فهرست مطالب

علوم و تحقیقات بذر ایران - سال ششم شماره 3 (پاییز 1398)
  • سال ششم شماره 3 (پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Mohmmad Ali Alizadeh *, Seyede Sedighe Sajjadi Jaghargh, Raoof Seyed Sharifi, Mohsen Kalagari Pages 287-297

    Pseudo Chamomile (Tripleurospermum sevanense) is medicinal and aromatic plant. This plant is growing in natural habitats of Iran. In this study, emergence enhancement of seed and seedlings vigor of three populations, were compared with priming technique and pre-chilling treatment. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete design with three replication and six treatment was conducted in laboratory (2010) and greenhouse (2011) in Research Institute of Forests and Range Lands. The priming treatments including: [GA3 (125 and 250ppm), KNO3 (0.5 and 1%), distilled water (control)] and moist chilling at 4°C. In laboratory experiment, the results of treatments on seed germination characteristics of 17952-Fars population showed that maximum germination (96%), fresh weight (97.33 mg) were obtained with effect of potassium nitrate. With effect GA3, speed of germination (18.7 sprout/day) Vigor index (127.91) were more than control and other treatments, meanwhile in greenhouse experiment, effect of treatments on seedling appearance characteristics of above population showed that potassium nitrate treatment had more significant effect on seedling appearance percentage (85.55%), seedling length(103/46mm), seedling vigor index (88.35) control and other treatments. On the base of results, it is recommended for cultivation and domestication of medicinal species, especially in spring, priming technique would e used for uniform germination and seedling appearance

    Keywords: Chamomile, Germination rate, Gibberellic acid, Potassium nitrate, Vigor
  • Vahid Mansouri Gandomani *, Heshmat Omidi, Abdul Amir Bostani Pages 299-316

    The present study of Nano particle silicon dioxide to increase the germination of soybean cultivar Williams under salt stress conditions as factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications in 2015 in the laboratory of Tehran's Shahed University of Science and Technology Seed. First factor is different concentrations of nano-silica including control, 40 and 60 ppm, and the second factor different concentrations of salinity control (no stress), 5, 7.5 and 10 dS/m. The traits such as germination percentage, germination rate, average daily germination, uniformity of germination, the number of normal seedlings, seedling fresh weight, relative water content of shoot, weight root to shoot ratio, the total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, ratio of chlorophyll a to b, carotenoid, proline and total soluble sugar was measured. The results showed that the interaction of nano-silica priming and salinity on traits such as germination percentage and rate, average daily germination, uniformity of germination time, normal seedling, root to shoot ratio and chlorophyll content at the level of 1% (P<0.01) was significant. According to the results treatment of nano-silica concentration of 60 ppm increase the germination rate is 34 percent. This has offset the decrease caused by salinity and germination in salinity concentration of 10 dS/m to about 80 percent. Treatment of 60 ppm of nano silica in the face of salinity on the germination parameters such as speed of germination, normal seedlings and the shoot relative water content have positive effects and by increase biochemical traits like leaf total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, the chlorophyll a to b, carotenoid, proline and total soluble sugar mitigate some of the damage caused by salt stress.

    Keywords: Nano-silica dioxide, Priming, Salinity, Soybean
  • Nabi Khalili Aqdam * Pages 317-331

    Vertical distribution of seed, Plant residual, Granule fertilizers and other chemical complexes in depth of soil influence of tillage with various implements is one of the important issues in agronomy. So, an experiment done with SeedChaser model to recognize the patterns of seed vertical distribution in soil (0-18 cm) with 15 types of tillage implements in simulation study and 9 of ones in field experiment. Results showed that patterns of seed vertical distribution were different and it depends on infiltration depth of implements in soil, curve degree of knife and soil bulk of be moved. Spader, Rigide tine, moldboard, and rotovator buried seeds in below 10 cm depth of soil, although Rotary hoe, Drill, Residual management, Para plow and Strip tillage implements buried seeds in shallow depths (02 cm) and was between 2-8 cm in others. Also, results released that critical depth for D90 (90% of seeds in a certain depth) ranged 14-18 cm for Moldboard, Rotovator and Spader while was 0-10 cm for other implements. Prediction results recognized that the model predicted seed vertical distribution in a good mood which the highest dispersal related to chisel plow and the lowest observed in tillage with Moldboard

    Keywords: Depth, Implement, Seed, SeedChaser Model, Tillage
  • Leila Yari *, Shahla Hashemi, Atefeh Khandan Pages 333-345

