فهرست مطالب

هنرهای تجسمی - پیاپی 80 (زمستان 1398)
  • پیاپی 80 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • حسین ری شهری، افسانه ناظری*، نادر شایگان فر صفحات 5-14

    ژان بودریار معتقد است که فرهنگ در حال تولید شدن و با هدایت رسانه ها دائما در حال تغییر است. به نظر او، ما وارد عصر «شبیه ها» شده ایم. شبیه ها نشانه هایی هستند که مانند رونوشت یا الگوی اشیاء یا رویدادهای واقعی عمل می کنند. از آنجایی که رسانه ها در شبیه سازی فرهنگی نقش به سزایی داشته و همچنین بر هنر معاصر تاثیرگذار بوده اند، هدف این مقاله با عطف به آرای بودریار، مطالعه بازنمود شبیه سازی فرهنگی متاثر از رسانه ها در آثار هنرمند معاصر آلمانی «کاترینا فریچ» بوده و در پی پاسخگویی به این سوال است که: «چگونه شبیه سازی فرهنگی در آثار او بازنمود پیدا کرده است؟». این مقاله با روش توصیفی - تحلیلی و تطبیقی به مطالعه آثار این هنرمند به ویژه اثر ضیافت او می پردازد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که بازنمود این شبیه سازی فرهنگی، وانموده ای است که هم نظریه پرداز و هم هنرمند، هرکدام به سیاق خود به طور تمثیلی بیان کرده اند. وجوه اشتراک اثر کاترینا فریچ و آرای بودریار همچون تکرار و تکثیر، بازتولید، شبیه سازی، مصرف گرایی، تولید نشانه ها و فرا واقعیت نشان می دهد که هنرمند با استفاده از تکرار و تکثیر، بازتولید، شبیه سازی، مصرف گرایی و تولید نشانه ها، بازنمودی از شبیه سازی فرهنگی را با اثر خود ارائه داده است.

    کلیدواژگان: شبیه سازی فرهنگی، رسانه، هنرهای تجسمی معاصر، ژان بودریار، کاترینا فریچ
  • ولی الله کاووسی* صفحات 15-24

    عرصه تاریخ نگاری و مطالعه هنر اسلامی حدود دو سده پیش در مغرب زمین نمایان شد. رویکردهای جدید تاریخ نگاری و آشنایی با متون اسلامی، درک دستاوردهای تمدن اسلامی، از جمله هنر را ساده تر کرد. اندکی بعد، گروهی از معماران به شوق دیدار بناهای کهن اسلامی راهی اسپانیا شدند. دست اندازی استعماری یا روابط سیاسی قدرت های غرب در سرزمین های اسلامی، پای جهانگردان طراح و معمار را به این مناطق باز کرد. حاصل این سفرها انبوهی طرح و تصویر از بناهای کهن بود که مردم غرب را با معماری اسلامی آشنا می کرد. در مرتبه ای دیگر، خرید و فروش اشیا با حضور مشتریان اروپایی و وساطت دلالان بومی، سیل آثار هنرها و صنایع کهن اسلامی را به مجموعه های غرب سرازیر کرد. در این بین، نقش نمایندگان موزه کنزینگتون جنوبی در لندن پررنگ تر بود. در این نوشتار مراتب نخستین برخوردهای غربیان با میراث هنر اسلامی در سه مرحله شرق شناسی، سفرهای هنرشناسان غرب به سرزمین های اسلامی در دوره استعمار، و گردآوری آثار هنر اسلامی در مجموعه های غربی بررسی شده است. روش کار مطالعه و تحلیل اسناد، گزارش ها، و مقالاتی است که خود غربیان درباره پیشینه مطالعات هنر اسلامی نوشته اند. در انتها روشن خواهد شد عرصه ای که امروز با نام هنر اسلامی برای همه هنرپژوهان جهان دانشی شناخته و مدون است، محصول همین برخوردهای خام اولیه است.

