فهرست مطالب

مدیریت مدرسه - سال هفتم شماره 4 (زمستان 1398)
  • سال هفتم شماره 4 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • شناسائی و اولویت بندی نشانگرهای کلیدی عملکرد در مدارس ابتدایی
    سید روح الله تیموری، عباس عباس پور*، حمید رحیمیان، حسین عبداللهی صفحات 1-34
    این به روش اکتشافی و با بهره گیری از روش های دلفی فازی و سوآرا انجام شده است. خبرگان(جامعه آماری پژوهش)، شامل اساتید مدیریت آموزشی و متخصصان تعلیم و تربیت در وزارت آموزش و پرورش هستند که از طریق روش نمونه گیری هدفمند تعداد 15 نفر تا رسیدن به اشباع نظری انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها، مصاحبه ساختاریافته است. از مولفه ها و نشانگرهای استخراج شده از ادبیات پژوهش به عنوان پایه و اساس طراحی مصاحبه ساختاریافته استفاده شد. در ابتدا با بررسی پژوهش های انجام شده و ادبیات موجود، مولفه ها و نشانگرهای موثر انتخاب و فهرستی از مولفه ها و نشانگرهای شناسایی شده در اختیار خبرگان قرار گرفت، سپس مولفه ها و نشانگرهای موردنظر بر اساس نظر خبرگان انتخاب شدند. برای شناسائی و غربالگری نشانگرها، از روش دلفی فازی استفاده شد. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که مدارس دوره ابتدایی دارای 102 نشانگر در 6 مولفه توسعه روابط انسانی، برنامه ریزی استراتژیک، رشد و یادگیری، آموزش و ارزشیابی، مدیریت و رهبری و محیط و جامعه هستند. در پایان با روش سوآرا وزن نهایی مولفه ها و نشانگرهای کلیدی موردنظر به دست آمد که مولفه های مدیریت و رهبری، رشد و یادگیری و محیط و جامعه با اهمیت ترین مولفه ها معرفی شدند.
    کلیدواژگان: نشانگرهای کلیدی عملکرد، مدارس ابتدایی، روش دلفی فازی، روش سوآرا
  • از شکوه «شوکتی» تا افول «دولتی» درس آموزی از تجارب مدرسه داری «شوکتیه» «بیرجند»
    آرش رسته مقدم* صفحات 1-26
    مقاله حاضر به منظور استخراج درس آموخته هایی از تجارب مدارس تاریخی ایران به مطالعه مدرسه «شوکتیه» به عنوان یکی از مدارس پیش رو در شرق کشور پرداخته است. دغدغه اصلی پژوهش پاسخ به دو پرسش بوده است. پرسش نخست، بر پایه ی کدام عوامل برپاسازی مدرسه «شوکتیه» قابل تبیین است؟ پرسش دوم، از ویژگی های «شوکتیه» برای به-کرد نظام فعلی مدرسه داری چه می توان آموخت؟ به منظور پاسخ به پرسش های مذکور از رویکرد تاریخی-تحلیلی استفاده شده است. از این رو، ابتدا به جایابی مدرسه مذکور در بستر تحولات تاریخی «نهضت مدرسه داری نوین» در ایران پرداخته شده است. در ادامه به مقوم های سیاسی، فرهنگی و ژئوپلیتیکی (جغرافیای سیاسی) به مثابه عوامل شکل گیری مدرسه «شوکتیه» اشاره شده است. در نهایت، با الهام از مدل «پارسونز» ویژگی های «شوکتیه» در سه سطح نهادی، مدیریتی و فنی طبقه بندی و درس آموزه هایی برای بهبود عملکرد مدیریت مدرسه پیشنهاد شده است. مقاله حاضر به منظور استخراج درس آموخته هایی از تجارب مدارس تاریخی ایران به مطالعه مدرسه «شوکتیه» به عنوان یکی از مدارس پیش رو در شرق کشور پرداخته است. دغدغه اصلی پژوهش پاسخ به دو پرسش بوده است. پرسش نخست، بر پایه ی کدام عوامل برپاسازی مدرسه «شوکتیه» قابل تبیین است؟ پرسش دوم، از ویژگی های «شوکتیه» برای به-کرد نظام فعلی مدرسه داری چه می توان آموخت؟ به منظور پاسخ به پرسش های مذکور از رویکرد تاریخی-تحلیلی استفاده شده است. از این رو، ابتدا به جایابی مدرسه مذکور در بستر تحولات تاریخی «نهضت مدرسه داری نوین» در ایران پرداخته شده است. در ادامه به مقوم های سیاسی، فرهنگی و ژئوپلیتیکی (جغرافیای سیاسی) به مثابه عوامل شکل گیری مدرسه «شوکتیه» اشاره شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: «شوکتیه»، تاریخ محلی، «بیرجند»، مدارس تاریخی، مدیریت مدرسه
  • بازنمایی مفهوم «رهبری مدرسه» با روایت پژوهی تجارب کارورزی در مدارس
    شراره صادقی*، شهاب نصیری نیا، مهدی صالحی صفحات 27-50
    تربیت حرفه ای دانشجو معلمان در دانشگاه فرهنگیان دارای اهمیت فراوانی است؛ و یکی از راهبردهای اساسی در این راستا تجربه‎ی کارورزی در مدارس برای آنان است. پژوهش حاضر با روش روایت‎پژوهی و با هدف تحلیل و بازنمایی ابعاد مختلف تجربه‎ی کارورزی دانشجومعلمان در مدارس و با رویکردی تفسیری انجام شد. به‎منظور جمع‎آوری داده از مصاحبه‎‎ی واقعه‎گرا استفاده شد. مشارکت‎‎کنندگان بالقوه‎ی پژوهش، افرادی بودند که دوره‎ی کارشناسی خود را در دانشگاه فرهنگیان کردستان گذرانده بودند و حداقل یک ترم تجربه‎ی کارورزی در مدارس را داشتند. نمونه‎گیری به صورت هدفمند و ملاکی انجام شد. پس از مصاحبه با 30 نفر داده ها به شکل استقرایی و براساس تحلیل مضمونی با استفاده از نرم‎افزار Nvivo10 دسته بندی و مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. تحلیل‎ها نشان داد که تجربه کارورزی در مدارس توسعه ی مهارت‎های تدریس و کلاس‎داری را برای دانشجویان در پی داشت. روایت‎ها گویای آن بود که دانشجومعلمان با بهره‎گیری از تجربه‎ی کارورزی در مدرسه توانستند به رشد مهارت‎های حرفه‎ای و ارتباطی دست پیدا کنند؛ که ارتباط و همکاری دانشجومعلمان با یکدیگر، با اساتید و معلمان و مدیران در فعالیت‎های مدرسه‎ای و هم‎چنین انجام فعالیت‎های یادگیری و تدریس‎های انفرادی و مستقل در طول دوران کارورزی در مدارس از این جمله‎اند. تجربه‎ی کارورزی در مدارس به‎عنوان پلی بین دانشگاه و مدرسه موجب به کارگیری دانش در حوزه‎ی عمل برای دانشجومعلمان شد. یافته ها توصیه می‎کنند که با توجه به اهمیت و تاثیرگذاری کارورزی در مدارس برای دانشجومعلمان برنامه‎ریزی دقیق‎تری ازلحاظ سرفصل های درسی به منظور آماده‎سازی دانشجویان برای این فرایند از سوی وزارت آموزش وپرورش انجام شود.
