleeding (2.94%). Cranial injury needed tracheostomy more in all age groups and more done at operation theatre without significant improvement of GCS score. Survival was statistically higher after tracheostomy irrespective of GCS status or venue of intervention.

    Conclusion

    Tracheostomy should be considered as soon as the need for airway access is identified during intervention of the critically ill neurosurgical patients.

    Keywords: Tracheostomy, timing, Survival, Outcome
  • Zeinab Naderpour, Mehdi Momeni *, Elnaz Vahidi, Javad Safavi, Morteza Saeedi Pages 361-365
    Objective
    To determine the possible relationship of procalcitonin (PCT) and D-dimer with the 28-day-mortality rate and severity of sepsis based on sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, patients were enrolled based on their signs and symptoms of sepsis confirmed by essential laboratory studies. Demographic data, Glasgow coma scale and vital signs, serum PCT and D-dimer levels, creatinine, bilirubin level, arterial blood gas analysis and platelet count were recorded. Disease severity index was assessed based on SOFA score. Patients’ 28-day-mortality rate and hospital length of stay were compared with the study variables.
    Results
    Sixty-four patients with the mean age of 78.3±11.6 were included of whom 34 cases (53.1%) were male. The 28-day-mortality rate was 17%. The analysis showed that only patients’ age (p=0.01) and platelet count (p=0.02) had a statistically significant association with the mortality rate. SOFA score had no statistically significant correlation with PCT or D-dimer; and these two markers didn’t have any significant correlation in terms of predicting mortality due to the sepsis.
    Conclusion
    In our study, PCT and D-dimer failed to show any significant correlation with 28-day-mortality rate of sepsis.
    Keywords: Fibrin fragment D, Mortality, Procalcitonin, Prognosis, Sepsis
  • Amin Nikpasand, Mohammad Reza Parvizi * Pages 366-372
    Objective
    To evaluate effects of titanium dioxide /gelatin nanocomposite on wound healing in mice as a model study.
    Methods
    Fifty male rats were randomized into five groups of ten animals each. In group I, 0.1 mL sterile saline 0.9% solution was added to the wounds with no infection.  In group II, the wounds were infected with MRSA and only treated with 0.1 mL the sterile saline 0.9% solution. In group III, infected wounds were treated with gelatin. In group IV, animals with infected wounds were treated with 0.1 mL titanium dioxide nanoparticles. In group V, animals with infected wounds were treated with titanium dioxide /gelatin nanocomposite. Wound size was measured on 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 20 days after surgery.
    Results
    Reduction in wound area indicated that there was significant difference between group IV and other groups (p<0.05). Quantitative histological and morphometric studies and mean rank of the qualitative studies demonstrated that there was significant difference between group IV and other groups (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Titatnium dioxide nanoparticles/gelatin composite offered potential advantages in wound healing acceleration and fibroblast proliferation on early days of healing phases. Acceleration in wound repair could be associated with earlier wound contraction and stability of damaged area by rearrangement of granulation tissue and collagen fibers.
    Keywords: Wound, Titanium dioxide, Gelatin, Nanoparticle, Rat
  • Mahnaz Yadollahi *, Saeid Gholamzadeh Pages 373-380
    Objective
    The aim of study was to conduct a time-based analysis to utilize the obtained knowledge for forecasting the trend of accidents in the future.
    Methods
    The present study, which was conducted as a cross-sectional research, investigated deaths from traffic accidents in Fars Province during a five-year period from 2013 to 2018. The pseudo-regression model of Spline was used to predict the increase in mortality rate by 2021.
    Results
    The forecasted values indicated a decline in deaths from traffic accidents by 2021. A total of 8020 records of accidents leading to death were included in the study. The mean mortality rate from traffic accidents in the province was approximately estimated to be 33.7 per 100,000 populations. More than half of the people who died (52.36%) were in a car, 25.57% were motorcycle riders, and 19.93% were pedestrians. The highest rate of deaths was observed in the age group of 16 to 25 years old (21.5%). The data indicated a reduction in the rate of death among car riders and pedestrians and an increase in the number of deaths among motorcycle riders. The trend of deaths occurred outside the city had been increasing while the trend of deaths occurred inside the city had been decreasing.
    Conclusion
    The present regulations are only able to reduce a small number of deaths each year. In order to achieve a downward trend in mortality with a steeper pace, it is necessary to design and implement more intelligent standards, not merely the stricter ones. This project has been approved by the research ethic committee, as well as, supported with grant number of 97-01-38-17825 by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Shiraz, Iran.
    Keywords: Accidents, Traffic, Mortality trend, Population Forecast, Health Policy
  • Adel Efftekhari, Abbas Ali Dehghani Tafti, Khadijeh Nasiriani, Majid Hajimaghsoudi, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Davoud Khorasani Zavareh * Pages 381-389
    Objective

    To identify and prioritize the key Components of prehospital emergency system to prevent mortality in road traffic injuries.