    کلیدواژگان: تاریخ نگاری، هنر اسلامی، شرق شناسی، استعمار، مجموعه داری
  • مریم بختیاریان* صفحات 25-32
    جوزف ادیسون با تمرکز بر ادراک زیباشناختی، شان خیال را به عنوان یک نیروی خداداده ی ذهنی که چندین امکان مثبت و منفی برای لذت بردن فراهم می کند، بالا می برد. بخشی از نیروی خیال بدور از هر گونه علائق و انگیزه های معرفتی، توام با یک نگرش بی غرض، میان حس و فاهمه آزاد عمل می کند و لذات اولیه را از ابژه های طبیعی یا حاضر و لذات ثانویه را از تصور و بازنمایی آنها موجب می شود و این گونه ضرورت ارتباط هنر و طبیعت تایید می شود. در این مقاله به منظور بیان این که چه نسبتی میان زیبایی طبیعی و هنری برقرار است، تلاش می شود شرح مبسوط تری از کارکردهای شناختی، معنوی و زیباشناختی خیال عرضه شود. همچنین از آنجا که نظریه خیال ادیسون، آرام آرام زمینه ی رویکرد ذهنی را در تعریف تجربه زیباشناختی فراهم می کند، تلاش می شود تبیینی از چرایی وقوع تجربه زیباشناختی در مواجهه با زیبایی، هماهنگی و عظمت در طبیعت حاصل شود و در نهایت این که چگونه امر نو یا غیرمتعارف در خلق تجربه زیباشناختی می تواند به هنر در برابر طبیعت، امکانی مضاعف ببخشد. برای تحقق این منظور، داده های این پژوهش از طریق مطالعه ی کتابخانه ای آرای ادیسون و شارحان وی گردآوری شده، سپس توصیف و تحلیل می شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: جوزف ادیسون، خیال، زیبایی طبیعی، زیبایی هنری، لذات اولیه، لذات ثانویه
  • لیلا غفاری، جمال عرب زاده* صفحات 33-38
    نگاه، مجرای رویارویی هنرمند نقاش و نیز مخاطب اثر نقاشی با آن است. این مواجهه، نوعی تجربه ی انسانی است که از منظر هنرمند نقاش به هنگام خلق اثر، همچنین از ورای مخاطب در زمان نگریستن به نقاشی قابل بررسی است. سوال اصلی در این پژوهش، این گونه مطرح شده است که نسبت نگاه با تجربه ی زیسته ی هنرمند نقاش، نیز درگیری آن با بدن زیسته ی مخاطب و خالق اثر در ادراک نقاشی چگونه است؟ بر همین اساس ماهیت آن، به عنوان نوعی از تجربه ی زیسته که رخدادش منتج به ادراک بصری و به طور خاص دریافت اثر نقاشی است، مطرح گردیده است و در باب بدن زیسته نیز، نگاه به عنوان جزء ساکن در آن، مورد تحلیل و تامل قرار گرفته است. در نهایت با استفاده از رویکرد پدیدارشناسی، به شیوه ی توصیفی- تحلیلی و بر اساس شواهد موجود در آراء و نظریات فیلسوف پدیدارشناس فرانسوی، موریس مرلوپونتی، وجود ارتباط نزدیک بین تجربه ی زیسته ی هنرمند نقاش و نگاه او نتیجه گیری شده است. بر اساس یافته های این پژوهش باید گفت، نگاه، نوعی از تجربه ی زیسته بوده است و به هنگام مواجهه ی مخاطب با اثر نقاشی، بدن زیسته ی او را درگیر می سازد؛ لذا به عنوان جزئی از آن، در بدن زیسته سکنا خواهد داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: نقاشی، نگاه، ادراک بصری، مرلوپونتی، بدن زیسته
  • ستاره احسنت*، حسین اردلانی، محمد جواد صافیان، کیانوش ذاکرحقیقی صفحات 39-48
    درک و دریافت مناسب از نسبت میان نشانه ها و مفاهیم، همواره در وابستگی به فرآیند ادراک رخ می دهد و در یک مواجهه هنری، دگرگونی مسیر ادراک، ایجاد شگفتی فارغ از هر گونه عادت وارگی مالوف را به دنبال دارد. این پژوهش در تلاش است تا با تکیه بر دو ساحت آشنایی زدایی و فرآیند نشانگی، به تحلیلی بر مسئله فرآیند ادراک و چگونگی دگرگون سازی مسیر آن بپردازد. هدف پژوهش، بر تبیین زمینه های ایجاد این دگرگونی در وابستگی به ریشه های مشترک میان این دو ساحت استوار است که به شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی و در راستای مطالعه منابع مکتوب کتابخانه ای، صورت گرفته است. یافته ها نشان داد که طراح اثر در راستای تبیین هستی هنر، هدف و شگردهای هنری، زبان بصری بدیعی خلق نموده و مخاطب نیز به منظور نیل به آن، در دریافت متعلق نشانه شناختی، نمود و تفسیر، با تکیه بر ادراک حسی، عقلی و خیالی خویش، اهتمام می ورزد. لذا دگرگونی حاصل، در فرآیند ادراک و در نسبت با نظام نشانه ای و مفاهیم وابسته، نه تنها در ایجاد لذت ذهنی و عینی مخاطب و تجربه زیبایی شناختی وی اثر می گذارد، بلکه مدت زمان ماندگاری آن را در ذهن افزون می سازد.
    کلیدواژگان: دگرگونی ادراک، نشانه، مفهوم، گرافیک
  • یعقوب آژند* صفحات 49-56
    در این مقاله فرضیه بر این بود که شیوه شیراز مکتب ترکمان از عناصر هنری مکتب شیراز (بویژه تذهیب آن) و مکتب هرات (به ویژه عنصر رنگ بندی و ترکیب بندی آن) و مکتب ترکمان (به خصوص فضابندی امکانات زیستی و طبیعت گرای آن) پدید آمد و با انتقال به تبریز و در آمیختگی آن با شیوه تبریز مکتب ترکمان، زمینه را برای پدیداری مکتب تبریز صفوی فراهم کرد. شیوه شیراز مکتب ترکمان در دو مرحله زمانی شکل گرفت. یکی دوره هفت ساله پیربوداق قراقویونلو بود که از امکانات هنری دوره ابراهیم سلطان و نیز هنرمندان مکتب هرات بهره گرفت. پس از برافتادن حکومت پیربوداق در شیراز، مرحله دوم این شیوه در حکومت هفت ساله سلطان خلیل آق قویونلو شروع شد و وی با بهره گیری از بنیه انسانی هنری دوره پیربوداق قراقویونلو به حمایت هنرها و هنرمندان پرداخت و شیوه شیراز مکتب ترکمان را به اوج کمال هنری خود رساند. در این مقاله، با بهره گیری از روش تحقیق استقرایی مبتنی بر وصف (چیستی) ارزیابی (چگونگی) و تحلیل (چرایی) و نقادی علمی مضمر در مسامات یافته ها و داده ها، شیوه شیراز مکتب ترکمان فحص و تتبع شد و نتیجه حاصله پاسخگوی سوالات برآمده از فرضیه گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: پیربوداق، سلطان خلیل، کومرال، شیخی، درویش محمد، شیخ محمود هروی
  • فرزانه م میرزاییان، زینب صابر* صفحات 57-64
    در این پژوهش، نگاره آوردن سر ایرج نزد سلم و تور به قلم محمدزمان از شاهنامه شاه عباس بررسی می شود. فرضیه این مقاله آن است که تفاوت این نگاره در عنوان، محتوا و فضا، با متن شاهنامه و نیز دیگر نگاره ها از این مجلس؛ ناشی از تحولات فرهنگی عصر صفوی و نمایانگر مواجهه نقاشی ایرانی با نقاشی غربی است. روش تحقیق، تحلیلی است و برای درک دستور زبان تصویری و نشانه های مستتر در آن، به تحلیل اثر مبتنی بر متن ادبی پرداخته و سپس به تفسیر آن براساس زمینه های اجتماعی و فرهنگی اثر می پردازیم. در این نگاره، برخلاف متن فردوسی، به جای تصویر، فضایی تراژیک و خشونت آمیز از قتل ایرج، قهرمان ایرانی و تاکید بر حقانیتش، فضایی موقر و باشکوه بازنمایی شده که درآن سلم و تور، که نمایانگر هویت غیرایرانی هستند، باصلابت و با پیکرهایی بزرگ تر از ایرج و سایر افراد تصویر شده اند. محمد زمان از تکنیک های نقاشی فرنگی، پرسپکتیو، حجم نمایی و سایه روشن در نمایش شکوه این دو بهره برده است. باتوجه به تحولات پارادایمی در اصفهان قرن یازدهم و تجربه گذار از سنت به تجدد، ذبح ایرج، قهرمان ایرانی، در بارگاه سلم و تور را می توان استعاره ای از کمرنگ شدن ارزش های نگارگری در برابر پرسپکتیو و دیگر تکنیک های غربی در سبک فرنگی سازی دانست.
    کلیدواژگان: شاهنامه شاه عباس، محمد زمان، هویت ایرانی، هویت غیر ایرانی، ایرج
  • مینا صدری*، حسین عصمتی صفحات 65-76
    از مباحث مهم نگارگری، بررسی شکل شناسانه ی عناصر تصویری و کارکرد آن ها در پیشبرد روایت تصویری است. این پژوهش، با هدف دست یابی به این مهم، خواب نگاره های شاهنامه تهماسبی را مورد بررسی ریخت شناسانه قرار داده است. لذا این سوال را طرح کرده است؛ عناصر سازنده ی نگاره های شاهنامه ی تهماسبی در بازتولید موضوع خواب و رویا چه کارکرد و خویشکاری ای دارند؟ این تحقیق از زاویه ای نو به موضوعی که تا کنون مورد توجه قرار نگرفته، پرداخته است. کمبود یا نبود پژوهشی در نگارگری با موضوع "خواب" و "رویا"، نگارندگان این تحقیق را بر آن داشت تا به شیوه ی توصیفی - تحلیلی، به بررسی شکل شناسانه ی داستان های مصور شاهنامه ی تهماسبی با موضوع رویا بپردازند. با توجه به یافته های تحقیق می توان نتیجه گرفت، که خویشکاری عناصر تصویری در سه حوزه قابل دسته بندی است. 1- تمام عناصر تصویری به ساختار شکلی اثر کمک کرده و ترکیب بندی آن ها را تکمیل می کنند. 2- برخی از خویشکاره ها در هر سه نگاره مشترک هستند و می توان کارکرد آن ها را در حیطه ی روایت صریح داستان دانست. 3- برخی از عناصر تصویری در هر سه نگاره، کارکرد نمادین دارند. تعداد این عناصر نمادین کم و زیاد می شود اما در هر سه نگاره چنین عناصری دیده می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: ریخت شناسی، شاهنامه ی تهماسبی، خواب نگاره، نظریه ی پراپ
  • مریم کشمیری*، زهرا رهبرنیا صفحات 77-90
    ژرفانمایی در نسخه‎نگاره های ایرانی با آنچه امروز از پرسپکتیو دانسته می‎شود، بسیار متفاوت است. در نگارگری، پیکره های دورتر را هم‎اندازه پیکره های نزدیک‎تر، اما بالاتر از آن‎ها بازنموده‎اند. پژوهشگران این شیوه را در عبارت «بالاتر یعنی دورتر» خلاصه کردند. گمان می‎رود چنین عبارتی، گوناگونی ژرفای صحنه ها و مفاهیم در پس آن‎ها را بیان نمی‎کند، زیرا پذیرفتنی نیست هنری چندصدساله که در خدمت بازگفت دیداری روایات ادبی متفاوت بوده است، یکی از مهم‎ترین ارکان صحنه‎پردازی (ژرفا) را چنین ساده‎انگارانه بازنموده باشد. براین‎پایه، پرسش‎های جستار حاضر برمی‎آید: مبانی شکل‎گیری ژرفانمایی بالاوپایین چیست؟ آیا بربنیان این مبانی می‎توان گوناگونی ژرفانمایی را چندان‎که ایرانیان قدیم درمی‎یافتند، بازفهمید؟ رسالات مناظرومرایای کهن (المناظر ابن‎هیثم)، درک مفهوم ژرفا در نگاه ایرانیان و تبیین شیوه های بازنمایی آن را ممکن می‎سازد. براین‎بنیان، شش گونه ژرفانمایی در نقاشی ایرانی شناختنی است که هریک از جهت عمق صحنه ها، کاربرد و مفهوم با یکدیگر تفاوت دارد: انبوه‎نگاری؛ انجمن‎نگاری؛ بوستان‎نگاری؛ صحرانگاری؛ ژرفانمایی با لایه های میانجی؛ و ژرفانمایی های ساختمانی. پژوهش درپی فهم تاریخی اثر می‎کوشد دریافت مخاطب امروز را به فهم بیننده سده های پیشین نزدیک گرداند و چارچوب‎های نادیده نگارگری ایرانی را بازنمایاند. ازاین‎رو، پژوهشی بنیادین با رویکردی تاریخی است که اصول المناظر را به‎شیوه توصیف بازمی‎خواند و ژرفانمایی نگاره ها را با توصیف‎‎تحلیل و نیز سنجش چارچوب‎های علمی و هنری (تطبیق هم‎زمان) تبیین می‎کند.
    کلیدواژگان: نقاشی سنتی ایران (نگارگری)، ژرفانمایی (پرسپکتیو)، ابن‎هیثم، دانش مناظرومرایا (نورشناسی)
  • نیلوفر شکرابی، بهروز محمودی بختیاری*، احمد الستی صفحات 91-100