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of storage condition on seed quality of five barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars (Usef, Nosrat, Riehan, sahra and productive), with different moisture contents (Mc)(14%, 16% and 18%) under storage condition. Seed exposed at two storage temperature (20C °and alternative temperature 20-30 . °) Experimental units were arranged factorialy in a completely randomized design with four replications. Results showed that after one year of seed storage, seeds that stored at 20-30 C° (alternative temperature) increased germination percentage and seedvigor in all cultivars. Meanwhile, germination percentage and seedling vigor were significantly affected by interaction among seed moisture content × cultivar× temperature after one year of seed storage. The highest germination percentage (99 %) was recorded for sahra cultivar in seed by 18% moisture content under storage at 20-30 C ° . Also, the maximum normal seedling were obtained from Riehan × Mc 18% × at 20-30 C° (alternative temperature) and productive× Mc 18% × 20-30C. Likewise, the minimum germination percentage (4.5%) and normal seedling (3.7%) was recorded for productive cultivar when seed harvested with Mc 14% and stored under 20 C° condition. Also, the results indicated that 20 C° storage temperature had adverse effect on seed quality when seed harvested with Mc 14% after one year storage, inall cultivars. Meanwhile, the electrical conductivity (EC) increased in seed by Mc 14% with compared to Mc18% and Mc 16%. Generally, according to cultivars that examined in this experiment, the effectiveness of storage temperature on improving seedling vigor and increasing germination percentage was more pronounced at 20-30 C° (alternative temperature) along with sample with 18.0% Mc. Finally seed stored at 20-30 C° (alternative temperature) could have maintained their vigour high, it is new founding that could help to control of seed deterioration.

    Keywords: Barley cultivars, Seed moisture, Seed vigour, Storage duration, Storage temperature
  • Fateme Panahi, Mina Arast * Pages 347-358

    Due to the increasing importance of on multiple uses native plants of dry lands, methods of improving seed germination rates of Gundelia tournefortii, a cold and arid land species with pharmacological and edible values, were investigated. Dormancy breaking treatments were applied in a completely randomized design. Seeds were then set in a germinator (25±1˚C - 70±3 %) and germination velocity and percentage and radicle and plumule length were recorded. Different treatments were applied including humic acid (for 26 and 54 mg/L), scarification H2SO4 (10 and 20 min), soaking in 300 and 500 ppm gibberellic acid (for 24 and 48 hours), temperature (15 and 30 min- 70 ˚C), Chilling (7 and 14 days- 4 ˚C), a complex treatment of Chilling (7 and 14 days- 4 ˚C) and gibberellic acid 500 ppm for (24 and 48 hours), and distilled water as control treatment. Results showed germination percentage and velocity and radicle and plumule length increase in all treatments rather than control. Only sulfuric acid and heat treatments prevented adequate radicle and plumule length growth. In the current study, the most successful treatment is the complex treatment of Chilling (7 and 14 days- 4˚C) and 500 ppm gibberellic acid which increased germination percentage to about 84% and also germination velocity to a high rate.

    Keywords: Arid, cold areas, Chilling, Gibberellic acid, Humic acid
  • Reza Zeinali, Farshad Sadeghi, Marziyeh Dehghan * Pages 359-368

    This study was carried out fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) under NaCl stress, seed germination with Methyl jasmonate priming. a factorial experiment at CRD design with three replications in 2014-2015 at the Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University of Shiraz. the factor A:includes Methyl jasmonate(MeJa) at three levels (0, 500 and 1000 mg/l) and factor (B): sodium chloride(NaCl) at 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 dS/m). The characteristics such as Rate and percentage of germination, proline content and peroxidase. The results indicated that concentration of 1000 mg/l of MeJa led to increased germination under Control (100 %). Priming of Fennel seeds at 500 and 1000 mg/l of MeJa increase the germination rate were in Control. 1000 mg/l of MeJa led to the largest concentration of proline content in moderate NaCl stress conditions (5 dS/m) and severe (7.5 dS/m) is observed. Based on the results obtained from the interaction between priming and different concentrations of NaCl was found that priming of fennel seeds by 500 mg/l of MeJa increase peroxidase activity at 7.5 dS/m of NaCl. Finally, the results showed that Priming of fennel seeds by MeJa improve seed index, proline and peroxidaze enzyme activity at NaCl stress.

