فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 19, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Alia Saberi*, Hamidreza Hatamian, Amirreza Ghayeghran, Fatemeh Mola Hosseini, Sama Noroozi Guilandehi, Sajjad Rezaei, Fatemeh Shafaei Pages 151-160
    Background

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating, inflammatory, and degenerative disease of the central nervous system. MS gradually limits and deteriorates the patients’ quality of life.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the quality of life in patients with MS consuming Fingolimod and Cinnovex.

    Materials & Methods

    In an analytical cross-sectional study, 106 patients with Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) referred to specialized neurology clinics of Guilan University of Medical Sciences were selected for the study using a convenience sampling method (52 patients consuming Fingolimod and 54 patients consuming Cinnovex). Then, we collected their demographic information and medical profile. The patients were assessed by the Hamburg quality of life questionnaire in MS. The obtained data were analyzed in SPSS V. 22 using the Chi-square test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U, one-way and  multivariate analysis of covariance.

    Results

    There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, number of attacks in the last 6 months, and educational level (P<0.05). After controlling confounding variables, it was found that consumers of Fingolimod had a better quality of life. At the subscales level, this difference was significant only in the mood dimension (F=6.931, P=0.011, η=0.12).

    Conclusion

    Patients consuming Fingolimod reported a better quality of life compared to consumers of Cinnovex. This improvement was mainly found in mood scores.

    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Quality of Life (QoL), Fingolimod Hydrochloride
  • Marzieh Zamani, Kambiz Rohampour*, Samira Rashtiani, Masoume Dolati, Faranak Fallahian, Naser Kalhor Pages 161-167
    Background

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the significant risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD). Defects in insulin signaling pathway induce AD hallmarks mainly through activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) pathway. 

    Objectives

    In this study, we investigated the expression of GSK-3β and insulin receptor (IR) genes in the hippocampi of an animal model of sporadic AD and assessed the preventive effect of Catechin (CAT) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on their expression.

    Materials & Methods

    Adult male Wistar rats were treated by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (STZ) injection (3 mg/kg) at day 1 and 3 after cannulation. CAT was administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg for 10 days per gavage, and EGCG was administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg for 14 days into drinking water. Then the animals were decapitated, and their hippocampi were removed. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to evaluate the alteration in gene expression.

    Results

    There was overexpression in GSK-3β gene in STZ-treated rats (P≤0.05), which was brought back to normalcy by EGCG (P≤0.01). The IR gene also increased after STZ treatment, but CAT reduced IR expression (P≤0.05). However, the suppressive effect of EGCG on IR expression was stronger (P≤0.01). 

    Conclusion

    The neuroprotective activity of EGCG might be due to its influence on IR and GSK-3β expression.

    Keywords: Catechin, Alzheimer disease, Receptor Insulin, Glycogen synthase kinases, Memory
  • Maedeh Mohammad Alizadeh, Seyed Reza Kazemi Nezhad, Parvin Babaei, Parvaneh Keshavarz* Pages 168-174
    Background

    Addiction is a polygenic disorder caused by genetic and environmental factors. The opioid material can act as an epigenetic element, like DNA methylation. 

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of epigenetic drugs such as nicotine, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine on the methylation of two CpG sites in promoter of Oprm1 gene in male Wistar rats.

    Materials & Methods

    In this case-control study, 48 male Wistar rats with Mean±SD (200±30) g were divided into 6 groups: These are five groups only The control (intact) group, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, SC injection for 5 days), morphine (10 mg/kg on days 1-3 and 20 mg/kg on days 4-6 and 40 mg/kg, IP injection on days 7-9), methadone (0.5 mg/kg, IP injection for 15 days), buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg, SC injection for 6 days) and finally saline for each respected group. After the treatment, genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood of the rats. Then, the extracted DNA was treated with sodium bisulfate. To identify the selected methylated areas of Oprm1 promoter sites (CpG-107 and CpG+33), we used methylation-specific PCR (MSP).

    Results

    Our results showed no methylation in the two CpG sites of Oprm1 promoter in all of the treated groups. 

    Conclusion

    Addiction with nicotine, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine in doses and duration used in this study was not associated with the methylation of the Oprm1 promoter sites in the male Wistar rats.

    Keywords: Nicotine, Morphine, Methadone, Buprenorphine, DNA methylation
  • Bahar Shayegh Borojeni, Gholamreza Manshaee*, Ilnaz Sajjadian Pages 175-184
    Background

    Cognitive behavioral therapy has provided the most empirical evidence concerning the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression. However, the findings have not confirmed the definitive efficacy of this treatment so far.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of adolescent-centered mindfulness training with cognitive behavioral therapy on depression and suicidal ideation in adolescent girls with bipolar II disorder.

    Materials & Methods

    This was a quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test design, a control group, and a 45-day follow-up. The study population consisted of all adolescent girls with bipolar II disorder referred to Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan. Using a convenience sampling method, we recruited 45 female patients with depression based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and then randomly divided into one control and two experimental groups (15 patients in each group). The subjects answered the research questionnaires, including depression and suicidal ideation of Beck version II before and after the intervention and 45 days later. One experimental group received Bourdick-based mindfulness training and one experimental group received, and another experimental group received cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Results

    The results of covariance analysis showed that adolescent-centered mindfulness training and cognitive behavioral therapy were effective in reducing depression tested at post-test (F=64.94; P<0.001) and follow-up (F=28.35; P<0.001). Also, there was a significant effect on suicidal ideation reduction in the post-test (F=84.72; P<0.001) and follow-up (F=45.54; P<0.001). Cognitive-behavioral therapy results have been more effective in reducing both depression and suicidal ideation than adolescent-centered mindfulness training.