    شهرهای جدید و امروزی، آکنده از  قطعات تصاویر، کالاها و کلمات چاپی پرشماری شده اند که معنای شهر را تغییر می دهند و آن را هم به کالا و تصویر مبدل می کنند. در واقع شهروند شهر مدرن، پرسه زنی است که با سفر در فضای فیلمیک شهر، دچار وقفه ای در وجود خود می شود؛ وقفه ای که به وسیله مونتاژی از این قطعات پر می شود و باعث تغییر هویت و تبدیل او به شیئ  و کالا می شود. در این مقاله تحلیلی- توصیفی، سعی بر آن است تا در چارچوب دیدگاه های والتر بنیامین و ژاک لاکان، به تحقیق در نظریات فلسفی و روانکاوانه فیلم و تبلیغات پرداخته شود و به چگونگی تغییر هویت شهروندان در دنیای مدرن  بررسی شود. نتایج حاکی از آن است که شهروند به مثابه یک پرسه زن، با حرکت در میان این گذرگاه ها و در تقابل با انبوه تصاویر تبلیغاتی که دائم در گوشه و کنار شهر او را احاطه می کنند، در جایگاه یک کارگردان هنری شروع به ساخت یک مونتاژی از تصاویر تبلیغاتی می کند. از این پیوست، فیلمی ذهنی حاصل می شود که تماشاگر را سرشار از احساس و حرکت می کند. این فیلم، با فضای فراواقعی و هوس انگیزش، حس میل مخاطب را برای به چنگ آوردن کالاها و ابژه های درون آن به شدت برمی انگیزد.