    کلیدواژگان: روایت پژوهی، تجربه کارورزی، مدارس
  • ارائه الگوی تسهیم ذی نفعان در انتخاب مدیران مدارس با راهبرد نظریه داده بنیاد
    رسول علیجانی*، علی اکبر امین بیدختی، شاهرخ مکوند حسینی صفحات 50-70
    هدف اصلی پژوهش ارائه الگوی سهم بری ذینفعان در انتخاب و انتصاب مدیران مدارس در آموزش و پرورش خراسان رضوی بود. این پژوهش از نوع کیفی و با استفاده از تئوری داده بنیاد انجام شد. مشارکت کنندگان در این پژوهش از میان مدیران و متخصصان و نخبگان علمی دانشگاه وهمچنین صاحب نظران آموزش وپرورش خراسان انتخاب شدند؛ جمع آوری داده ها از روش نمونه گیری نظری و انجام 19 مصاحبه های ساختاریافته، رو در رو و عمیق بود. مقوله های بدست آمده از فرایند کد گذاری باز پژوهش، ارائه و سپس اجزای فرایند کدگذاری محوری شامل شرایط علی ، پدیدیه اصلی ، راهبرد ها ، زمینه ، شرایط مداخله گر و پیامد ها به تفکیک و بر اساس مقوله های زیر مجموعه خود طرح و در نهایت طبق کدگذاری انتخابی به هم پیوند داده شده اند و سیر داستان و یا روایت ارتقاء و انتصاب مدیران در آموزش پرورش ترسیم شد. پژوهشگر یک مقوله محوری را "سهمبری ذینفعان در انتخاب مدیر" انتخاب نمود و آن را در مرکز فرایند انتخاب و انتصاب مدیران آموزش و پرورش قرار داد و سپس دیگر مقوله ها که شامل شرایط علی، راهبردها، شرایط زمینه ای و مداخله گر و پیامد ها بود را به آن ربط داد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که پدیده اصلی فرایند مورد مطالعه"سهم بری ذینفعان در انتخاب مدیر" شامل دو مفهوم اصلی می شود، یکی "انتخابی بودن مدیر به جای انتصابی بودن" و "مشارکت ذی نفعان در فرایند انتخاب مدیر" است. اکثر مشارکت کنندگان این اصل را سرآغاز تغییر در آموزش و پرورش می دانند.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوی انتخاب و انتصاب، ارتقاء مدیران، آموزش و پرورش، تئوری داده بنیاد
  • نقش تعدیل کننده جو یادگیری در تاثیر کیفیت زندگی مدرسه بر خودکارآمدی دانش آموزان
    یحیی معروفی*، محمد حسن محمدی صفحات 71-90

    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش تعدیل کنندگی جو یادگیری در تاثیر کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه بر خود کارآمدی دانش-آموزان بود. روش پژوهش برحسب هدف از نوع کاربردی و براساس شیوه اجرا، توصیفی از نوع همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل 22025 دانش آموز دوره ابتدایی دوم نواحی یک و دو آموزش و پرورش همدان در سالتحصیلی96-95 بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای نسبی، نمونه ای به حجم 384 نفر(188 دختر و 196 پسر) با استفاده از جدول کرجسی و مورگان انتخاب شد. ابزار های گردآوری اطلاعات شامل سه پرسشنامه ی کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه، جو یادگیری و خودکارآمدی تحصیلی بود. داده های جمع آوری شده بر اساس شاخص های آمار توصیفی وآزمون های استنباطی کولموگروف_ اسمیرنوف، همبستگی پیرسون و تحلیل مسیر مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد بین متغیرهای کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه با خودکارآمدی، کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه با جویادگیری و خودکارآمدی با جو یادگیری همبستگی مثبت و معنادار در سطح (01/0≤ p) وجود دارد. همچنین یافته های حاصل از ضرایب تحلیل مسیر حاکی از آن است تاثیرکیفیت زندگی بر خودکارآمدی، جویادگیری بر خودکارآمدی و کیفیت زندگی برجویادگیری مثبت و مستقیم است. بعلاوه، کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه بر خودکارآمدی تاثیر غیر مستقیم نیزدارد و جو یادگیری در رابطه بین کیفیت زندگی و خودکارآمدی، نقش تعدیل کنندگی دارد. پیشنهاد شد، مدارس از طریق طراحی تجربیات آموزشی لذت بخش، بازخورد مناسب و حمایت گرانه، علاوه بر تامین کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه، به تقویت باورهای دانش آموزان از توانایی خود و ایجاد جو یادگیری اثربخش به عنوان مهم ترین شاخص های اثربخشی مدارس بپردازند.

    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه، جو یادگیری، خودکارآمدی، دانش آموزان، دوره ابتدایی دوم
  • واکاوی پدیده بدبینی سازمانی معلمان در مدارس: پژوهشی کیفی
    لیلا نجاتی حاتمیان*، حسین عباسیان، حسن رضا زین آبادی، حمیدرضا آراسته صفحات 91-110

     بدبینی نوعی نگرش منفی نسبت به اطرافیان، وقایع، امور و فعالیت های پیرامون است که ناشی از عدم اعتماد و باور به راستی و درستی آن ها می شود. انسان ها همواره به تفسیر محیط اطراف خود می پردازند پس هر جا که انسان فعالیت داشته باشد احتمال وقوع پدیده بدبینی وجود دارد. معلمان نیز به عنوان یکی از عناصر اصلی فرایند یاددهی یادگیری که در نهاد تاثیر گذار آموزش و پرورش به ایفای نقش می پردازند از این قاعده مستثنی نمی باشند از این رو هدف اصلی این پژوهش شناسایی مولفه های بدبینی سازمانی معلمان ابتدایی شهر تهران است. این پژوهش در چارچوب رویکرد کیفی و با استفاده از روش پدیدارنگاری صورت گرفته است. داده های پژوهش از طریق مصاحبه عمیق و نیمه ساختاریافته از اطلاع رسان ها جمع آوری گردیدند. انتخاب اطلاع رسان های پژوهش به صورت هدفمند و با استفاده از راهبردهای نمونه گیری با حداکثر تنوع صورت پذیرفت. اطلاع رسان ها 14 نفر بودند که همگی آن ها حداقل از 5 سال سابقه تدریس در مقطع ابتدایی برخوردار بودند. تحلیل داده های حاصل در سه مرحله کدگذاری باز، محوری و گزینشی صورت پذیرفت. بر اساس یافته ها، مقوله های اساسی بدبینی سازمانی معلمان شامل 1) بدبینی نسبت همکاران 2) بدبینی نسبت به اولیا 3) بدبینی نسبت به دانش آموزان 4) بدبینی نسبت به مسائل آموزشی 5) بدبینی نسبت به طرح ها و برنامه ها و 6) بدبینی نسبت به رشد حرفه ای می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: بدبینی، بدبینی سازمانی معلمان، آموزش و پرورش، پژوهش کیفی
  • عوامل موثر بر توسعه حرفه ای مدیران آموزشگاهی در افق 1404
    کرم اصفهانی*، نادر سلیمانی، حیدر تورانی، پرویز صباحی صفحات 130-150
    هدف از انجام این تحقیق شناسایی عوامل موثر بر توسعه ی حرفه ای مدیران آموزشگاهی در افق سند چشم انداز 1404 بود. رویکرد تحقیق، کیفی و روش نظریه برخاسته ار داده ها مد نظر بوده است. جامعه آماری؛ صاحبنظران رشته ی مدیریت آموزشی است. برای تعیین نمونه های این پژوهش و تعیین گروه خبرگان از روش نمونه گیری هدفمند استفاده شد. نمونه گیری هدفمند به معنای انتخاب هدفدار واحدهای پژوهش برای کسب دانش یا اطلاعات است و شامل انتخاب واحدها یا نمونه های مورد پژوهش بر اساس هدف پژوهش است. در این پژوهش با توجه به مبانی نظری و پیشینه تحقیق و نیز استفاده از مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته با تعداد 24 نفر از متخصصان و صاحبنظران رشته مدیریت آموزشی و مدیران میانی و عالی وزارت آموزش و پرورش که دارای مدرک تحصیلی دکتری و کارشناسی ارشد رشته مدیریت آموزشی بودند، مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته انجام شد. در نتیجه، شاخص های استخراج شده از تجزیه و تحلیل مصاحبه ها، با توجه به اصل کفایت نظری داده ها و اشباع نظری محقق، تایید شد. با تجزیه و تحلیل محتوای مصاحبه ها و با سه مرحله؛ کدگذاری باز، کدگذاری محوری و گزینشی، عوامل موثر بر توسعه ی حرفه ای مدیران آموزشگاهی در افق سند چشم انداز 1404، در هشت مقوله اصلی؛ فناوری، دینی، فرهنگی، فردی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی، سیاسی و سازمانی گنجانده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه ی حرفه ای، مدیران آموزشگاهی، سند چشم انداز 1404، سند تحول بنیادین آموزش و پرورش