    Methods

    A total of 25 emergency medicine practitioners, emergency ward nurses, and managers of prehospital emergency centers participated in this adjusted Delphi study in three rounds. After extracting the primary components through reviewing systematic studies and interviewing experts, the Delphi rounds were performed with the presence of experts. The data were analyzed with both qualitative content analysis and quantitative analysis using SPSS20 software. For the analysis and selection of the final priorities, the coefficient of agreement of over 70% was used.

    Results

    After doing three Delphi rounds, in the final Delphi round, 10 superior components were selected respectively as follows: correct history taking of the victim, examining possible cervical injury, the time spent from the first call to arrival of technicians to the scene, the time spent from arriving at the scene to the time of hospital transport, passing of re-education courses by EMS technicians, coordination among the rescue organizations, police, the Red Crescent, fire station, and healthcare organizations, integrated commandership at scene, police attendance in the scene before EMS arrival at the scene, proper ambulance equipment with respect to the required equipment (A, B, C) on the basis of victim’s condition, and coordination with the target hospital for patient transport.

    Conclusion

    This study determined the most applicable managerial methods of prehospital emergency components pertaining to preventable fatal road traffic injuries through empowerment of EMS systems in the fields of victim assessment, time management indices, personnel training, coordination between the involved organs, and the presence of the main commander in the scene.

    Keywords: Preventable mortality, Rroad traffic injuries, Prehospital emergency care, Delphi technique
  • Saber Azami Aghdash, Hassan Abolghasem Gorji, Naser Derakhshani*, Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani Pages 390-398
    Objective

    To identify the barriers to and facilitators of the prevention of road traffic accidents (RTIs) in Iran.

    Methods

    In this qualitative study 42 key stakeholders and experts in the field of traffic injuries in Iran were selected based on purpose and theoretical sampling to reach informational saturation. Their views concerning barriers to and facilitators of the prevention of traffic injuries in Iran were studied using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using Content Analysis method.

    Results

    Five themes were identified: structural barriers, organizational barriers and planning, socio-cultural barriers, scientific barriers, and inter-sector barriers and 22 sub-themes were extracted. The lack of lead agency, which was among structural barriers, was selected as the main barrier. The five general facilitators included: sensitization of society and authorities, improving the resources and infrastructure (software and hardware), increasing the attention to safety of vehicles and roads, increasing the information and awareness, and use of expert manpower. The sensitization of society and authorities was selected as the most important facilitator.

    Conclusion

    According to the key experts, the barriers of policy changes to prevent the RTIs are more numerous than its facilitators. Therefore, planning and paying more attention to removing these barriers and promoting the facilitators seems necessary to reduce RTIs. Having a lead agency in this regard should be the highest priority.