    کلیدواژگان: تبلیغات محیطی، کلان شهر، پرسه زن، تغییر هویت، فضای فیلمیک
  • فاطمه زمانی بابگهری، عطیه یوزباشی* صفحات 101-110
    مسجد امام کرمان به دلیل برخورداری از قسمت های مختلف تاریخی از آل بویه تا دوره معاصر، و همچنین داشتن آرایه های گوناگون معماری از آجرکاری، کاشی کاری، گچ بری و غیره، منبع بسیار مناسبی برای مطالعات تاریخی، فرهنگی و هنری است و نقوش به کار رفته در آن، می توانند در طراحی گرافیکی مدرن مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. روش انجام تحقیق بر مبنای ماهیت توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده است و گردآوری اطلاعات به صورت ترکیبی (کتابخانه ای و میدانی) صورت گرفته است. نگارندگان با رویکرد مطالعه کاربردی، این فرضیه را مبنای پژوهش خود قرار داده اند که: «نقوش گره چینی و تزیینی موجود در اجزای مختلف معماری مسجد امام کرمان، از غنا و قابلیت به روز کردن برخوردارند». پس از بررسی های لازم، مشخص شد که نقوش مجموعه یادشده، در گونه های انتزاعی، حاشیه پردازی، گره چینی، اسلیمی و مقرنس قابل تقسیم بندی است که البته هرکدام از آن ها نیز به دو زیرگونه دیگر تقسیم می شوند. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است که نقش مایه های موجود در بنا، می توانند با اندک تغییراتی در طرح و ابعاد، بر روی مصنوعات و کالبد معماری مدرن نیز استفاده شوند. این امر می تواند یک منبع غنی فرهنگی را برای هنرمندان و صنعتگران معرفی و شیوه بهره گیری از آن ها را به دیگر بناهای تاریخی، تعمیم دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: مسجد امام کرمان، مسجد ملک کرمان، آرایه های معماری، تزیینات، دوره سلجوقی
  • مرضیه الله دادی*، مرضیه رمضانی صفحات 111-122

    امروزه هر فرد در زندگی، نیازهای خود را دخیل کرده و محصولات را براساس سلایق خود انتخاب می کند. به همین دلیل هدف اصلی این پژوهش، طراحی بسته بندی نگهدارنده دارو با استفاده از مهندسی کانسی است. از اهداف دیگر این پژوهش، بررسی تاثیر طراحی کاربرمحور مانند برنامه های سلامت تلفن همراه و وضعیت توسعه آن ها است. طبق روند مهندسی کانسی، ابتدا تمامی محصولات حتی به صورت ایده جمع آوری شدند و در نهایت چهار محصول انتخاب شد. برای ارزیابی این محصولات، پرسش نامه ای به روش افتراق معنایی توسط 24 واژه انتخابی از 75 واژه کانسی به دست آمده؛ تدوین و توسط 21 نفر از اعضا (خانم) کانون سالمندان سرای محله شهرک غرب به صورت داوطلبانه تکمیل شد. یافته های حاصل از تحلیل اطلاعات توسط نرم افزار SPSS ، کمک شایانی در دستیابی به معیارهای موردنظرکرد. این معیارها می تواند باعث طراحی محصولی مطابق با خواسته کاربران شود. معیارهای طراحی تعریف شده شامل: طراحی فرمی ساده، جنس های متفاوت پلاستیکی برای بدنه و درب محصول، باز شدن درب نگهدارنده دارو از پایین به بالا و قابلیت جدا شدن محفظه های نگهدارنده دارو از بدنه محصول است. همچنین با توجه به نیاز کاربران به محصولی ساده و کاربردی، برنامه های سلامت محور می توانند به طراحی محصولات مرتبط با این مسائل کمک بسیاری نمایند.

    کلیدواژگان: بسته بندی نگهدارنده دارو، طراحی کاربرمحور، برنامه های سلامت تلفن همراه، مهندسی کانسی
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  • Hossein Rishehri, Afsaneh Nazeri *, Nader Shaygan Far Pages 5-14

    Jean Baudrillard believes that culture is developing like a pseudo-event and with the guidance of the media, it is constantly changing. In his opinion, we have entered a similar age. Similarities are signs that act as a transcript or pattern of objects or real events. Since media play a significant role in cultural simulation, the purpose of this article is to study the representation of cultural simulation of the media in contemporary visual arts and considering Baudrillard's theory analyzed the works of Katrina Fritsch and this poses the question that how does cultural simulation be represented in visual art? This article is descriptive-analytical and comparative and studying the works of this contemporary artist, especially the effect of his banquet. The results of the research show that the representation of this cultural simulation is inevitable that both theoreticians and the artist have allegorically expressed their own terms. The contributions of Katrina Fritsch and Jean Baudrillard's votes are shown that representation of cultural simulation in visual arts can have features that there is a theory in society. They will enjoy the residents of a community in a lifestyle, interests and wishes of the same patterns that they provide to the communicative devices. Culture, which has always been one of the most important frontiers of socialism and socialism now, with electronic media, it can't be as frontier as the past. We can see the most intense cultural mode, simulation, in this work. The people present at the banquet have been simulated so much by the technology of media that they are not readily identifiable. However, such a culture would rarely arise with such extreme conditions. In this simulation work, a sign is a transcript or real pattern of a person who, according to Jean Baudrillard, in postmodern times, is no longer a transcript or a copy, and not a replica of it. People have sat down on a desk as consumer media technology and have been so obliterated that they have fallen into a trance. Characteristics of work's Katharina Fritsch, including repetition and reproduction, reproduction, simulation, consumerism, and the production of signs, metaphor and emergence of new identity signs that artist using these features, imparts cultural simulation allegorically. The banquet effect was allegorically shown that similarity and hyper-reality that Baudrillard speaks of how to happen in the next world. Creation of human beings with the same characteristics and simulated super-reality that involves the audience in thinking. The artist, with the use of black color, has expressed this fears about the future. Finally, it must be said, simulation of Baudrillard and work's Katharina Fritsch both are the futures, each of which expresses metaphysics in their own way. The contributions of work's Katrina Fritsch and Baudrillard's votes are showed that representation of cultural simulation in visual arts can have features that there is a theory in society. Given the importance of the subject, it is suggested that researchers investigate cultural simulations from different perspectives, such as the collapse of the social and actuality of reality.

