فهرست مطالب

Cell Journal - Volume:22 Issue: 2, 2019
  • Volume:22 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • Salahadin Bahrami, Amir Amiri, Yekta, Abbas Daneshipour, Seyedeh Hoda Jazayeri, Paul Mozdziak, Mohammad Hossein Sanati, Hamid Gourabi Pages 133-139

    Specific developmental characteristics of the chicken make it an attractive model for the generation of transgenic organisms. Chicken possess a strong potential for recombinant protein production and can be used as a powerful bioreactor to produce pharmaceutical and nutritional proteins. Several transgenic chickens have been generated during the last two decades via viral and non-viral transfection. Culturing chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and their ability for germline transmission ushered in a new stage in this regard. With the advent of CRISPR/Cas9 system, a new phase of studies for manipulating genomes has begun. It is feasible to integrate a desired gene in a predetermined position of the genome using CRISPR/Cas9 system. In this review, we discuss the new approaches and technologies that can be applied to generate a transgenic chicken with regards to recombinant protein productions.

    Keywords: Chickens, CRISPR, Cas9, Ovalbumin, Recombinant Protein, Transgenes
  • Hassan Rassouli, Ali Sayadmanesh, Siamak Rezaeiani, Zahra Ghezelayagh, Mohammad Reza Gharaati, Yaser Tahamtani Pages 140-148
    Objective

    Growth factors are key elements of embryonic stem cell (ESC) research. Cell line development in eukaryotes is a time-consuming procedure which usually takes 12-18 months. Here, we report an easy and fast method with which production of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express and secrete recombinant Activin A, as a major growth factor in endo/mesoderm differentiation of embryonic stem cells is achieved within 3-4 weeks.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, we cloned human Activin A into the pDONR/Zeo gateway entry vector using the BP reaction. Activin A was subcloned next into the pLIX_403 and pLenti6.3/TO/V5-DEST destination vectors by the LR reaction. The result was the production of constructs with which 293T cells were finally transfected for virus production. CHO cells were transduced using viral particles to produce a cell line that secretes the His6- Activin A fusion protein.

    Results

    We developed a quick protocol which saves up to 3-4 weeks of time for producing recombinant proteins in CHO cells. The recombinant cell line produced 90 mg/L of functional Activin A measured in human ESC line Royan H5 (RH5), during in vitro differentiation into meso-endoderm and definitive endoderm.

    Conclusion

    Our results showed no significant differences in functionality between commercial Activin A and the one produced using our novel protocol. This approach can be easily used for producing recombinant proteins in CHO.

    Keywords: Activin A, Cell Proliferation, CHO Cells, Embryonic Stem Cells, Recombinant Protein
  • Mohammad Salehi, Beheshteh Abouhamzeh, Ahmad Hosseini, Zohreh Zare, Azizollah Bakhtari Pages 149-157
    Objective

    Regarding that undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells, as donor cells, require less epigenetic reprogramming, possibility of using bovine adipose tissue-derived stem cells (BASCs) with low level of DNMTs and HDACs expression was evaluated.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, we examined gene expression of epigenetic modifiers including DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) and histone deacetylases (HDAC1-3), as well as protein levels of histone H3 acetylation at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) and POU5F1 (also known as OCT4) at two stages of preimplantation development among in vitro fertilization (IVF), parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) groups.

    Results

    The results revealed that developmental competence of IVF embryos was higher than SCNT embryos (P<0.05). In the PA and SCNT groups, DNMT1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 mRNA were overexpressed (P<0.05), and proteins levels of H3K9ac and POU5F1 were reduced at 6-8 cells and blastocyst stages compared to IVF (P<0.05). The mRNA expression of DNMT1 and HDAC1 and proteins levels of POU5F1 and H3K9ac were significantly different between SCNT and PA groups (P<0.05) in both developmental stages (except HDAC1 in blastocyst stage).

    Conclusion

    The SCNT embryos derived from BASCs have endured considerable nuclear reprogramming during early embryo development. Comparison of PA and SCNT blastocysts demonstrated that HDAC1 and DNMT1 may attribute to developmental competence variability of bovine embryos.