  • عوامل سو رفتار دانش آموزان در کلاس های مدارس متوسطه: راهکارهایی برای مدیریت کلاس
    بهزاد نادرنژاد، فردین عبداللهی*، فردین باتمانی صفحات 150-170
    هدف این پژوهش، بررسی علل و عوامل بروز سوء رفتار دانش آموزان مدارس مقطع متوسطه شهر سنندج و ارائه راهکارهای مدیریتی آن بود. این پژوهش از نوع کیفی و از روش داده بنیاد استفاده گردید. جامعه آماری این پژوهش معلمان مدارس متوسطه اول بودند که به منظور احصای تجارب 15 نفر از معلمان باسابقه مدارس با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند و تا رسیدن به اشباع نظری مقوله انتخاب شدند. تجزیه وتحلیل داده های کیفی با استفاده از کدگذاری نظری و استفاده از نرم افزار maxqda نسخه 10 انجام گرفت. با نظرخواهی از مشارکت کنندگان به وسیله به کارگیری مصاحبه عمیق و تحلیل محتوای آن، و انجام مقایسه و تطبیق داده ها، 144 شاخص به دست آمد که با حذف موارد تکراری و ادغام شاخص های هم جنس و مشابه، درنهایت مقوله های مربوط به علل و عوامل بروز سوء رفتار در قالب 43 مقوله فرعی(کدگذاری باز) و 22 مقوله محوری و 5 مقوله فراگیر(کدگذاری گزینشی)، ترسیم شد. برای ارائه راهکارهای مدیریتی علاوه بر استفاده از نتایج پژوهش از نتایج تحقیقات پیشین نیز استفاده شد. از علل و عوامل به وجود آورنده سوء رفتار می توان به عوامل برون کلاسی مانند عوامل محیطی (خانواده، جامعه و رسانه) و عوامل مدرسه ای (فضای فیزیکی و روانی، ضعف ارتباطی مدیران، الگوسازی نامناسب) اشاره کرد. عوامل درون کلاسی نیز مانند عوامل مرتبط با معلم (سبک تدریس، رویکرد معلم، مدیریت کلاس، صلاحیت حرفه ای معلم) و عوامل مربوط به خود دانش آموز (ضعف علمی، کمبود انگیزه، اختلالات رفتاری) می باشد که متناسب با هرکدام راهکارهای مدیریتی ارائه می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: سوءرفتار دانش آموز، نقش معلم، مدرسه، مدیریت کلاس
  • عوامل موثر بر توانمندسازی مدارس با تاکید بر نظام مراقبت اجتماعی دانش آموزان
    اکرم حسینی سنگریزه، کیومرث نیاز آذری*، ترانه عنایتی صفحات 170-190
    موضوع شیوه های جلوگیری از رفتارهای نابهنجار اجتماعی دانش آموزان به منظور کاهش هزینه ها اجتماعی و شکل گیری جامعه سعادتمند در چند دهه اخیر به یکی از مهم ترین مباحث نظام آموزشی ما تبدیل شده است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی عوامل موثر بر توانمندسازی مدارس با تاکید بر نظام مراقبت اجتماعی دانش آموزان انجام شد. روش تحقیق توصیفی-پیمایشی می باشد . جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل کلیه دانش آموزان دوره های تحصیلی (ابتدایی،متوسطه اول و دوم) ، والدین و کارکنان مدارس شهر ساری و نکا بوده است . روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای به صورت چند مرحله ای است که تعداد 386 نفر به عنوان نمونه آماری جهت بررسی انتخاب شدند. برای تعیین حجم نمونه مورد نظر از فرمول کوکران استفاده شدو ابزار گردآوری داده های پژوهش پرسشنامه محقق ساخته است که روایی صوری و محتوایی پرسشنامه مورد تایید متخصصان و اساتید قرار گرفت و پایایی پرسشنامه از طریق ضریب آلفای کرونباخ در یک مطالعه مقدماتی بر روی 40 نفر94/0 محاسبه شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از طریق تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی در نرم افزار SPSS21 انجام شد . نتایج نشان دادکه چهار عامل فرایندها(16 شاخص)، زیرساخت ها (12 شاخص)، عوامل داخلی(9 شاخص) و عوامل خارجی(9 شاخص) در توانمندسازی مدارس در حوزه نظام مراقبت اجتماعی دانش آموزان تاثیرگذار می باشند .
    کلیدواژگان: توانمندسازی مدارس، نظام مراقبت اجتماعی، مدارس، دانش آموزان
  • مدل یابی روابط ساختاری عملکرد آموزشی معلمان بر اساس رفتار شهروند سازمانی و میانجی گری اشتیاق شغلی
    بهمن کرد*، هیوا محمودی صفحات 260-280
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تدوین مدل ساختاری عملکرد آموزشی معلمان بر اساس رفتار شهروند سازمانی و میانجی گری اشتیاق شغلی انجام شد. پژوهش حاضر با توجه به هدف، کاربردی و با توجه به نحوه جمع آوری داده ها از نوع تحقیقات توصیفی همبستگی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش، شامل معلمان استان کردستان در سال تحصیلی 98-1397 بود که مشتمل بر 11040نفر بود. نمونه پژوهش 358 نفر بود که به شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ای انتخاب شد. برای جمع آوری داده ها از پرسشنامه های عملکرد آموزشی زرانی، رفتار شهروندی سازمانی پادساکف و اشتیاق شغلی سالوانا و همکاران استفاده شد. با به کارگیری نرم افزارهای SPSS و LISREL از تحلیل مدل معادلات ساختاری برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها استفاده شد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که رفتار شهروند سازمانی بر عملکرد آموزشی معلمان اثر مستقیم دارد؛ اشتیاق شغلی بر عملکرد آموزشی اثر مستقیم دارد. رفتار شهروند سازمانی اثر غیرمستقیم (از طریق اشتیاق شغلی) بر عملکرد آموزشی معلمان دارد. بنابراین، رفتار شهروند سازمانی و نقش میانجی گری اشتیاق شغلی معلمان نقش سازنده و موثری در افزایش کیفیت عملکرد آموزشی معلمان دارد. از این رو، توجه به ابعاد رفتار شهروند سازمانی و اشتیاق شغلی معلمان برای کیفیت عملکرد آموزشی آنان ضروری است. کیفیت کلید واژگان: عملکرد آموزشی، رفتارشهروند سازمانی، اشتیاق شغلی، معلمان.
    کلیدواژگان: عملکرد آموزشی، اشتیاق شغلی، رفتار شهروند سازمانی، معلمان
  • مهارت های رهبری در مدارس دخترانه دوره متوسطه
    فائزه مهدوی پور، فریبا عدلی*، افسانه نراقی زاده صفحات 280-300
    ایفای موثر نقش رهبری در مدرسه، بر موفقیت دانش آموزان در حیطه های شناختی و غیر شناختی اثرگذار است. مهارت های رهبری، اغلب به عنوان عامل اصلی تفاوت میان مدارس اثربخش و کمتر اثربخش موردتوجه است. شواهد نشان می دهد مدیران مدارس کشور، کمتر نقش رهبری را ایفا می کنند و بندرت از دانش و مهارت های موردنیاز برخوردارند. بر این اساس، هدف این پژوهش، شناسایی مهارت های رهبری مدارس دخترانه متوسطه شهر تهران بود. به منظور درک تجربه زیسته مدیران مدارس، از روش کیفی با رویکرد پدیدار نگاری استفاده شد. ابزار گردآوری داده ها بر پایه فن مثلث سازی: سند تحول بنیادین آموزش وپرورش، مشاهده مشارکتی (به مدت 35 روز اداری) و مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته (با 15 نفر از مدیران مدارس به روش گلوله برفی) بودند. داده ها با روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی بررسی شدند. یافته های پژوهش در 21 مقوله ، 26 زیر مقوله و 5 مضمون با عناوین «مهارت ترسیم چشم انداز»، «مهارت ارتباط موثر»، «مهارت پرورش همراهان»، «مهارت هدایت و راهنمایی همراهان» و «مهارت خودرهبری» دسته بندی شدند. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد برای اثربخشی رهبری مدرسه، توجه به ویژگی های اعضای مدرسه یعنی معلمان، کارکنان و ویژگی های دانش آموزان (در این پژوهش دختران دوره متوسطه) بسیار اهمیت دارد. با توجه به اهمیت مهارت آموزی رهبران آموزشی، پیشنهاد می شود برنامه های توسعه حرفه ای، پرورش مدیران و رهبران مدارس طراحی و اجرا شود.