    Keywords: Fennel, Germination index, NaCl, Peroxidase, Proline
  • Maryam Mazaheri Tirani, Maryam Madadkar Haghjou *, Ahmad Ismaili Pages 369-380

    The applications of bulk and nano zinc oxides have been increased recently, which can cause widespread plant's environment contaminations. This study investigated the effects of commercial bulk ZnO (˂1,000 nm) and nano ZnO (25 nm) on Nicotiana tabacum. Seeds were treated with ten concentrations of two forms (bulk and nano) ZnO (0.04, 0.2, 2.5, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm) and dionized water used as control, at three replications. Number of germinated seeds was counted until 14th days. Some quantify and quality traits were investigated on 21th day. The results showed that both forms had no positive effect on final germination percentage (FGP) and time to reach 50% germination (T50%) but mean of germination time (MGT) and coefficient of uniformity of germination (CUG) were increased, especially by high concentrations of nano-form. Nano-ZnO (50 ppm and upper) and the bulk ZnO treatments (100 ppm and upper) decreased the length of hypocotyl, but inhibitory effects on radical length appeared at the lower levels of bulk form (0.2 ppm and upper) and all nano-ZnO levels. Most of treatments, especially at high concentrations, showed a negative effect on the tolerance indices such as relative hypocotyl length, root tolerance, germination tolerance, and allometric coefficient.These inhibitory effects were happened in the lower levels of nano-form compared to bulk-form. Pallid cotyledon’s color and asleep seedlings, which were observed at upper than 100 ppm, could be due to decreased chlorophyll and some changes in the amount of growth regulators.

    Keywords: Heavy metal, Nano ZnO, Nicotiana tabacum, Seed germination, Seedlings surviva
  • Saeed Moori, Hamid Reza Eisvand * Pages 381-398

    Wheat as the most important plants on earth and is the main source of feeding people in Iran. Damage of seed deterioration as the most important factor has been proposed by researchers. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of plant growth regulators (salicylic acid and vitamin C) to improve germination and physiological quality of deteriorated seeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum), respectively. The treatments included two levels of accelerated aging in normal conditions and plant growth regulators included salicylic acid and ascorbic acid at levels of 50, 100 and 150 ppm and hydropriming. No priming treatment was as a control. A factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was done. In this research, the best treatments to improve seed germination characteristics crumbling use of ascorbic acid 100 ppm that 23% could improve germination. Under normal conditions, the highest percentage of germination was obtained salicylic acid 100 ppm 22.31% increase in germination was finalized. The results showed that significantly accelerated aging antioxidant enzyme activity and soluble protein reduced and in contrast, a significant increase in electrical conductivity and MDA content, soluble sugar and proline to be.

    Keywords: Accelerated Aging, Antioxidant Enzyme, Soluble Organic Solute, Wheat Seedling
  • Homa Azizi, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam *, Mahdi Parsa, Mahmood Shoor, Reza Khorasani Pages 399-410

    In order to evaluate germination behavior of Colchicum seed, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete design with four replications. The experimental treatments were all combination of priming at three levels (warm stratification, cold stratification, control), gibberellic acid at two levels (0,500 ppm) and incubation temperatures at 8 levels (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35). After applying the priming treatments, gibberellic acid treatment was applied and then the response of seed germination at constant temperatures were assessed in the germinator. The effect of temperature on germination components was significant. Germination was occurred only in warm stratification. Generally, germination was started by a very slow trend and after seeds were set at incubation temperatures, at least 40 days were lasted to germination occurred. There was no germination at 2°C. By increasing temperature at a range of 5-15°C, germination percentage was increased and then was stopped at 25°C. Germination uniformity at 20°C was more than other temperatures. The meanest germination time was observed at 20°C and the least mean germination time was at 15°C. Gibberellic acid (single application) had no effect on seed germination. Based on two regression models, the cardinal temperatures (Tbase, Topt, Tmax) were (1.38-1.72°C), (12.7516.10°C) and (24.12-25.65°C), respectively.

    Keywords: Cardinal temperatures, Germination uniformity, Morphophysiological dormancy, Priming
  • Alireza Goharian, Asilan Kamal Sadat *, Siroos Mansourifar Pages 411-425

    In the present study, germination behavior of two populations of Xanthium strumarium in different controlled conditions was investigated. For this purpose, seeds of Xanthium strumarium were collected randomly from several farms in Karaj and Ahvaz. In first study, germination behavior of two populations of Xanthium strumarium investigated in different constant temperature, temperature fluctuations, periods of darkness / lighting and high temperature. The maximum seed germination in constant temperature was observed at 30 C in Karaj population (85.25%) and Ahwaz population (87.75%) at 30 C. while in temperature fluctuations Maximum seed germination was observed at 20/30 C in Karaj population (93.25%) and Ahwaz population (96.75%). Seeds of two populations were able to germinate at a wide range of temperatures. Different periods of dark / light showed no significant effect on seed germination of two populations. High temperatures an above 100 ° C caused a significant reduction in germination but Ahvaz population resistance was more than Karaj population in high temperatures. Using the result of this research we may manage better this weed especially through non-chemical methods. It should be noted that non-chemical methods such as flooding, controls of mechanical, thermal, solarization and mulch can be recommended with more time for Ahvaz population.

    Keywords: Drought, Germination, Salinity, Temperature, Xanthium