    Keywords: DNA Methyltransferases, Histone Deacetylases, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, POU5F1
  • Mahnaz Jahangirimoez, Abdallah Medlej, Mahmoud Tavallaie, Bahram Mohammad So Pages 158-164
    Objective

    Transforming growth factor beta/single mothers against decapentaplegic (TGFβ/SMAD) signaling pathway plays important roles in various biological processes. It acts as a tumor suppressor during the early stages of cancer progression. Discovering the regulators of this pathway provides important options for therapeutic strategies. Here, we searched for candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) that potentially target the critical components of the TGFβ signaling pathway.

    Materials and Methods

    In the current experimental study, we first predicted miRNAs that target TGFβ components using a bioinformatics software. After that, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of miR-587, TGFBR2, SMAD4, p21, CCND1 and c-MYC genes in transfected HEK293T and HCT116 cells. Dual Luciferase assay was performed to analyze the interactions between miRNAs and the target genes. Propidium iodide flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle progression in HEK293T and HCT116 cells under hsa-miR-587 (miR-587) overexpression circumstances.

    Results

    Multiple miRNA responsive elements (MREs) were predicted for miR-587 within the 3’UTRs of the TGFBR2 and SMAD4 genes. Overexpression of miR-587 in HEK293T and HCT116 cells resulted in downregulation of TGFBR2 and SMAD4 genes. In addition, a downstream target gene of TGFβ/SMAD signaling, P21, was significantly downregulated in the HCT116 cells overexpressing miR-587. Dual luciferase assay analysis provided evidence that there is a direct interaction between miR-587 and the 3’UTR sequences of TGFBR2 and SMAD4 genes. Moreover, miR-587 overexpression in HEK293T and HCT116 cells resulted in reducing the SubG1 cell populations in both cell lines, as detected by flow cytometry.

    Conclusion

    Altogether, our data revealed an important role for miR-587 in regulating TGFβ/SMAD signaling and promoting cell cycle progression. These characteristics suggest that miR-587 is an important candidate for cancer therapy research.

    Keywords: Cancer, Cell Cycle, miR-587, TGFβ, SMAD Signaling
  • Afshin Moradi, Mahdis Rahimi Naiini, Nasrin Yazdanpanahi, Hossein Tabatabaeian, Fariba Nabatchian, Masoud Baghi, MansourehAzadeh, Kamran Ghaedi Pages 165-170
    Objective

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disorder involving both inflammatory and neurodegenerative responses. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been had an emerging role as the biomarkers of different disorders, including autoimmune diseases. Previous studies have shown that NR_003531.3 (MEG3a), AC000061.1_201, and AC007182.6 play a role in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases. However, the potential significance of these lncRNAs, as the diagnostic biomarkers of MS, has not been studied yet. We aimed to quantitatively evaluate the expression levels of NR_003531.3, AC000061.1_201, and AC007182.6 in peripheral blood samples of MS patients in comparison with healthy controls.

    Materials and Methods

    In this case-control study, the blood samples from 20 MS patients and 10 healthy controls were collected. Total RNA was extracted, and the expression levels of three selected lncRNAs were quantitatively measured using the quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method.

    Results

    We detected a significant down-regulation in the expression of NR_003531.3 in MS patients, while no marked changes were observed in the expression of AC000061.1_201 and AC007182.6 in patients compared with controls. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, NR_003531.3 could discriminate MS patients from healthy subjects effectively. Regarding the prognosis of MS patients, NR_003531.3 is significantly and inversely correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS).

    Conclusion

    The potential role of NR_003531.3 lncRNA as a diagnostic biomarker to distinguish MS patients is proposed. Prognostically, NR_003531.3 correlates with lower disability rates in MS patients

    Keywords: Autoimmune Disease, Gene Expression Profiling, Long Non-coding RNA, Multiple Sclerosis, Neurodegenerative Disease
  • Hossein Azizi, Mojtaba Ranjbar, Somayeh Rahaiee, Mostafa Govahi, Thomas Skutella Pages 171-177
    Objective

    We aimed to examine the expression levels of the VASA gene and protein in testis sections of neonate and adult mice as well as testicular cell cultures.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, in order to investigate the expression of this germ cell marker gene in more detail, we analyzed the expression of VASA by immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry and fluidigm reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Results