    کلیدواژگان: رهبری مدارس دخترانه متوسطه، مهارت ترسیم چشم انداز، مهارت ارتباط موثر، مهارت پرورش همراهان، مهارت هدایت و راهنمایی همراهان
  • رابطه ویژگی های شخصیتی کارآفرینانه با تمایل به کارآفرینی در مدیران مدرسه ابتدایی
    خاطره تقی پور، اکبر اعتباریان خوراسگانی*، فائزه تقی پور صفحات 280-300
    در دنیای درحال تحول امروز، کامیابی از آن جوامع و سازمان هایی است که بین منابع کمیاب، قابلیتهای مدیریتی و کارآفرینی منابع انسانی خود رابطه معنی داری برقرار کنند. به همین منظور تحقیق حاضر با هدف تعیین رابطه ویژگی های شخصیتی کارآفرینانه با تمایل به کارآفرینی در مدیران مدرسه ابتدایی انجام شد. روش تحقیق، توصیفی از نوع همبستگی و جامعه آماری آن کلیه مدیران مدرسه ابتدایی شهر اصفهان در سال 98-1397 به تعداد 180 نفر بود. برای جمع آوری داده ها از پرسشنامه پرسشنامه ویژگی های شخصیتی کارآفرینانه "کردنائیج و همکاران" و پرسشنامه تمایل به کارآفرینی "لامپکین و دس" استفاده شد. روایی محتوایی پرسشنامه ها توسط استاد راهنما و چند نفر از صاحبنظران موضوعی و روایی صوری نیز توسط چند تن از افراد جامعه آماری تایید شد. همچنین پایایی پرسشنامه ها با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ برای پرسشنامه ویژگی های شخصیتی کارآفرینانه 857/0، پرسشنامه تمایل به کارآفرینی 802/0 محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد بین ویژگی های شخصیتی کارآفرینانه با تمایل به کارآفرینی در مدیران مدرسه ابتدایی رابطه وجود دارد و همچنین رابطه ریسک پذیری متعادل، کانون کنترل درونی، نیاز به موفقیت، سلامت فکری، عملگرایی، تحمل ابهام، رویا پردازی و چالش طلبی با تمایل به کار آفرینی مثبت و معنادار بود.
    کلیدواژگان: ویژگی های شخصیتی کارآفرینانه، تمایل به کارآفرینی، چالش طلبی، ریسک پذیری متعادل، مدیران مدرسه ابتدایی
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  • Identification and Prioritization of Key Performance Indicators in Elementary Schools
    Seyyed Rohollah Taymouri, Abbas Abbaspour *, Hamid Rahimian, Hussein Abdollahi Pages 1-34
    The purpose of this study was to identify and prioritize key performance indicators in elementary schools using fuzzy Delphi and SWARA methods. Experts (statistical population), including faculty members and specialists in the Ministry of Education, were selected through a purposive sampling method to reach the theoretical saturation of 15 people. The data collection tool is a structured interview. At first, by reviewing the existing literature, effective components and indicators were selected and a list of identified components and indicators was provided to the experts, and then the desired components and indicators were selected based on the expert opinion. Fuzzy Delphi method was used to identify and screen the indicators. Research findings showed that elementary schools have 102 indicators in 6 components of human relations development, strategic planning, growth and learning, instruction and evaluation, management and leadership, and environment and community. In the end, the final weight of the key components and indicators was determined by the SWARA method. The most important components of management and leadership, growth and learning, and environment and community were introduced. There are several definitions of performance. According to Lockett (1992), performance is defined as “a multidimensional construct and the common factors that are frequently associated with organizational performance are efficiency, quality, responsiveness, cos, and overall effectiveness”. In 2017, Armstrong has extended the definition to a “Performance management” as “a means of getting better results from the organization, teams, and individuals by understanding and managing performance within an agreed framework of planned goals, objectives, and standards of achievement and competence.” More recently, Neely et al. (2002, pp. xiii) defined a “performance metric” as the scope, content, and component parts of a broadly-based performance measure (Marson & et al, 2012). In today’s competitive scenario, organizations are forced to monitor their performance on a sustained basis, across several dimensions. However, developing an effective performance management system (PMS) remains a challenge. Several problems regarding the building of a performance management system, such as the accuracy of data, the definition of meaningful metrics to support decision-making processes, and the measurement of the company’s intangible aspects, continue to represent challenges for managers. In order to be useful, performance management systems should ensure that performance is clearly defined and metrics accurately measure performance. Closely related to this subject is the selection of valuable performance indicators Any effective performance management system has to adopt a limited number of indicators, i.e., key performance indicators (KPIs), capable of providing an integrated and complete view of company’s performance and to measure progress toward organizational goals(Carlucci, 2010). In many organizations, the basic issue is that performance appraisal should be done with what criteria and indicators. Because if an appropriate indicator is introduced, they can better manage their resources in particular and guide the sectors to the strategic goals of the organization in general (Kaplan & Norton, 2004). The selection of performance indicators is one of the major challenges of organizations developing and implementing a performance management system. The performance indicators represent the means for monitoring processes and related outcomes to drive management actions. Therefore, the selection of performance indicators has to be addressed: limiting the number of indicators to prevent information overload, to avoid confusion for their potential users, to provide a clear picture of the critical organizational competitive factors and to facilitate the overall measurement (Carlucci, 2010). Measurement of performance allows to make clear performance issues, compare the current situation to the goals and to provide exact steps towards the elimination of the problems (Graham, 2012). Good indicators share two characteristics: first, they are well-founded in theory, having an explanation for the assumption that they correctly represent a given feature of reality and second, they are robust against limitations in the underlying data. After adding a few more important characteristics, quality indicators should be cost-effective, timely, reliable, valid and specific (Markic, 2014). According to Parmenter (2015) “key performance indicators (KPIs) represent a set of measures focusing on those aspects of organizational performance that are the most critical for the current and future success of the organization” (p. 4). KPIs are a set of measures that should be measured frequently and tie directly to the success of an organization. KPIs need to be tracked on a regular basis, and if they are not meeting the target then processes or systems need to be modified (Arif & Smiley, 2004). Lyddon and McComb (2008) state every KPI measure should include several components: “(1) the actual results of the indicator; (2) the target for which the indicator is striving; (3) the difference between actual results and target results; and 4) signal values, or benchmarks” (p. 139). KPIs allow gathering knowledge and exploring the best way to achieve organization goals (Badawy & et al, 2018). In today’s world KPIs are essential for planning and controlling (Meier & et al, 2013) through consolidating information (Gladen, 2005), creating transparency and thereby supporting decision making of the management. KPIs are also known as Key Performance Index, Key Process Indicators, Balanced Scorecards, Business Dashboards, Scoreboard, Key Result Areas, Key Success Indicators or a number of other identifications depending on the consultant and management experts you are talking with (Ismail & Yu, 2007). The Key Performance indicators are the modern tools that help to keep the performance in the production on a high level (Kaganski & et al, 2018). KPIs are financial and non-financial indicators that organizations use in order to estimate and fortify how successful they are; aiming previously established long-lasting goals (Velimirović & et al, 2011) In this identification, the component of human relations management has 13 indicators, the strategic planning component has 20 indicators, the component of education and assessment has 13 indicators, the component of growth and learning has 21 indicators, the component of the environment and society has 11 indicators, and finally, the component of the management and leadership has 24 indicators. Six indicators are rejected by experts. With Swara's method, key indicators of leaders' performance in elementary schools were prioritized. The results of this method show that management and leadership & growth and learning components are of the highest importance for improving the performance of schools.