    Keywords: Cultural similarity, Media, Contemporary Visual Arts, Jean Baudrillard, Katharina Fritsch
  • Valiallah Kavusi* Pages 15-24

    The field of historiography and study of Islamic art appeared about two centuries ago on the fringes of oriental studies of Western linguists, litterateurs, and historians. The New approaches to historiography and passion for getting acquainted with Islamic texts through translation and correction, facilitated understanding of the various aspects of Islamic civilization, including art. The setting up of Arabic language courses at European universities was another way of Westerners acquaintance with Islamic culture. Following these trends, the interest in Islamic art and architecture began to develop from the late eighteenth century onwards, receiving a great impetus from the first wave of European expansion. A little later, some groups of architects and draftsmen, enthusiast for visiting Islamic monuments, went to Spain, which had great monuments of Islamic architecture. The colonial occupation and political relations of Western authorities, specially Germany, France, and United Kingdom, in Islamic lands, from Morocco and North Africa to Anatoly, India, and Iran, brought travelers with architectural and designing skills to these area. Drawing and registering survived and destroyed buildings, collecting objects and items, as well as designing and categorizing them, were among common practices. The results of such efforts were a copious of designs and pictures from Islamic monuments, which introduced Islamic architecture to the Western people. Thus, until about the middle of the nineteenth century, travelling to Islamic lands and drawing monuments were the most important attempts of those who interested in the arena in the West, most of them either were architects or had interested in architecture. In another phase, trading of Islamic items between European clients and local brokers, led to be acquired a plenty of works of Islamic art and crafts by Western museums and collections. Meanwhile, the role of the agents of South Kensington Museum in London was more prominent. The buyers and collectors of Islamic items in this period considered the main source of artistic creativity in the Islamic world not Anatolia, Syria and Egypt, but Iran. The esteem for Persian Art that was developing among European collectors and art institutions resulted in a period of intensive acquisition in Iran. Several years of drought and famine in Iran exacerbated the situation. The first European collector to be active in Iran was the Frenchman Jules Richard, also known as Mirza Riza. Among the latter, the most prominent was Robert Murdoch Smith, who in 1873 offered his services to the South Kensington Museum. These, and other, activities enabled new area of Persian art to become known in Europe. As we have seen, the study of Islamic art as it emerged in the early twentieth century has clear political and cultural reasons. In this article, we read the story of the Westerners encounters with the legacy of Islamic art by revising the narratives of European scholars themselves. In the end, we will see that the arena today known by the name of Islamic art for all the art scholars in the world, product of these initial encounters.