    The immunohistochemical assays showed that the VASA protein was exclusively expressed in germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the neonate and adult testis and not in somatic cells. VASA was not detectable in PLZF positive spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), was weakly expressed in proliferating spermatogonia, and became abundant in spermatocytes and round spermatozoa. Counting VASA-positive cells in the seminiferous tubules of the neonate and adult testis depicted significant higher expression (P<0.05) of VASA in the adult testis in comparison to its neonate counterpart. SSC colonies were established in vitro after digestion of the testis and characterized by immunocytochemistry for CD90 and stage-specific embryonic antigens 3 (SSEA3). Immunocytochemistry confirmed that in contrast to the not detectable signal in vivo, VASA protein was strongly localized in the cytoplasm of both neonate and adult mouse SSCs under in vitro conditions. The results of Fluidigm RT-PCR revealed a significant higher expression of the germ cell gene VASA in adult SSCs in comparison to neonate SSCs in cell culture (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    The VASA protein is, therefore, an extremely specific marker of testicular germ cell differentiation in vivo and mostly expressed in the adult testis in spermatocytes and round spermatids. The immunohistochemical signal in spermatogonia is very low. So, PLZF positive SSCs are negative for VASA in vivo, while in contrast, once isolated from the testicular niche VASA is also strongly expressed in SSCs under in vitro conditions.

    Keywords: Germ Cells, Mouse, Spermatogonial Stem Cells, Testis, VASA
  • Asghar Arshi, Farzaneh Raeisi, Esmaeil Mahmoudi, Fatemeh Mohajerani, Hamidreza Kabiri, Razieh Fazel, Maedeh Zabihian, Langeroudi, Amela Jusic Pages 178-184
    Objective

    Recent data suggest that increased levels of the HOTAIR long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) are involved in the development of various types of malignancy, including breast cancer. The aim of present study was to investigate HOTAIR lncRNA expression profile in breast cancer (BC) patients and cell lines.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, expression level of HOTAIR lncRNA was evaluated in BC and normal tissues of 15 patients as well as MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and MCF-10A cell lines, using quantitative reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HOTAIR lncRNA expression levels were estimated using 2-ΔΔCt method. Further, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was done to evaluate the selected lncRNA diagnostic potential. The Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was performed to evaluate the predictive value of this lncRNA level in BC patients.

    Results

    The results of present study demonstrated no significant difference in the expression of HOTAIR lncRNA in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines compared to MCF-10A as normal cell line (P>0.05). However, we observed a significantly increase in the expression of HOTAIR in BC patients compared to normal tissues (P<0.001). Significant associations were found between gene expression and tumour size and margin. We found 91.1% sensitivity and 95.7% specificity of circulating HOTAIR with an area under the ROC curve of 0.969. The Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated significant correlation between HOTAIR expression and overall survival.

    Conclusion

    This study demonstrated that expression of HOTAIR is increased in BC and might be associated with its progression. According to these findings, HOTAIR expression could be proposed as biomarkers for BC early diagnosis and prognosis.

    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Cell Line, HOTAIR lncRNA, Quantitative Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Fahimeh Afzaljavan, Negin Chaeichi Tehrani, Mahdi Rivandi, Saeed Zarif Ghasemian, Elham Vahednia, Reza Khayami, MohammadAbavisani, Alireza Pasdar Pages 185-192
    Objective

    Mutations of TP53 as a tumor suppressor gene are frequently observed in different types of cancer. A codon 72 polymorphism located on exon 4 with two alleles encoding either Proline (CCC) or Arginine (CGC) has been indicated as a common variation in association with cancers. Controversial results have been reported regarding the association of allelic polymorphism of codon 72 of TP53 gene and breast cancer risk in Iranian patients. Therefore, a case-control study was designed. A meta-analysis was also carried out to provide evidence of association between this variation and breast cancer in Iran, based on all available published data.

    Materials and Methods

    In this case-control study, blood sample of 622 participants, including 308 breast cancer cases and 314 controls were collected. Genotyping for rs1042522 was conducted by Allele Specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR). In order to set a meta-analysis study, PubMed, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge and Persian databases were searched to explore relevant studies, published up to September 2018, containing information on TP53 polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer in Iran. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 and MetaGenyo.