    Keywords: Road traffic injuries, Prevention, Barriers, Facilitators
  • Sattar Kikhavani, Yousef Veisani *, Fathola Mohamadian, Reza Valizadeh, Ali Delpisheh, Ghobad Moradi, Maryam Bagheri Pages 399-403
    Objective
      To assess the important socio-demographic inequalities in self-immolation in between genders.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional study, 2011 to 2016, was conducted. A total of 540 completed suicides were recruited to the study.  Data were collected by systematic registration suicide data (SRSD) and Legal Medicine Organization (LMO). The concentration index (CI) was used to determine the inequality.  The inequality line was decomposed to find out the main sources of inequality in self-immolation between genders by Oaxaca-Blinder approach.
    Results
    The mean ratio of self-immolation was 21.8% among completed suicides. The decreasing trend was found in self-immolations during 2011-2016 (z = -2.07, p = 0.039), the mean rate in six years, was 2.98 per 100.000 populations. Unemployment −.043 (−.07, −0.01), married subject’s −.016 (−.03, −0.00) and low educational level −.005 (−.01, −0.00) were the main inequality source in females compared to males.
    Conclusion
    Our results suggest that despite the incidence decreasing in self-immolation within 6 years of study period, the inequality was detected in self-immolation. The main socio-demographics in inequalities were lower educational level, married persons and unemployment that prevention programs should be more concentrated in females to a decrease of inequality in self-immolation.
    Keywords: Inequality, Self-immolation, Suicide, Attempts, Decomposition
  • Ali Foroutan, Seyed Taghi Heydari *, Mehran Karvar, Leila Mohammadi, Yaser Sarikhani, Maryam Akbari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani Pages 404-410
    Objective
    We conducted a triple phase project for motorcycle helmets advocacy in Darab, a city in southwest Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the project on decreasing the hazards of motorcycle accidents.
    Methods
    Using a questionnaire,data for ICU admission rates, hospital costs for patients who required ICU admission, rate of helmet usage, mortality and the duration of ICU care for patients admitted to Darab hospital due to motorcycle accidents in Winter 2015 (before conducting the project) and Winter 2016 (after conducting the project) were gathered and compared. This feature was also separately done for patients younger than 17 years.
    Results
    The rate of wearing helmets increased significantly in winter 2016 (from 3.4 % to 33%). Also ICU admission rate due to head trauma was significantly decreased after the project was done (from 14.5 % to 4%). However, hospital costs for patients required ICU admission were increased in winter 2016. This increase, though not significant, seems to be due to an increase in health service expenses in the year 2016 as compared with the year 2015. The mortality rate was not significantly changed between the two mentioned years results. For patients younger than 17 years, no ICU admissions were needed in winter 2016.
    Conclusion
    Even a short period of intervention can have positive effects on increasing the safety of motorcycle drivers.
    Keywords: Motorcycle, Helmets, Advocacy, Interventions, Road traffic accident
  • Amir Reza Vosoughi *, Mohammad Emami Pages 411-415
    Transcalcaneal talonavicular fracture dislocation is an extremely rare debilitating injury with high complication rates. The present case report demonstrates highly comminuted joint-depressed fracture of left calcaneus treated with primary subtalar arthrodesis following reduction and fixation of the calcaneus. The right ankle sustained a highly comminuted fracture of calcaneal body with completely-destroyed posterior facet, fracture dislocation of the calcaneocuboid joint, dorsally dislocated talonavicular joint, fracture of anterior of tibial plafond, and subluxation of the tibiotalar joint. At first, talonavicular joint was reduced and fixed using a plate followed by reduction of calcaneus and arthrodesis of subtalar and calcaneocuboid joints. The plate of talonavicular joint was removed after 70 days. Logical approach to this injury can lead to an acceptable function.
    Keywords: Calcaneus, Talus, Transcalcaneal talonavicular fracture dislocation, Subtalar, Calcaneocuboid
  • Sina Jelodar, Ahmad Pourrashidi, Abbas Amirjamshidi * Pages 416-419
    Sheno-occipital diastasis happens more frequently in children and is accompanied with neural and vascular injuries leading to a high rate of mortality. We present a rare type of clival fracture in a 21 years old man who could survive without any deficit even though the fracture extended widely from left Asterion to the right orbit accompanied by widespread damage of the skull base air sinuses in 3D CT scan. To the best knowledge of the authors, neither this type of fracture, nor the clinical presentation, has been reported in relevant literature.
    Keywords: Clivus fracture, Skull base fracture, Traumatic brain injury
  • Hossein Hodjati, Hamed Ghoddusi Johari, Bizhan Khademi, Abdolkarim Rahmanian, Abtin Vahidi, Maryam Dehghankhalili * Pages 420-423
    The aneurysms of the extracranial segment of the internal carotid artery are not common and are associated with severe neurologic deficits. They could be misdiagnosed with several lesion of the cervical region. We herein report a case of internal carotid artery aneurysm misdiagnosed as paraganglioma. A 23-year-old man presented with progressive growing mass in right enlarging mass in the upper part of the neck below the angle of the mandible. The patient underwent surgery by the ear, nose, throat (ENT) surgeon through submandibular approach with impression of paraganglioma but severe pulsatile bleeding was encountered intraoperatively. Two vascular clamps were applied and the patient was transferred to the vascular ward. Computerized tomography (CT) angiogram revealed a huge aneurysm of the internal carotid artery in the extracranial segment with injured wall. After 2 days of medical therapy the patient was transferred to the operating room and the aneurysm was repaired using Dacrons. The patient had an uneventful hospital course and was asymptomatic after 1 year of follow-up. Precise preoperative assessment and evaluation with different modalities should be performed to avoid fatal complications. Surgery is a safe and effective method in experienced hands for repair of such aneurysms.
    Keywords: Aneurysm, Internal carotid artery, Extracranial segment, Surgical repair, Paraganglioma
  • Saleh Mohebbi, Mohammad Aghajanpour * Pages 424-426
    Nasopharyngeal masses in young males, first of all presumes Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma (JNA) in the mind, but other benign or malignant tumors should be considered for successful and adequate management of patients and also for minimizing morbidity from unnecessary interventions. We herein present a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mimicking JNA. The patient was presumed as JNA and underwent excessive surgical intervention and the final histopathology report was NPC. The aim of our case report is to highlight the importance of complete clinical examination and preoperative imaging in differentiating and ideal management of nasopharyngeal masses.
    Keywords: Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma, Nasopharynx, Carcinoma
  • Neuza Soares *, Ana Parente, Clara Gomes, Rodrigo Pimentel Pages 427-428
    A 74-year-old female with diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted to the emergency department due to fever, severe pain and oedema in her left forearm, with two days of evolution, after she has done gardening, but no clear history of trauma.
    Keywords: Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome, Phlycten, Fasciotomy
  • Mehrdad Amir Behghadami *, Ali Janati Pages 429-430
    Dear editor, Recently a study titled, “A Productive Proposed Search Syntax for Health Disaster Preparedness Research”, was worked by Rastegarfar et al. in the Bulletin of Emergency And Trauma [1]. First of all, we would like to thank the editors that help to appear review study. In addition, we would like to extend our appreciation to the authors of this article. Review studies are considered as studies with the highest level of evidence that play an important role in evidence-based decision making [2]. The results of the mentioned study are an interesting; however, we believe that there are some questions regarding the study, which, we would like to present. These questions, if replied, will only apply to improve the quality of the current study and similar studies in the near future.
    Keywords: Systematic review, Methodology, Critical Review
  • Mohammad Javad Moradian, Behnaz Rastegarfar, Ali Ardalan *, Abbasali Keshtkar, Saharnaz Nejat Pages 431-432
    Dear Editor, We appreciate the interest of the authors in our article entitled “A productive proposed search syntax for health disaster preparedness research”. They have rightly emphasized on the standard reporting of systematic reviews. However, as it is clear from the title and objective of the published article, we did not report results of a systematic review, our article instead aimed to present a syntax validation process which guide with creating a proper search strategy for systematic reviews on disaster preparedness [1-4].
    Keywords: Search strategy, Search performance, PRISMA
  • Ahl R, Cao Y, Geijer H, Taha K, Pourhossein, Sarmeh S, Talving P, Ljungqvist O, Mohseni S Page 433