    Keywords: Historiography, Islamic art, orientalism, Colonialism, Collecting
  • Maryam Bakhtiarian * Pages 25-32
    Addison’s aesthetic theory is expressed in the pleasures of imagination with focusing on aesthetic perception. Addison’s aesthetic theory is an important attainment of the early Enlightenment in introducing the significance of the faculty of the imagination. In this theory, Addison wants to defend from imagination against those who did not consider any important role for it, like Descartes. He considers a cognitive and spiritual function for imagination. The pleasure of imagination is not necessarily independent of other sources of pleasure in human life. That is, he did not separate the different pleasures like Kant. The imagination enhances other sources of pleasure in life, because it has no cost, that is, without the cost of ownership and without costs of everyday experiences. The pleasures of imagination either through direct seeing of objects or facts, or through seeing and perceiving their representations in various artistic genres such as painting, sculpture, and literary descriptions that they are presented in different forms by the authors. Imagination give us a form power in order to combine and to create images and scenarios. Thus a man can entertain and enjoy even in his/her own loneliness. The primary pleasures of imagination are achieved from the perception of natural objects and man-made objects. Secondary pleasures of imagination are achieved from the perception of representations in the artworks. The pleasures of imagination can be caused by exposure to greatness, beauty and harmony. But art has a special facility that it is same novelty. Art can be ahead of nature and can be the agent of an agreeable surprise. Since beauty is related to form, it has the least connection with the cognitive interests and human actions, and thus it provides the most autonomous pleasure of imagination that the mind does not consider in its confirmation other than the elements and parts of the form that are perceived at the moment of being seen. Thus the perception of beauty is due to the power of imagination. For him, greatness has an effective role in the active of imagination. For him, pleasure is one mental ability. If someone does not enjoy it, it's because of weakness his/her imagination and the eye of his/her mind is closed. This view about beauty and art tells us that objective view will gradually go away and subjective view will emerge. Our goal is in the research that don’t ignore Addison's contribution in this transition. Kant is raised many of his ideas for example disinterested attitude and the superiority of natural beauty. Addison’s thought extends throughout the 18th century in Kant’s thought and the movement of Romanticism. His influence is observed especially in his emphasis on the visual adjustment of the imagination, the exposing of mental visibility at the very center of all aesthetic experience. In this paper, by means of library method data are collected and then are described and analyzed in order to be clear the abilities of imagination in the face of nature and art, then what is the relationship between natural and artistic beauty?
    Keywords: Joseph Addison, imagination, Natural Beauty, Artistic Beauty, primary Pleasures, second Pleasures
  • Leila Ghaffari, Jamal Arabzadeh * Pages 33-38
    The Look, in the  close meaning, is the channel of the encounter or the gateway of confrontation for  an artist such as a  painter  and the audience or the viewer of the art work to a painting work, which can be viewed definitely as an especial human experience, from the view point of the painter or the artist during the whole process of the creation and making  an art work such as the painting work, as well as from the view point of the audience of the art work or the painting at the definite moment of the looking or the gazing at the painting work. The main and the typical chief question about the Look in the painting, which would be supposed to be answered as well,  closely regards to the output results which would be come from this recent study had been completely about the close and direct correlation between the Look in the painting and the Lived or  the Living Experience of the painter  or an artist(as an human being) as well as his or her involvement with the Lived or  the Living Body of the audience or the viewer of the art work such as a painting, so as the painter or the artist, who is the creator of the art work as well, in the act of the painting work perception or the reception from the painting work. According to this fine point of view towards the nature of the Look in the painting, it had been also described specifically as a kind of Lived or the Living Experience, which would be eventually resulted in the Visual Perception, as well as specifically in the perception of the painting work. So that, totally it would be seen regards to the Lived or the Living Body, the Look in the painting as a stable component or part it, had been considered and analyzed. Regards to the Final outputs of this research, by the use of the phenomenological approach, in a definitely descriptive-analytical method and at last, based on the evidences which would be contained in such a famous French contemporary Phenomenologist Philosopher, Maurice Merleau Ponty's point of views, the existence of a close correlation between the Lived or Living Experience of the artist painter and his or her Look in the painting had been consequently deduced and shown. According to the recent study, it should be clearly said, the Look in the painting is a kind of Lived or the Living Experience for an human being, and when the audience of the art work, such as a painting, encounters closely with an art work or a typical painting work, the Look completely engages his or her Lived or the Living Body; So it could be derived from all of these points, that as a part of it, the Look at the painting should be lived and should be consequently resident in the Lived or the Living body.
    Keywords: Painting, the Look, visual perception, Merleau-Ponty, lived body
  • Setareh Ahsant *, Hosein Ardalani, Mohammadjawad Safian, Kianoosh Zakerhaghighi Pages 39-48
    An artistic encounter always has a coherent set of interactions, centered around three main factors of the work, the audience and the designer; which on the one hand, is based on the interaction between the forces of the individual elements on different arrangements and, on the other hand, relies specifically on the interaction between the constructive purposes of the artwork and the viewer. Here, the most important fact is the perceptual processes that take place in dependence on human existence. These processes, arising from the individual perception of the designer and the viewer, in an artistic event and in the ratio between the sign and the concept, always have a metamorphic change, which besides creating diversity in sign forms, always causes the audience to be pleasured in advanced combinations. An appropriate understanding of the relationship between signs and concepts always occurs in connection with the perception process; and in an artistic confrontation, a change of perception path would lead to a surprise beyond familiar habits. Perception is a way of discovering that in its evolutionary process and in the passing from the objective form of signs in order to get their inner meanings has always had a different and variable interchange with thought, fantasy, and experience. This research aimed to analyze the perception process and the way of changing it by the help of defamiliarization and semiosis. Defamiliarization is an important applied concept in the theories of art and literature introduced by Viktor Shklovsky in the article “Art as Technique”. However, an access to the changing path of familiar rules in art requires an attention and passing from semiosis domain in an artistic confrontation, which always has shared goals with the context of defamiliarization. In the explanation of his thoughts, Charles Sanders Peirce defined semiosis as an interaction between sign, object and interpretation. By the aim of exploring shared roots of defamiliarization and semiosis, this research aimed to answer the question what factors are involved in making relation between de-familiarization and semiosis, and how it is possible to change perception process to meet their demands. To achieve the objectives, a qualitative research based on a descriptive – analytical method was conducted. Data gathering was also done through studying documents and paperback or electronic books.  that transformation in the process of artistic perception can be analyzed depending on two main factors; The sign system and the symptom process, which firstly takes into account the designer and then the viewer of the artwork and in presenting the same and different proportions between the sign and the concept affects the variable perception trend and their pleasure.The findings showed that the artist created an innovative visual language in order to explain the world of art and artistic goals and techniques;  the audience tried to get the point, sign and concept by the help of his/her emotional, rational and fantastic perception. Therefore, the change in perception process and in relation to the connected sign systems not only affects the audiences’ mental and physical pleasure and his/her aesthetic experience, but also augment its durability in mind.
    Keywords: perception change, Sign, Concept, Graphic
  • Yaghoub Azhand * Pages 49-56
    This article is about Shiraz Style of Turkman painting School that assembled in the milieus of royal courts of PirBudaq AqQuyunlu and Sultan Khalil QaraQuyunln. Shiraz remained an important center of Book Arts during the Turkman dominion. The transition from the Timurids to the Turkman governors was relatively peaceful. Despite basic similarities of form and intention, Shiraz Style was conceptualized in widely different ways. Over time the aesthetic conception of Shiraz Style underwent a dramatic change under Turkman governors. Although Shiraz Style of Turkman painting school preserve works of art that are often at some remove from normative Persianate visual culture (normativity defined through the Arts of the book and painting), the importance of Shiraz Style is not only its salvage of unique materials. The Shiraz Style opens a window onto a landscape thought about the history, artists and media of the Persianate art tradition. Because the accumulated processes of Shiraz Style constitute nothing less than an articulation of the principles of art aesthetics, it presents an opportunity to study such ideas from inside the artistic culture of Persian painting. After death of Baysunghur and his father Shahrukh, many artists and practitioners sought patronage at other courts or Iran , in Shiraz , Isfahan , and Tabriz ,where they found willing patrons (among them PirBudaq in Shiraz and Yaqub Bey in Tabriz). The Timurid workshop’s achievements were probably acquired by one Turkman confederation at a time when the city of Herat was captured, such as the occupation of Jahanshah in862 H. ; period of occupation might also for the mechanism by which other productions and artists of Herat found way from Herat to center and western Iran ,particularly Shiraz . For example, Shaikh Mahmud Heravi began his artistic life in Yimurid Herat and then came into Pir Budaq court, after the Qara Quyunlu occupied Herat in 862H.; the core group of materials in Turkman court comes from eastern Iran (Herat), but it is combined with large quantities of paintings, drawings, and calligraphers made by practitioners under Turkmans. Materials produced at Shiraz under Tuarkman dominion are identifiable through the honorifics appended to calligrapher’s signatures. Pir Budaq must have found the workshops Shiraz painting school functioning, because the Shiraz style of Timurid era continued to be in the manuscripts of the860 and 863H.; these two manuscripts produced for Pir Budaq. Each has a medallion (Shamsa) on its opening folio with inscriptions indicating that it was produced for Pir Budaq library (Kitabkhana). The first is copy of divan of Katibi, copied by Abd al Rahman Khawarazmi, dated 860H., and the second copy of the divan of Qasim copied by Shaikh Mahmud Pir Budaqi, dated 863H. Both have binding and illumination of the highest quality without any illustration. Since Sultan Khalil Aq Quyunlu was then governor of Shiraz, the Shiraz Style must have been completed, suggesting that Sutan Khalil had taken over Pir Budaq library (Kitabkhana) in Shiraz.
    Keywords: Pir Budaq, Sultan Khalil, Kumral, Shiraz Style, Turkman Painting School
  • Farzaneh M Mirzaean Pages 57-64
    This study investigates the portrait of "Bringing the Iraj's head to Salm and Tor" by Mohammad Zaman named after the painters as well as pioneers and inventors of the Farangi style of painting in the Safavid period (11 th century AH). This picture is from Shahnameh of Shah Abbas. This Shahnameh was depicted during the reign of Shah Abbas Safavi. This shahnameh is depicted in different stylistic forms with two traditional Iranian painting styles and European painting and illustrating the evolution of painting. Here we see a different version of the story of the murder of Iraj in the narrative of Ferdowsi and other traditional painters. In this research, we will find that there are some interesting and interesting concepts in the content of this work. The purpose is to first describe the difference between this picture and the image of the murder of Iraj in earlier versions. Next, interpret the meaning of this difference in the context of historical-social developments in Safavid Iran By analyzing, interpreting, and discovering the angles concealed in the pictorial elements, the meaning of (Iranian) versus (non-Iranian) is revealed. The hypothesis of this article is that the difference in the title, content and space with the text of Shahnameh and other portraits from this title is due to the cultural developments of the Safavid era (westerners and cultural relations with the court and western painters and painters in to Iran and…) Reflecting the confrontation of Iranian painting with western painting. The research method is analytical and in order to understand the visual grammar and it is hidden signs, we analyze the text-based work and then interpret it based on the social and cultural context of the work. Particularly, Persian painting encounter with European style in the eleventh century for the first time. In this portrait, unlike the Ferdowsi's Shahnameh text (4thand5th century AH), instead of the tragic and violent image of Iraj's assassination, the Iranian hero emphasizing on his legitimacy, a temporary and magnificent space has been illustrated in which Salm and Tor, which represent non-Iranian identity have been pictured more stable white larger bodies than Iraj and other people. In this illustration, there is no indication of the greatness and dignity of Iraj as described in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh. Iraj seems to have had no credibility with Mohammad Zaman, an Iranian-born painter. Mohammad Zaman has used the techniques of painting, perspective, exponential volume and shading to illustrate the glory of these two. Mohammad zaman has been fascinated by the techniques of the Frenchman as well as by the use of the elements and motifs of the Frenchman. Given the paradigmatic changes in Isfahan in the eleventh century and the transition from tradition to modernity, the slaughter of Iraj, the Iranian hero, at Salm and Tor, can be seen as a metaphor for the diminishing value of illustration against perspectives and other western techniques in the style of painting. In other words, Iraj's headless corpse, the Iranian hero who is kneeling at the magnificent Salm and Tor shrine, can be concepts and forms of painting.
    Keywords: Shahnameh of Shah abbas, Mohammad Zaman, Iranian Identity, non-Iranian Identity, Iraj
  • Hosein Esmati Pages 65-76
    One of the important subjects in Persian painting is the morphological investigation into pictorial elements and their application in advancement of pictorial narration. The disputed point is whether the pictorial elements used in the Persian painting works only serve some decorative and aesthetic purposes or they also extend the scope of meaning to provide a more complete narration of the story and have the audience enter the details through "association"? The present study has investigated the relevant dream images from among numerous versions of Tahmasbi Shahnameh and 258 images with the aim of providing a proper response to the presented challenges. Thus, the main research question has been formulated as follows: What is the function of the elements making up the images of Tahmasbi Shahnameh in terms of reproduction of dream subject? This research investigates the subject from a standpoint that has not been noted before. Shortage or lack of any research on Persian painting on the subject of "dram" has prompted the writers of the present research to conduct a morphological investigation into the comic strips of Tahmasbi Shahnameh about dream using an analytical-descriptive method. In the present research, using morphology to describe the components of images, investigation into the relationships among the components and the analysis of their function have been done with the aim of explaining the general structures and finding some patterns in function of pictorial elements of dream images. The heroes dream of most of the events in Shahnameh before they take place. This set of the dreams appear in the form of dreams according to the nature and theme before they happen to the character who is central to the story. The type of dream in three images investigated in this research is of predicting type. According to the findings of the research it can be concluded that the function of the pictorial elements can be divided into three categories: 1- All pictorial elements help the morphological structures of works and complement their compositions; 2. Direct narration of story, some function are common among all three images and they can be considered to serve a function in the explicit narration scope of the story. The characters have been depicted while dreaming in all three images that narrate the subject and time of story. Addressing the nature to complement the composition and to express all three images aesthetically can be seen in all three images. 3- Some pictorial elements in all three images perform a symbolic function. The number of these symbolic elements varies, but these elements can be seen in all three images. Sometimes the symbolic function or expression of a sense is distributed among some pictorial elements. These elements create a syntagmatic axis and signify a certain sense like Zahhāk nightmare where the cloud, moon and cypress create a symbolic function. In addition, in the dreaming image of Tous the axis creating the roles of dragon, bull-headed mace, war tools, instrumentalists and visualization of Siavash image along with his magnificent expresses the sense of good tidings.
    Keywords: Morphology, Tahmasbi Shahnameh, Dream Image, Propp's Theory
  • Maryam Keshmiri *, Zahra Rahbarnia Pages 77-90
    The utilization of perspective rules in Iranian paintings (Miniatures) follows a different path in comparison with the common application of the method in western painting, designed in the renaissance period. In Iranian paintings, people’s height does not lessen when they are placed farther in the scenery. How large or small the figures appear, does not depend on the place they occupy in the scene, rather their size represents their divine, political or social status. To prevent any obstacles on the way of communicating this message, the farther figures are painted in the same size as the closer ones, but higher. Art historians explained this unique technique: “Whatever is farther is higher” and named it “vertical perspective”. Although this expression is used for decades to explain perspective in Iranian paintings, it seems that such reasoning is not adequate for justifying the various sorts of presented perspectives and their hidden significations, because it is not acceptable to imagine this hundreds of years old art in service of visualizing the literary narratives of literature, employing one of the most crucial elements in representing the sceneries, in such a primitive way. The research questions of this paper have been formed based upon the same doubts: What is the basis of formation of perspective in Iranian paintings? Is it possible to use this base to understand the perspective of these paintings the same way as the people contemporary to the art works used to understand it? Old optics- like Al-manazir, written byIbn Al-Haytham – makes it possible to see this concept and methods of presenting it from the old Iranians’ view-point. Using the findings of optics presented in Al-Manazir , one can realize that old Iranians believed understanding the depth of the scenery was impossible for the mind, unless it perceived some smaller concepts such as shapes, separations or continuity, distance, magnitude of distance and position of the objects. Six unique methods of representing perspective in Iranian paintings have been discovered, on the basis of the mentioned ideas which are different from one another in terms of the depth they present in scenery, functions and significations they communicate: implication of perspective 1- in a crowd (in audience with king, large numbers of people in armies); 2- in a little number of people (the royal private banquets in honour of foreign ambassadors, or friendly gatherings); 3-in limited or close-up scenes; 4- in vast or long-shot scenes; 5- with ordered and connected body (putting the figures behind and in front of natural separators such as mountains, rocks, trees, etc.); and 6-via buildings (paintings in which architectural buildings provide the viewer with an illusion of depth). The present research tries to bring understanding of modern audience closer to the one of viewers who lived centuries ago and reread these art works with their own contemporary mental-point. It is a historical research in which Almanazir’s fundaments is explained and perspective is analyzed and explained. It simultaneously explains the artistic and scientific frameworks, too.
    Keywords: Iranian paintings, Perspective, Ibn al-Haytham, Optics
  • Niloofar Shekaraby, Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiari *, Ahmad Alasti Pages 91-100