    Results

    All retrieved available data as well as the results of our current study were consisted of 1965 breast cancer cases and 1999 healthy controls. No significant difference was observed in allele frequencies between groups (P=0.90) in our study. The cumulative results did not also show any association between rs1042522 and breast cancer risk on the dominant (P=0.61) and recessive (P=0.89) models.

    Conclusion

    These findings cannot support contribution of rs1042522 polymorphism to breast cancer risk in an Iranian population. Future larger studies may help confirm this finding with a greater power.

    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Genetic Variation, Polymorphism, TP53
  • Mahnaz Mohammadi Kian, Atousa Haghi, Mahdieh Salami, Bahram Chahardouli, Shahrbanoo Rostami, Kianoosh Malekzadeh, HoseinKamranzadeh Foumani, Saeed Mohammadi, Mohsen Nikbakht Pages 193-202
    Objective

    Autophagy and apoptosis play key roles in cancer survival and pathogenesis and are governed by specific genes which have a dual role in both cell death and survival. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) and thalidomide (THAL) are used for treatment of many types of hematologic malignancies. ATO prevents the proliferation of cells and induces apoptosis in some cancer cells. Moreover, THAL has immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic effects in malignant cells. The aim of present study was to examine the effects of ATO and THAL on U937 and KG-1 cells, and evaluation of mRNA expression level of VEGFs genes, PI3K genes and some of autophagy genes.

    Materials and Methods

    In this in vitro experimental study, U937 and KG-1 cells were treated by ATO (0.4-5 μM) and THAL (5-100 μM) for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The apoptosis rate and cell cycle arrest were evaluated by flow cytometry (Annexin/PI) and cell cycle flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The effect of ATO/THAL on mRNAs expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Results

    ATO/THAL combination enhanced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Also, ATO/THAL induced SubG1/ G1 phase arrest. mRNA expression levels of VEGFC (contrary to other VEGFs isoform), PI3K, AKT, mTOR, MEK1, PTEN, IL6, LC3 and P62 genes were upregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells following treatment with ATO/THAL.

    Conclusion

    Combined treatment with ATO and THAL can inhibit proliferation and invasion of AML cells by down-regulating ULK1 and BECLIN1 and up-regulating PTEN and IL6, and this effect was more marked than the effects of ATO and THAL alone.

    Keywords: Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Arsenic Trioxide, Thalidomide
  • Zahra Nazari, Alireza Shahryari, Soraya Ghafari, Mohammad Nabiuni, Mohammad Jafar Golali Pages 203-211
    Objective

    DNA methylation, a major epigenetic reprogramming mechanism, contributes to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Based on genome-wide association studies, polymorphisms in CDKN2A/B are associated with T2DM. Our previous studies showed that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes apoptosis in β-cells, leading to a reduction in their number in pancreatic tissue of GDM-exposed adult rat offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intrauterine exposure to GDM on DNA methylation, mRNA transcription, as well as protein expression of these factors in the pancreatic islets of Wistar rat offspring. Our hypothesis was that the morphological changes seen in our previous study might have been caused by aberrant methylation and expression of CDKN2A/B.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, we delineated DNA methylation patterns, mRNA transcription and protein expression level of CDKN2A/B in the pancreatic islets of 15-week-old rat offspring of streptozotocin-induced GDM dams. We performed bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylation patterns of CpGs in candidate promoter regions of CDKN2A/B. Furthermore, we compared the levels of mRNA transcripts as well as the cell cycle inhibitory proteins P15 and P16 in two groups by qPCR and western blotting, respectively.

    Results

    Our results demonstrated that hypomethylation of CpG sites in the vicinity of CDKN2A and CDKN2B genes is positively related to increased levels of CDKN2A/B mRNA and protein in islets of Langerhans in the GDM offspring. The average percentage of CDKN2A promoter methylation was significantly lower in GDM group compared to the controls (P<0.01).

    Conclusion

    We postulate that GDM is likely to exert its adverse effects on pancreatic β-cells of offspring through hypomethylation of the CDKN2A/B promoter. Abnormal methylation of these genes may have a link with β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. These data potentially lead to a novel approach to the treatment of T2DM.