    Keywords: Key Performance Indicators, Elementary Schools, Fuzzy Delphi Method, SWARA Method
  • From the glory of the "Shukatiyeh" to the decline of the "state"" Lessons from the school experiences of "Shukatiyeh" "Birjand"
    Arash Rastehmoghaddam * Pages 1-26
    In order to extract lessons from the experiences of Iranian historical schools, this article pay attention to study the "Shukatiyeh" School as one of the pioneer schools in the east of the country. The main concern of the study was to answer two questions. The first question is, on what basis can the establishment of the "Shukatiyeh" School be explained? The second question, what can be learned from the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" to improve the current schooling system? A historical-analytical approach has used to answer these questions. Therefore, first, "Shukatiyeh" School has located with in the context of the historical developments of the "New Schooling Movement" in Iran. Following, political, cultural and geopolitical backgrounds are identified as the factors of formation of the "Shukatiyeh" School. Finally, inspired by the "Parsons" model, the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" are classified into three levels of institutional, managerial, and technical, and lessons are suggested for improvement of school administration performance. A historical-analytical approach has used to answer these questions. Therefore, first, "Shukatiyeh" School has located with in the context of the historical developments of the "New Schooling Movement" in Iran. Following, political, cultural and geopolitical backgrounds are identified as the factors of formation of the "Shukatiyeh" School. Finally, inspired by the "Parsons" model, the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" are classified into three levels of institutional, managerial, and technical, and lessons are suggested for improvement of school administration performance. In order to extract lessons from the experiences of Iranian historical schools, this article pay attention to study the "Shukatiyeh" School as one of the pioneer schools in the east of the country. The main concern of the study was to answer two questions. The first question is, on what basis can the establishment of the "Shukatiyeh" School be explained? The second question, what can be learned from the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" to improve the current schooling system? A historical-analytical approach has used to answer these questions. Therefore, first, "Shukatiyeh" School has located with in the context of the historical developments of the "New Schooling Movement" in Iran. Following, political, cultural and geopolitical backgrounds are identified as the factors of formation of the "Shukatiyeh" School. Finally, inspired by the "Parsons" model, the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" are classified into three levels of institutional, managerial, and technical, and lessons are suggested for improvement of school administration performance. A historical-analytical approach has used to answer these questions. Therefore, first, "Shukatiyeh" School has located with in the context of the historical developments of the "New Schooling Movement" in Iran. Following, political, cultural and geopolitical backgrounds are identified as the factors of formation of the "Shukatiyeh" School. Finally, inspired by the "Parsons" model, the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" are classified into three levels of institutional, managerial, and technical, and lessons are suggested for improvement of school administration performance. In order to extract lessons from the experiences of Iranian historical schools, this article pay attention to study the "Shukatiyeh" School as one of the pioneer schools in the east of the country. The main concern of the study was to answer two questions. The first question is, on what basis can the establishment of the "Shukatiyeh" School be explained? The second question, what can be learned from the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" to improve the current schooling system? A historical-analytical approach has used to answer these questions. Therefore, first, "Shukatiyeh" School has located with in the context of the historical developments of the "New Schooling Movement" in Iran. Following, political, cultural and geopolitical backgrounds are identified as the factors of formation of the "Shukatiyeh" School. Finally, inspired by the "Parsons" model, the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" are classified into three levels of institutional, managerial, and technical, and lessons are suggested for improvement of school administration performance. A historical-analytical approach has used to answer these questions. Therefore, first, "Shukatiyeh" School has located with in the context of the historical developments of the "New Schooling Movement" in Iran. Following, political, cultural and geopolitical backgrounds are identified as the factors of formation of the "Shukatiyeh" School. Finally, inspired by the "Parsons" model, the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" are classified into three levels of institutional, managerial, and technical, and lessons are suggested for improvement of school administration performance. In order to extract lessons from the experiences of Iranian historical schools, this article pay attention to study the "Shukatiyeh" School as one of the pioneer schools in the east of the country. The main concern of the study was to answer two questions. The first question is, on what basis can the establishment of the "Shukatiyeh" School be explained? The second question, what can be learned from the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" to improve the current schooling system? A historical-analytical approach has used to answer these questions. Therefore, first, "Shukatiyeh" School has located with in the context of the historical developments of the "New Schooling Movement" in Iran. Following, political, cultural and geopolitical backgrounds are identified as the factors of formation of the "Shukatiyeh" School. Finally, inspired by the "Parsons" model, the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" are classified into three levels of institutional, managerial, and technical, and lessons are suggested for improvement of school administration performance. A historical-analytical approach has used to answer these questions. Therefore, first, "Shukatiyeh" School has located with in the context of the historical developments of the "New Schooling Movement" in Iran. Following, political, cultural and geopolitical backgrounds are identified as the factors of formation of the "Shukatiyeh" School. Finally, inspired by the "Parsons" model, the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" are classified into three levels of institutional, managerial, and technical, and lessons are suggested for improvement of school administration performance. In order to extract lessons from the experiences of Iranian historical schools, this article pay attention to study the "Shukatiyeh" School as one of the pioneer schools in the east of the country. The main concern of the study was to answer two questions. The first question is, on what basis can the establishment of the "Shukatiyeh" School be explained? The second question, what can be learned from the characteristics of the "Shukatiyeh" to improve the current schooling system? A historical-analytical approach has used to answer these questions. Therefore, first, "Shukatiyeh" School has located with in the context of the historical developments of the "New Schooling Movement" in Iran.
    Keywords: Shukatiyeh, local history, Birjand, historical schools, school administration
  • Representation of School administration by Narrative Research of The Internship Experiences in Schools
    Sharareh Sadeghi *, Shahab Nasiri Nia, Mehdi Salehi Pages 27-50
    the professional training of student teachers at Farhangian University is of great importance; and one of the essential guides in this regard is their school internship experience. The purpose of this study was narrative research with the aim of analyzing and representing different aspects of student experience in school students with an interpretive approach. Episodic interviews were used to collect data. Research potential contributors were people who had completed their undergraduate degrees at Kurdistan University of Culture and had at least one semester of internship experience in schools. Purposeful sampling was done. After interviewing 30 people, the data were inductively classified and analyzed based on thematic analysis using Nvivo10 software. The analysis showed that the internship experience in schools resulted in the development of teaching and classroom skills for students. Narratives have shown that student teachers can develop professional and communication skills by utilizing their school internship experience; these include the communication and collaboration of students, teachers, teachers and administrators in school activities, as well as individual and independent learning and teaching activities during school internships. The experience of internships in schools as a bridge between university and school led to the application of knowledge in the field of practice to students. The findings recommend that, given the importance and impact of school internships for students, teachers should be given more detailed curriculum planning to prepare students for this process by the Ministry of Education and the decision making process. Engage and guide this process by people who are already trained and skilled in the field. the professional training of student teachers at Farhangian University is of great importance; and one of the essential guides in this regard is their school internship experience. The purpose of this study was narrative research with the aim of analyzing and representing different aspects of student experience in school students with an interpretive approach. Episodic interviews were used to collect data. Research potential contributors were people who had completed their undergraduate degrees at Kurdistan University of Culture and had at least one semester of internship experience in schools. Purposeful sampling was done. After interviewing 30 people, the data were inductively classified and analyzed based on thematic analysis using Nvivo10 software. The analysis showed that the internship experience in schools resulted in the development of teaching and classroom skills for students. Narratives have shown that student teachers can develop professional and communication skills by utilizing their school internship experience; these include the communication and collaboration of students, teachers, teachers and administrators in school activities, as well as individual and independent learning and teaching activities during school internships. The experience of internships in schools as a bridge between university and school led to the application of knowledge in the field of practice to students. The findings recommend that, given the importance and impact of school internships for students, teachers should be given more detailed curriculum planning to prepare students for this process by the Ministry of Education and the decision making process. Engage and guide this process by people who are already trained and skilled in the field. the professional training of student teachers at Farhangian University is of great importance; and one of the essential guides in this regard is their school internship experience. The purpose of this study was narrative research with the aim of analyzing and representing different aspects of student experience in school students with an interpretive approach. Episodic interviews were used to collect data. Research potential contributors were people who had completed their undergraduate degrees at Kurdistan University of Culture and had at least one semester of internship experience in schools. Purposeful sampling was done. After interviewing 30 people, the data were inductively classified and analyzed based on thematic analysis using Nvivo10 software. The analysis showed that the internship experience in schools resulted in the development of teaching and classroom skills for students. Narratives have shown that student teachers can develop professional and communication skills by utilizing their school internship experience; these include the communication and collaboration of students, teachers, teachers and administrators in school activities, as well as individual and independent learning and teaching activities during school internships. The experience of internships in schools as a bridge between university and school led to the application of knowledge in the field of practice to students. The findings recommend that, given the importance and impact of school internships for students, teachers should be given more detailed curriculum planning to prepare students for this process by the Ministry of Education and the decision making process. Engage and guide this process by people who are already trained and skilled in the field. the professional training of student teachers at Farhangian University is of great importance; and one of the essential guides in this regard is their school internship experience. The purpose of this study was narrative research with the aim of analyzing and representing different aspects of student experience in school students with an interpretive approach. Episodic interviews were used to collect data. Research potential contributors were people who had completed their undergraduate degrees at Kurdistan University of Culture and had at least one semester of internship experience in schools. Purposeful sampling was done. After interviewing 30 people, the data were inductively classified and analyzed based on thematic analysis using Nvivo10 software. The analysis showed that the internship experience in schools resulted in the development of teaching and classroom skills for students. Narratives have shown that student teachers can develop professional and communication skills by utilizing their school internship experience; these include the communication and collaboration of students, teachers, teachers and administrators in school activities, as well as individual and independent learning and teaching activities during school internships. The experience of internships in schools as a bridge between university and school led to the application of knowledge in the field of practice to students. The findings recommend that, given the importance and impact of school internships for students, teachers should be given more detailed curriculum planning to prepare students for this process by the Ministry of Education and the decision making process. Engage and guide this process by people who are already trained and skilled in the field.