    Nowadays, outdoor advertising media (including billboards, digital screens, and posters) in metropolitan areas are pushing man’s innately adventurous eyes toward new levels of unhinged insatiability, while creating a flow of seemingly encrypted visual messages in the process that have all but transformed the spectators’ perception of values and meanings. Advertising media in metropolises may be regarded as animated images scattered around big cities in bits and pieces, forming a sequence of images that rapidly, and indeed incessantly, cut through and affect citizens. In much the same way as the sequences of a film – where each frame is lit, projected in the eyes of spectators for a split second, and then fade away, leaving a lasting impression that is almost impossible to define or even to explain – advertisement media may be said to cut through time and space; they hurl the images at their audience in unrelenting fashion and put citizens under their hypnotic spell, alienating them from themselves and causing them to forget their true identity. One may use the example of a film theater where the spectators are locked inside and have no way but to follow what is happening on the screen; the images infiltrate the mind of the viewers, render their bodies motionless, permeate their existence, and become the object of their whole thinking process. Thus, it follows that advertisement media in metropolitan areas create a cryptic, multi-layer atmosphere all over the city, injecting in it a torrent of vague shapes, images of alluring human bodies and faces, meticulously chosen words, and various products to transform the very meaning of the city and turn the city itself into yet another product or image. Traveling under the watchful, powerful gazes directed at them by the figures on display in advertising billboards, is an experience that turns the minds and bodies of citizens into objects replete with motion and emotion, somewhat recreating their identities from scratch. Here, a paradoxical feeling of the simultaneous absence and presence of a given advertised product is created within the spectator: an unreal, virtual presence which is also an absence, and which transmits a sense of inaccessibility and exceeding ideality that effortlessly provokes the desire and ‘symptom’ of the spectator and compels them to long for the product and end up buying it. In truth, the citizen of a modern city may be described as a ‘flâneur’ who aimlessly saunters around the filmic atmosphere of the city – which is overflowed with advertising billboards and screens promoting products and consumerism – and finds within himself a gap, or a lapse, which he has been led to believe can only be mended by a montage of the countless sequences of images he has encountered and absorbed across the city. The said gap develops into a bizarre paradox that manifests in the form of a trauma in the psyche of the human being whose identity has been metamorphosed, lost its meaning, and become merely another in a long line of inconsequential product ready for consumption.