    In the original article entitled “Prognostic Value of P-POSSUM and Osteopenia for Predicting Mortality After Emergency Laparotomy in Geriatric Patients”[1] which was published in July 2019 issue of the journal, there was an error in the specified mortality outcome in the manuscript. The published version describes 30-day mortality, however, the correct outcome measure should be 90-day mortality throughout the article. The article has been corrected accordingly online.

    Keywords: Correction, Mortality, Outcome, Parameter
  • [Hashemi M, Dadkhah P, Taheri M, Dehghan K, Valizadeh R Page 434

    In the original investigation entitled “Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection: Parasagittal versus Midline Approach in Patients with Unilateral Cervical Radicular Pain; A Randomized Clinical Trial.”[1] which was published in April 2019 issue of the journal, one author name has been unintentionally omitted from the final draft and the affiliations were wrongly assigned. There is an error in the author list of this article, which should be corrected as follows: “Masoud Hashemi,1 Payman Dadkhah,1 Mehrdad Taheri,1 Ebrahim Golmakani,1,2 Kasra Dehghan,1 Rouhollah Valizadeh.3”. The affiliations are also corrected as follow: “1Pain Management Fellowship, Department of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 3Department of Epidemiology, Student Research Committee, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran”. The article was corrected online.

    Keywords: Correction, Author's list, Affiliation