    Keywords: Narrative research, Internship Experience, Student Science, schools
  • Provide a template for stakeholder participation in the selection of school principals in khorasan razavi based on grounded theory
    Rasool Alijani *, Aliakbar Aminbeidokhti, Shahrokh Makvand Hoseini Pages 50-70
    The main purpose of the research was to design a model for stakeholder participation in the selection of school administrators in education. This qualitative research was conducted using the GT. Participants in this research are among the directors, specialists and academic elites of the university and Also, the experts of Khorasan education were selected; The data were collected using theoretical sampling method and performed 19 structured interviews, face-to-face and deep interviews. the categories derived from the open coding process are presented and then the components of the axial coding process include the causal conditions, the underlying phenomena, strategies, context, intervention conditions , and outcomes, depending on the categories under the set itself and ultimately link to the selective coding and the evolution of the story of the promotion and appointment of managers in education was drawn. The researcher chose a core topic as "stakeholder participation in the choice of manager" and put it at the center of the process of selecting and appointing education directors it then linked other categories, including causal conditions, strategies, underlying conditions, and interventions, and outcomes. The results of the research showed that the main phenomenon of the study process, "stakeholder participation in the choice of manager", consists of two main concepts, one of which is "the choice of the manager rather than the appointment" and "stakeholder participation in the process of selecting the manager". Most contributors consider this to be the beginning of a change in education.
    Keywords: Selection, Appointment Model, Leadership Promotion, education, Grounded Theory
  • The moderating role of learning climate on the impact of quality of school life on student self-efficacy
    Yahya Maroofi *, Mohammad Hasn Mohammadi Pages 71-90
    The aim

    of this study was to investigate the learning climate moderating role on the quality of school life impact on student's self-efficacy. Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, describing negative and positive features of life. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines the quality of life as "The individual’s perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals. Similar to the other environments and social systems, schools describe as terms of the quality of life which they offer students. The quality of school life (QSL) has been widely investigated and drawn attention to its influence on students' achievement as a critical aspect of schooling. Finally, it can be said that the quality of life in a school combines the positive and negative experiences of emotions associated with different aspects of school life and its consequences. Schools are often described by the quality of their affective and social environments. The QSL refers to students’ personal and experiential general well-being at school which reflect students’ level of satisfaction toward their daily school life. The quality of school life is a multi-faceted concept which goes beyond the transmission of knowledge or the development of learning skills to include structure, teaching, curricula, affective, and social environments. Williams & Batten, (1981) provided three components of QSL: 1) Positive affect which reflects students' general satisfaction with school as a whole; 2) Negative affect which captures students' negative reactions towards school such as feelings of alienation, loneliness, and depression; 3) Satisfaction which consists of curriculum-related and social development factors as two specific dimensions of school. Mok & Flynn, (1997) suggests seven distinct factors to identify QSL as Satisfaction with school; Alienation from school; Relationships with teachers; Students' sense of achievement; Relevance of school; Sense of identity and; Self-esteem and status. One of the most significant motivational factors affecting schooling process is self-efficacy. It is a motivational construct and a key component of social cognitive theory. It refers to individuals’ beliefs in their abilities to perform a task successfully. Self-efficacy is defined as the judgments of people concerning their capacity to perform and organize actions required to attain a predefined performance. It has received ample attention in educational research. It has been shown to predict students' academic achievement across academic areas and levels, college major and career choices (Brown & Lent, 2006), and it is associated with key motivation constructs such as causal attributions, self- concept, optimism, achievement goal orientation, academic help-seeking, anxiety, and value(Usher & Pajares, 2008:751). Another motivational construct which contributes to the student's successful learning and performance is school climate. Freiberg and Stein (1999) described school climate as the heart and soul of a school. It is about that essence of a school that leads a child, a teacher, an administrator, a staff member to love the school and to looks forward to being there each school day (Freiberg & Stein,1999:12). School climate is about that quality of a school that helps each individual feel personal worth, dignity, and importance, while simultaneously helping create a sense of belonging to something beyond ourselves. According to social learning theory and field theory, is the meaningful environment, or the psychological situation, which is the best predictor of a person’s actions (Rotter, 1954). School climate can not only facilitate the student's learning process but also can be a major obstacle to their learning and achievement. The process of globalization and sophisticated technology development are one of the main challenges of the 21st century. Universities and schools to meet these challenges must be able to educate the new generation with high, flexible and creative capabilities. Therefore their performance should serve beyond conventional scientific functions. Thus, one of the most important tasks for school is to create an environment that ensured the wholesome quality of schooling. Variables such as the quality of school life, school & classroom climate, and student's self-efficacy are among the most important.

    Methodology

    Data collection tools consisted Anderson & Bourke (2000) Quality of School Life questionnaire, Williams & Deci (1996) learning Climate questionnaire, and Sherer et al (1982) Self-Efficacy Scale. Quality of School Life questionnaire: The revised form of the Anderson & Brock (2000) Quality of School Life questionnaire (QSLQ) was translated into Persian by Soltani Shal et al (2012), and was normalized between Iranian students. This scale consists of 39 items and five subscales: Opportunity; Adventure and achievement; General Satisfaction;Negative Affect and Social Integration; that calculates both the overall and subscales scores separately.
    Self-Efficacy Scale: The Sherer et al (1982) self-efficacy scale has two subscales: general self-efficacy (17 items) and social self-efficacy (6 items); that in this study we use general subscales. For that subscale, a sum is calculated by adding the responses to the individual items. Learning Climate Questionnaire (LCQ): Williams & Deci (1996) and Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis (2005) develop the original and ultimate version of this scale, respectively. This scale (20 item) was translated into Persian by Abdol-Nejad et al (2004), and measures how well participants perceive their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness as being met through program participation. Autonomy refers to the ability to make choices and acting in accordance with one’s sense of self. Competence refers to feeling a sense of mastery within one’s environment and experiencing opportunities to display skills. Relatedness refers to a sense of belonging both with other individuals and with one’s community.

    Data Analysis

    The collected data were analyzed based on descriptive indicators such as frequency, mean and percent, Pearson correlation, confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis.

    Findings

    The findings of the study showed that there are a positive and significant correlation between the quality of school life with self-efficacy, quality of school life with learning climate and self-efficacy with the learning climate at the level (p≤0.01). Also, the findings from path analysis coefficients indicate that were positive and direct effect of quality school life on self-efficacy, the learning climate on self-efficacy and quality of school life. In addition, the quality of school life has an indirect effect on self-efficacy and the learning climate in the relationship between that has a moderating role.