    Keywords: Advertising Media, Metropolis, Flâneur, Change of Identity, Filmic Atmosphere
  • Fatemeh Zamani Babgohari, Atieh Youzbashi * Pages 101-110
    The Seljuk period of Iran is one of the most golden, most prominent and at the same time, the most decisive historical periods of it. One of these works of Seljuk architecture, which it can dare to consider valuable in terms of brickwork decorations in the art and architecture of Islamic Iran, is the Imam mosque of Kerman. It has known as the first comprehensive urban mosque and the center of communities in Kerman. This mosque is a very good source for historical, cultural and artistic studies due to its various historical parts from Al Boya to the contemporary era, as well as having various architectural artifacts from bricks, tiles and gypsum, and so on. The used motifs in it can be used in modern graphic design. The research methodology was descriptive-analytic in nature and the data collecting method was combined (library and field). The author, with the applied study approach, bases this hypothesis as: "The knots and decorative motifs in the various components of the architecture of Imam Mosque of Kerman have the richness and ability to update." After the necessary investigations, it was discovered that the motifs of the mentioned collection is dividable into abstract species, margins, knots, Asliemi, and Mogharnes that each of them is divided into two subspecies. The results of the research indicate that the existing structures in the building can be used on the artifacts and modern architecture with modifications in design and dimensions. It can introduce a rich cultural source for artists and craftsman and extend the way for using them into other monuments. The decorations in an architectural work not only enliven to that hit, but also provide a reliable source for studying the art of that period. The Imam mosque has several altars from the Albuya period after which it has works of Seljuk period architecture. In fact, it should be said that the most important parts of the mosque were built during this period. The Seljuk architecture of Iran is one of the effective and focal points in the history of the country's architecture. There is no doubt that the Malek mosque of Kerman is privileged in its kind in this respect. A  Brick tower, surviving from the Seljuk period has located in the northeast corner of it. The mentioned tower or minaret similar to other Seljuk towers that were very tall before collapsed later and now there are no more than six meters left. The rest of the mosque has been rebuilt and developed after the Seljuk period so the architectural works and arrays of the different periods can be found there. The study of the intended motifs can reveal the artistic and the time conjunction of the building with other similar buildings. Writers, in topic analysis respond to the following questions: 1. how many species are the geometric shapes and motifs on the tower of Imam Mosque divided? 2. Which types of Seljuk architecture arrays are matched with the identified arrays?  3. What aesthetic analysis can one do with the mention motifs?
    Keywords: Imam Mosque of kerman, Malek Mosque of kerman, architectural arrays, decorations, graphic capability, Seljuk period
  • Marzieh Allahdadi *, Marzieh Ramezani Pages 111-122

    Today, we see the development of societies, especially developing countries. This advancement can have an impact on various aspects of human life. User-centric design methods for creating new tools has been upgraded. For this reason, the primary goals of this study are the design of drug container according to the needs of the users being studied. User-centric design nowadays improves product development. By focusing on the needs of target users and analyzing them, they achieve the main criteria for custom product design. However, technology and its growth in our society are a fact. Today, the overwhelming majority of people are directly connected to computers, the Internet, cell phones, smartphones and other technologically advanced devices that are gradually improving. Considering the effects of user-oriented design on the design of mobile health applications and the impact of these applications on the research objectives, the status and development trends of the design of these applications, as well as user-oriented design are described in brief in this research. Another purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of user-oriented design, such as mobile health applications, and their status and development trends. Given the impact of user-centric design in designing products, it is impossible to ignore the effects of mobile health interventions as part of user-centric design to achieve the goals of this research. Also, Kansei Engineering was selected to fulfill the primary goal of this research, which is the design of drug container in accordance with the needs of the elderly. Kansei Engineering is a product development methodology that transforms customer's feelings, perceptions, and desires from existing products into design solutions and realistic design parameters. Because the sensory features that result from users' responses are also qualitative information, Kansei Engineering is a good tool for converting this information into quantitative and measurable information. According to the engineering process, all products were even collected in the form of ideas and samples. Finally, products were selected from among the collected products. To assess the four products, a questionnaire was developed by term of semantic differentiation with 24 selective words from 75 kansei words and voluntarily completed by 21 members (female) of the elderly community center in the city of  Ghods in Tehran's 2nd district. The results of data analysis using SPSS software showed that the four products evaluated by target users each have similarities and differences in the characteristics mentioned in the questionnaire. At the end, according to the criteria, the product was designed in accordance with the wishes of the users. After product design according to the obtained criteria, the product was re-evaluated and satisfied with the audience. These criteria can help design a product in accordance with users requirements. Design criteria are defined as: Simplified design of the fermi, various plastic material for the body and door products, opening the drug container door from the bottom up, and the ability to separate the container holding the drug from the body of the product.

    Keywords: Drug container, User centric design, Mobile health applications, Kansei engineering