    Conclusion

    Cognitive behavioral therapy has reduced depression and suicidal ideation by challenging negative self-thoughts and dysfunctional core beliefs, as well as changing patterns, and lifestyle.

    Keywords: Depression, Suicidal ideation, Adolescent, Behavior, Learning
  • Mohammadreza Emamhadi*, Hamid Behzadnia, Seifollah Jafari, Mohammadreza Zamanidoust, Sasan Andalib Pages 185-189
    Background

    Postoperative pain is a common phenomenon, and its management affects considerably on the recovery process, and patients’ satisfaction. Apotel and pethidine are two conventional medicines used to relieve pain after operation. 

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of intravenous injection of Apotel and intramuscular injection of pethidine in relieving pain after hemilaminectomy. 

    Materials & Methods

    In the present cross-sectional study, 150 patients who underwent hemilaminectomy were recruited between May 2015 and November 2015. They were taking either Apotel (n=75) or pethidine (n=75) after the operation, which was done at Poursina Hospital affiliated to Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht City, Iran. The patients’ pain levels were measured using visual analog scale (VAS), and the results were compared between the 2 groups.

    Results

    There was no significant difference in the total VAS score between the Apotel and pethidine groups (P=0.189). However, there was a significant reduction in VAS score hours 2 (P=0.03) and 4 (P=0.004) hours after the injection of Apotel in this group, compared with those scores in the pethidine group. Also, VAS scores at other times (8, 12, 20, 28 hours after the injection) were lower than those in the pethidine group, but the difference was not significant.

    Conclusion

    Apotel was better pain-killer in the early hours after the first injection compared to pethidine. But its effect was similar to pethidine at the late hours after the first injection. Therefore it seems that Apotel is better painkiller after laminectomy, especially in the early hours after the operation.

    Keywords: Laminectomy, Analgesics, Pain, Visual analog scale
  • Tahereh Pourkhani*, Hassan Daneshmandi, Ali Asghar Norasteh, Babak Bakhshayesh Eghbali, Parisa Sedaghati Pages 190-198
    Background

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms that affect patients’ functions, especially while performing dual-tasks a critical factor in everyday living. However, many controversies exist about the benefits of dual-task training in patients with PD.

    Objectives

    This study assessed the efficacy of motor and cognitive dual-task training in improving balance and gait parameters in people with idiopathic PD.

    Materials & Methods

    A single-blind controlled trial was conducted on PD patients living in Guilan Province of Iran, in 2018-2019. A total of 30 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage II-III while on medication) were assigned to the cognitive dual-task training group (n=10), motor dual-task training group (n=10), and single-task control group (n=10). All groups received 30 sessions of different exercises for 10 consecutive weeks. The patients’ balance and some spatiotemporal gait parameters were respectively assessed with timed up and go test and HD VideoCam-Kinovea before and after training and then 1 month later. 

    Results

    Both dual-task and single-task trainings improved the outcome measures (timed up and go test (F=535.54; P=0.000), stride length (F=87.41; P=0.00), stride time (F=102.11; P=0.00), cadence (F=286.36; P=0.00), swing time (F=48.90; P=0.00), and stance time (F=40.56; P=0.00)). These improvements were maintained at 1-month follow-up, although the effect slightly reduced. No significant differences were found between the study groups (P>0.05). 

    Conclusion

    Motor/cognitive dual-task training and single-task training were found to be significantly and equally effective in improving balance and gait parameters in people with PD.

    Keywords: Parkinson Disease, Dual-task training, Balance
  • Seyyedeh Haniyeh Mousavibaghi, Kamran Ezzati*, Mahmood Abedinzade, Sadegh Moshtaghikoojel, Naghmeh Mohebbi Salekdeh, Mohammadreza Norasfard Pages 199-208
    Background

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the prevalent occupational injuries and disabilities in developing countries.

    Objectives

    The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among surgery technicians.

    Materials & Methods

    samples (n=179) of this analytical and cross-sectional study were selected using a census method among the surgical technicians who had at least one year of work experience. The disorders of different parts of their bodies were evaluated by Nordic questionnaire, and the risk of catching the musculoskeletal disorders was assessed using quick exposure check method. Statistical analyses were done in SPSS V. 16.

    Results

    According to the Nordic questionnaire, the most prevalent work-related disorders in the past year were found in the back (71.5%), neck (57%), wrist (50.8%), and shoulder (49.7%) of the study subjects. The quick exposure check results showed that the level of exposure to musculoskeletal risks was in action level one for 32.4% of the surgery technicians, and action level three for 33% of them. This study showed associations between the prevalence of work-related symptoms in different body regions and some individual and occupational characteristics (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    The prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) is high among surgical technicians and lumbar disorders are the most common types. Risk factors for MSDs include undesirable physical posture, weight, time spent for shifting loads, excessive force applied by one or both hands at work, working speed, and staff stress levels. among near half of the studied surgical technicians, there were high and very high risks for injury, indicating the vulnerable condition and environment of this job.

    Keywords: Musculoskeletal diseases, Occupational injuries, Pain