    Keywords: quality of school life, learning climate, self-efficacy, students
  • Uncovering Teachers' Organizational Cynicism in School: A Qualitative Study
    Leila Nejati Hatamian *, Hossein Abbasian, Hasan Reza Zaynabadi, HAMID REZA ARASTEH Pages 91-110

     The ministry of education is one of the biggest, most important and complicated social entities and the quality of the performance of other entities largely depend on its performance. There is no doubt that the ministry of education helps to improve and enrich the cultural, social and economic development in all societies (Hua and Herstein,2003). However, perfection of humans lies in their proper training and the ministry of education is the means to reach the ultimate human dignity. Hence, education and training have always been the greatest and the most difficult problem humans face with. Each organization has e technical core that is linked to the main mission of the organization. In the ministry of education, teaching-learning is considered the technical core and other activities are considered peripheral with regard to it (Hoy and Myskl,1395).Therefore, all the countries annually dedicate great human and financial resources to achieve this important issue. However, it can be certainly claimed that from among all the resources, the role of teachers is of huge significance because their performance in teaching-learning process has positive direct effects on the quality of the teaching and students’ academic achievement (Lockheed and Respoor,1371). Regardless of his/her role in this process, each teacher acts upon a set of values and beliefs. The beliefs might be clear and directly affect the teacher’s behavior or they might not be clear and affect the teacher’s behavior unknowingly (Nolan and Hoover,1388). Either way, teachers as the people who shoulder the important responsibility of teaching are influenced by various factors and their viewpoints and philosephy immensely influence their performance.( Vakilian,1387) Teachers’ cynicism is not an exception and can have abundant effects on their performance. Cynicism is the attitude formed of hopelessness, frustration and failure and is related to humiliation, hatred and distrust. This negative attitude has penetrated in many organizations, and it is the cause of many undesirable and negative organizational consequences and one of the problematic issues at workplace (James,2005) Coal et al. (2006) defined organizational cynicism as a value judgment derived from the job experiences of the individuals (Brown and Cregan,2008).Anderson defines organizational cynicism as a general and specific attitude that is formed by despair and hopelessness, alienation, negative feeling and distrust to the organization (Andersson,1996).Organizational cynicism is defined as the negative attitude towards the organization and consists of three dimensions: 1. The belief that the organization is not truthful, 2. Negative feeling to the organization, and 3. The tendency to show humiliating and malicious behaviors to the organization, which are negative according to these beliefs and feelings (Dean et al.1998) . Therefore, organizational cynicism is a multi-dimensional concept the strength and severity of cynical attitude is a function of the strength and severity of each of the dimensions. Furthermore, studies have shown that the three dimensions are mutually connected to the cynical attitude (Levent and Keser, 2016). Organizational cynicism leads to undesirable consequences. In a study on organizational cynicism, Chaburu et al. (2013) showed that cynicism has important and long-term negative effects on the capabilities of individuals and the organization such as lack of commitment and not performing duties (Bellini et al., 2015). In addition, Abraham (2000) found in his study that organizational cynicism has negative effects on job satisfaction and organizational commitment and leads to alienation (with the organization) (Davis,2002). In total, the series of studies on cynicism consequences in organizations have shown that there is a negative relationship between organizational cynicism and organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction and job performance (Brown and Cregan,2008). Hence, cynicism is the issue that should be investigated seriously.Numerous studies have been conducted so far throughout the world on cynicism in different organizations. Unfortunately, organizational cynicism among teachers has been neglected and no comprehensive studies have been carried out to identify its components. However, it should be noted that despite the similarity between organizations, academic institutions have unique features that distinguishes them from other organizations and this calls for the necessity of identifying cynicism, in particular. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study is to identify the components of organizational cynicism among the elementary school teachers in Tehran. It was a qualitative study conducted using phenomenography method. Research data was collected through in-depth ad semi-structured interviews with the interviewees. Research samples were selected purposefully. Considering the research subject, the most important criterion for selecting participants in the first place was having 5 years of teaching experience in elementary schools in Tehran. However, for the enrichment of the data, it was decided to use the participants who apart from the aforementioned criterion have a background of being the school principal, being a member of educational groups in the region and in-service teacher. Accordingly, 6 informants had at least one of the aforementioned features apart from the main criterion. Therefore, the sampling method in this study is purposive with the maximum variation sampling. At the beginning of the interviews, after explaining the research purpose and gaining the interviewee’s trust, a general question was asked about the things that elementary school teachers had a negative attitude towards and which of the attitudes is derived from their distrust. Afterwards, other questions were put forward: why do the distrusts form? Which feelings are cynical teachers engaged in and which behaviors do they take up? Besides, inquiring questions were also asked when necessary to overcome the ambiguities and understand the phenomenon deeper. At the end of each interview, the interview content was examined carefully and printed on paper for content analysis. Coding method at three levels of open coding, axial coding and selective coding was used to analyze each interview. Data saturation was achieved completely and confidently after interviewing with 14 interviewees. Member control technique was used to ensure the reliability of the data. In addition, to increase the transferability, attempts were made to provide a comprehensive description of the collected data set. According to the findings, the fundamental issues of organizational cynicism in teachers included 1) cynicism towards colleagues, 2) cynicism towards parents, 3) cynicism towards students, 4) cynicism towards educational issues, 5) cynicism towards plans and programs, and 6) cynicism towards professional development.

    Keywords: cynicism, teachers’ organizational cynicism, education, quality research, phenomenography
  • Factors Affecting the Professional Development of School Managers at 1404 Horizons
    Karam Isfahani *, Nader Solimani, Haydar Torani, Parviz Sabahi Pages 130-150
    The purpose of this research was to identify the factors affecting the professional development of school administrators in the horizons of the vision document of 1404. The research approach, qualitative and method of the theory of data have been considered. The statistical population is the experts in the field of educational management. Purposeful sampling was used to determine the samples of this research and to determine the group of experts. Targeted sampling means the targeted selection of research units for acquiring knowledge or information, and includes the selection of units or research samples based on the purpose of the research. In this research, based on theoretical foundations and background of the research, and using a semi-structured interview with 24 specialists and experts in the field of educational management and middle managers and senior managers of the Ministry of Education with a Ph.D. degree and a master's degree in educational management The semi-structured interview was conducted. As a result, the indicators extracted from the analysis of the interviews were confirmed, according to the theoretical adequacy of the data and the researcher's theoretical saturation. By analyzing the content of the interviews in three stages: Open, Focused and Selective Coding, Factors Affecting the Professional Development of School Managers in the Horizon of the Outlook 1404, in eight main categories; Technology, Religious, Cultural, Individual, and Social , Economic, political and organizational. Management in the education system is very important. So, if there is to be an evolution in the education system, this change should start from the management of the system. The role of the director as an educational leader should be such that, with a view to the future, which is one of the strategic needs, the educational institution can help at least one step in advancing its goals. The educational system of Iran needs to change in order to realize the transcendental ideals of the Islamic Revolution and with regard to the changing environment of the future. As the Supreme Leader has said, we need to change in education and education. Therefore, managers who have the right to decide in a futuristic educational system and provide innovative solutions must have the skills needed to carry out their duties and functions (Darwishi et al., 2014). Improving the skills of educational managers improves their potential in solving managerial and educational problems and increases the confidence level of their decisions (Sharma and Jane 2013). In a world where the unbridled pace of scientific and technological developments in various fields has made planning for the future a necessary, yet highly complex, expertise, planners and planners of educational systems are no alternative but to speculate on future developments. And they will not be looking for ways to adapt and adapt to them. On the other hand, the document on the fundamental development of education, based on the vision document and based on Iran's horizons in 1404, has increasingly focused on the future of schools. If we talk about schools at 1404 and future schools, we should determine the status and the location of schools and the way in which they are managed, and in order to achieve this goal, prospective approaches and the 1404 vision document and the educational status of society are examined. (Lotfi et al., 1390). One of the most important upstream documents and guidelines for public sector policies and programs is the vision document. Based on this strategic document, on the horizon of 1404 AH, Iran will be the country with the first position of economic, scientific and technology in the region, with Islamic and revolutionary identity, to be inspirational in the Muslim world and with constructive and effective interaction in international relations. . Government executives must take decisions that are necessary to achieve the goals and status defined in the vision document, and for this purpose it is necessary to have the competencies required to function effectively along these lines (Rahnavard, 2011). Based on this perspective, the school is a manifestation of the achievement of the Tibetan life, the center for the provision of services and educational opportunities, the basis for understanding and correcting the situation by students, and the continuous development and development of their identity based on the Islamic criteria system, within the framework of philosophy And the direction of the public education system of the Islamic Republic of Iran with features such as self-esteem, responsibility, self-esteem, trust, self-confidence, efficiency, entrepreneurship, avoidance of longevity and dependence on the world, empathy, respect, trust, timeliness, Order, Seriousness, Sacrifice, Lawmaking, Criticism and Innovation, Appreciation, Defending the Disadvantaged and Oppressed The values of the Islamic Revolution (The Transitional Document, 2011). Developing and recreating the role of leadership in schools with knowledge, skills, and optimal matching with new situations in the educational system seems necessary. In many countries, increasing attention is paid to the role of school principals in the face of changes in the 21st century (Brakman, 2008). The professional development of school principals is the basis for the development of education, because leadership in schools has a direct impact on learners and plays an essential role in developing student learning quality and leads educational leaders in the face of change The environment is more efficient (Keeney, 2008). All these issues and responsibilities have greatly increased the pressure on school principals. That's why many researchers, policymakers and educational organizations are working to find a solution to this problem. In this regard, today focus is on the professional development of school principals, as a key component of these strategies and educational reforms. Therefore, the researcher intends to identify and present the factors affecting the professional development of school administrators in the 1404 and answer the following questions: 1. What are the factors influencing the professional development of school managers at 1404 horizons? 2. How are the factors influencing the professional development of school managers at 1404 horizons? Therefore, the main objectives of the research include: 1. Identification of factors affecting the professional development of school administrators at 1404 horizons. 2. Prioritizing factors affecting the professional development of school administrators at 1404 horizons.