    Keywords: DNA Methylation, Gestational Diabetes, Islets of Langerhans
  • Vahid Baghdadi, Fatemeh Yari, Mahin Nikougoftar, Mohammad Hessam Rafiee Pages 212-217
    Objective

    Platelet (PLT) storage at 4˚C has several benefits, however, it is accompanied by increased clearance of PLTs after transfusion. In this study, we evaluated the potential of sodium octanoate (SO) for reducing apoptosis and clearance rate of PLTs after long-term storage in cold.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, PLT concentrates (PCs) were stored for 5 days under the following three conditions: 20-24˚C, 4˚C, and 4˚C in the presence of SO. To measure the viability of PLTs, the water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay was performed. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure was determined on PLTs using flow cytometry technique. The amount of human active caspase-3 was determined in PLTs using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, the amount of PLT ingestion or clearance was determined by using HepG2 cell line.

    Results

    The viability was higher in the SO-treated PLTs compared to the other groups. The level of PS exposure on PLTs was lower in the SO-treated PLTs compared to the other groups. The amount of active caspase-3 increased in all groups during 5-day storage. The highest increase in the amount of caspase-3 levels was observed at cold temperature. However, PLTs kept at 4˚C in the presence of SO had a lower amount of active caspase-3 compared to PLTs kept at 4˚C. The amount of PLTs removal by HepG2 cells was increased for 4˚C-kept PLTs but it was lower for PLTs kept at 4˚C in the presence of SO but, the differences were not significant (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    SO could partially moderate the effects of cold temperature on apoptosis and viability of platelets. It also decreases the ingestion rate of long-time refrigerated PLTs in vitro. Further studies using higher numbers of samples are required to demonstrate the effect of SO on reducing the clearance rate of PLTs.

    Keywords: Cold Temperature, HepG2, Octanoic Acid, Platelet
  • Omid Zahedi Siani, Mahdi Sojoodi, Mohammad Zabetian Targhi, Mansoureh Movahedin Pages 218-226
    Objective

    We present a four-branch model of the dielectrophoresis (DEP) method that takes into consideration the inherent properties of particles, including size, electrical conductivity, and permittivity coefficient. By using this model, bioparticles can be continuously separated by the application of only a one-stage separation process.

    Materials and Methods

    In this numerical study, we based the separation process on the differences in the particle sizes. We used the various negative DEP forces on the particles caused by the electrodes to separate them with a high efficiency. The particle separator could separate blood cells because of their different sizes.

    Results

    Blood cells greater than 12 μm were guided to a special branch, which improved separation efficiency because it prevented the deposition of particles in other branches. The designed device had the capability to separate blood cells with diameters of 2.0 μm, 6.2 μm, 10.0 μm, and greater than 12.0 μm. The applied voltage to the electrodes was 50 V with a frequency of 100 kHz.

    Conclusion

    The proposed device is a simple, efficient DEP-based continuous cell separator. This capability makes it ideal for use in various biomedical applications, including cell therapy and cell separation, and results in a throughput increment of microfluidics devices.

    Keywords: Biomedical Applications, Blood Cells, Microfluidics
  • Leila Mirzaeian, Farideh Eivazkhani, Maryam Hezavehei, Ashraf Moini, Fereshteh Esfandiari, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi, RouhollahFathi Pages 227-235
    Objective

    Decellularized tissue scaffolds provide an extracellular matrix to control stem cells differentiation toward specific lineages. The application of mesenchymal stem cells for artificial ovary production may enhance ex vivo functions of the ovary. On the other hand, the scaffold needs interaction and integration with cells. Thus, the development of ovarian engineered constructs (OVECs) requires the use of efficient methods for seeding of the cells into the ovarian and other types of scaffolds. The main goal of the present study was to develop an optimized culture system for efficient seeding of peritoneum mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) into human decellularized ovarian scaffold.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, three methods were used for cellular seeding including rotational (spinner flask) and static (conventional and injection) seeding cultures. OVECs were evaluated with Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and viability analyses for the seeded PMSCs. Then, immunohistochemistry analysis was performed using the best method of cellular seeding for primordial germ cell-like cells, mesenchymal stem cells and proliferation markers. Stereology analysis was also performed for the number of penetrated cells into the OVECs.

    Results

    Our results showed that rotational seeding increases the permeability of PMSCs into the scaffold and survival rate of the seeded PMSCs, comparing to the other methods. On the other hand, rotationally seeded PMSCs had a more favorable capability of proliferation with Ki67 expression and differentiation to ovarian specific cells with expression of primordial germ cell line markers without mesenchymal stem cells markers production. Furthermore, stereology showed a more favorable distribution of PMSCs along the outer surfaces of the OVEC with further distribution at the central part of the scaffold. The average total cell values were determined 2142187 cells/mm3 on each OVEC.

    Conclusion

    The rotational seeding method is a more favorable approach to cell seeding into ovarian decellularized tissue than static seeding.

    Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Ovary, Peritoneum, Seeding, Tissue Engineering
  • Maryam Fakhimi, Abdol, Rasoul Talei, Abbas Ghaderi, Mojtaba Habibagahi, Mahboobeh Razmkhah Pages 236-244
    Objective

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have prominent immunomodulatory roles in the tumor microenvironment. The current study intended to elucidate Treg subsets and their cytokines after exposing naïve T lymphocytes to adiposederived MSCs (ASCs).

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, to obtain ASCs, breast adipose tissues of a breast cancer patient and a normal individual were used. Magnetic cell sorting (MACS) was employed for purifying naïve CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood of five healthy donors. Naïve CD4+ T cells were then co-cultured with ASCs for five days. The phenotype of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and production of interleukine-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and IL-17 were assessed using flow cytometry and ELISPOT assays, respectively.

    Results

    CD4+CD25-FOXP3+CD45RA+ Tregs were expanded in the presence of cancer ASCs but CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD45RA+ regulatory T cells were up-regulated in the presence of both cancer- and normal-ASCs. This up-regulation was statistically significant in breast cancer-ASCs compared to the cells cultured without ASCs (P=0.002). CD4+CD25+ FOXP3+Helios+, CD4+CD25- FOXP3+Helios+ and CD25+ FOXP3+CD73+CD39+ Tregs were expanded after co-culturing of T cells with both cancer-ASCs and normal-ASCs, while they were statistically significant only in the presence of cancer-ASCs (P<0.05). Production of IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-β by T cells was increased in the presence of either normal- or cancer-ASCs; however, significant effect was only observed in the IL-10 and TGF-β of cancer-ASCs (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    The results further confirm the immunosuppressive impacts of ASCs on T lymphocytes and direct them to specific regulatory phenotypes which may support immune evasion and tumor growth.

    Keywords: Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell, Breast Cancer, Immunomodulatory Effects, Regulatory T Cel
  • Mohammad, Hossein Mohammadi, Mahdiabadi, Hasani, Mohammad Nabiuni, Kazem Parivar, Siamak Yari, Alireza Sahebi, Jaleel Miyan Pages 245-252
    Objective

    The embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (e-CSF) contains various growth factors and morphogens. Recent studies showed that e-CSF plays significant roles in embryonic brain development. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have a mesodermal origin that can be differentiated into mesodermal and ectodermal lineages. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of e-CSF on the proliferation, viability, and neural differentiation of ADSCs in rats.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, adipose tissue was dissected out from the inguinal region of adult male rats. Then, ADSCs were isolated by enzymatic digestion from adipose tissues and mesenchymal cells were confirmed using the flow cytometry analysis that measured the cell surface markers including CD90, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD34, CD45, and CD11b. The multi-potential characteristics of ADSCs were assessed by osteogenic and adipogenic potentials of these cells. Under suitable in vitro conditions, ADSCs were cultured in DMEM supplemented with and without additional 10% e-CSF. These fluids were collected from Wistar rats at the E17, E18, and E19 gestational ages. Cellular proliferation and viability were determined using the MTT assay. Immunocytochemistry was used to study the expression of β-III tubulin in ADSCs. The neurite outgrowth of cultured cells was assessed using the ImageJ software.

    Results

    The results of the present study demonstrated that the viability of ADSCs in cell culture conditioned with E17 and E18 e-CSF were significantly increased in comparison with controls. Cultured cells treated with e-CSF from E18 and E19 established neuronal-like cells bearing long process, whereas no process was observed in the control groups or cultured cells treated with E17 e-CSF.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that e-CSF has the ability to induce neuronal differentiation and viability in ADSCs. Our data support a significant role of e-CSF as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Keywords: Adipose Tissue, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neuronal Differentiation, Stem Cells