    Keywords: Professional development, School Managers, Outlook Document 1404, Basic Education Transformation Document
  • Identifying the Factors of Student Misbehavior in the Classroom and Presenting its Management Strategies in Schools
    Behzad Nadernejad, Fardin Abdollahy *, Fardin Batmani Pages 150-170
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and causes of high school students' misbehavior in Sanandaj and to present its management strategies. The research method was qualitative and the data base method was used. The statistical population of this study was the first high school teachers who were selected for purposeful sampling and to reach the theoretical saturation level in order to summarize the experiences of 15 high school teachers. Qualitative data analysis was performed using theoretical coding and maxqda version 10 software. By interviewing the participants through in-depth interviews and content analysis, and comparing and matching the data, 144 indicators were obtained. By eliminating duplicates and integrating homogeneous and similar indicators, finally, categories related to the causes and causes of abuse in the form of 43 Subcategories (open coding) and 22 axial categories and 5 inclusive categories (selective coding) were drawn. In addition to using research results, previous research results were used to present management strategies. Causes and causes of misconduct include extracurricular factors such as environmental factors (family, community and media) and school factors (physical and psychological space, managers' communication weakness, inappropriate modeling). In-class factors such as teacher-related factors (teaching style, teacher approach, classroom management, teacher professional competence) and student-related factors (academic weakness, lack of motivation, behavioral disorders) are appropriate for each management solution.The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and causes of high school students' misbehavior in Sanandaj and to present its management strategies. The research method was qualitative and the data base method was used. The statistical population of this study was the first high school teachers who were selected for purposeful sampling and to reach the theoretical saturation level in order to summarize the experiences of 15 high school teachers. Qualitative data analysis was performed using theoretical coding and maxqda version 10 software. By interviewing the participants through in-depth interviews and content analysis, and comparing and matching the data, 144 indicators were obtained. By eliminating duplicates and integrating homogeneous and similar indicators, finally, categories related to the causes and causes of abuse in the form of 43 Subcategories (open coding) and 22 axial categories and 5 inclusive categories (selective coding) were drawn. In addition to using research results, previous research results were used to present management strategies. Causes and causes of misconduct include extracurricular factors such as environmental factors (family, community and media) and school factors (physical and psychological space, managers' communication weakness, inappropriate modeling). In-class factors such as teacher-related factors (teaching style, teacher approach, classroom management, teacher professional competence) and student-related factors (academic weakness, lack of motivation, behavioral disorders) are appropriate for each management solution.The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and causes of high school students' misbehavior in Sanandaj and to present its management strategies. The research method was qualitative and the data base method was used. The statistical population of this study was the first high school teachers who were selected for purposeful sampling and to reach the theoretical saturation level in order to summarize the experiences of 15 high school teachers. Qualitative data analysis was performed using theoretical coding and maxqda version 10 software. By interviewing the participants through in-depth interviews and content analysis, and comparing and matching the data, 144 indicators were obtained. By eliminating duplicates and integrating homogeneous and similar indicators, finally, categories related to the causes and causes of abuse in the form of 43 Subcategories (open coding) and 22 axial categories and 5 inclusive categories (selective coding) were drawn. In addition to using research results, previous research results were used to present management strategies. Causes and causes of misconduct include extracurricular factors such as environmental factors (family, community and media) and school factors (physical and psychological space, managers' communication weakness, inappropriate modeling). In-class factors such as teacher-related factors (teaching style, teacher approach, classroom management, teacher professional competence) and student-related factors (academic weakness, lack of motivation, behavioral disorders) are appropriate for each management solution.The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and causes of high school students' misbehavior in Sanandaj and to present its management strategies. The research method was qualitative and the data base method was used. The statistical population of this study was the first high school teachers who were selected for purposeful sampling and to reach the theoretical saturation level in order to summarize the experiences of 15 high school teachers. Qualitative data analysis was performed using theoretical coding and maxqda version 10 software. By interviewing the participants through in-depth interviews and content analysis, and comparing and matching the data, 144 indicators were obtained. By eliminating duplicates and integrating homogeneous and similar indicators, finally, categories related to the causes and causes of abuse in the form of 43 Subcategories (open coding) and 22 axial categories and 5 inclusive categories (selective coding) were drawn. In addition to using research results, previous research results were used to present management strategies. Causes and causes of misconduct include extracurricular factors such as environmental factors (family, community and media) and school factors (physical and psychological space, managers' communication weakness, inappropriate modeling). In-class factors such as teacher-related factors (teaching style, teacher approach, classroom management, teacher professional competence) and student-related factors (academic weakness, lack of motivation, behavioral disorders) are appropriate for each management solution.The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and causes of high school students' misbehavior in Sanandaj and to present its management strategies. The research method was qualitative and the data base method was used. The statistical population of this study was the first high school teachers who were selected for purposeful sampling and to reach the theoretical saturation level in order to summarize the experiences of 15 high school teachers. Qualitative data analysis was performed using theoretical coding and maxqda version 10 software. By interviewing the participants through in-depth interviews and content analysis, and comparing and matching the data, 144 indicators were obtained. By eliminating duplicates and integrating homogeneous and similar indicators, finally, categories related to the causes and causes of abuse in the form of 43 Subcategories (open coding) and 22 axial categories and 5 inclusive categories (selective coding) were drawn. In addition to using research results, previous research results were used to present management strategies. C
    Keywords: Student misbehavior, Role of Teacher, school, Class Management
  • Identification of effective factors on empowerment of schools with emphasis on social care system of students
    Akram Hossini Sangrizeh, Kiomars Niazazari *, Taraneh Enayati Pages 170-190
    The purpose of this study is Identification of effective factors on empowerment of schools with emphasis on social care system of students. The research method is descriptive-survey. The statistical population of the study included the entire student academic levels (Elementary, first and second secondary), The parents and staff of the schools were in Sari and Neka. sampling method Multi-stage cluster is used that 386 were selected as the sample population for study. To estimate the number of sample population, the Cochran formula was used and for date collection researcher made questionnaire were used, that Face and Content Validity questionnaire were confirmed using the comments of experts. reliability of questionnaires through The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated in a preliminary study on 40 individuals (0.94). Data analysis was performed through exploratory factor analysis in SPSS21 software. The results showed that four factors of the processes (16 indicators), infrastructure (12 indicators), internal factors (9 indicators) and external factors (9 indicators) affect the empowerment of schools in the field of social care system of students. The purpose of this study is Identification of effective factors on empowerment of schools with emphasis on social care system of students. The research method is descriptive-survey. The statistical population of the study included the entire student academic levels (Elementary, first and second secondary), The parents and staff of the schools were in Sari and Neka. sampling method Multi-stage cluster is used that 386 were selected as the sample population for study. To estimate the number of sample population, the Cochran formula was used and for date collection researcher made questionnaire were used, that Face and Content Validity questionnaire were confirmed using the comments of experts. reliability of questionnaires through The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated in a preliminary study on 40 individuals (0.94). Data analysis was performed through exploratory factor analysis in SPSS21 software. The results showed that four factors of the processes (16 indicators), infrastructure (12 indicators), internal factors (9 indicators) and external factors (9 indicators) affect the empowerment of schools in the field of social care system of students. The purpose of this study is Identification of effective factors on empowerment of schools with emphasis on social care system of students. The research method is descriptive-survey. The statistical population of the study included the entire student academic levels (Elementary, first and second secondary), The parents and staff of the schools were in Sari and Neka. sampling method Multi-stage cluster is used that 386 were selected as the sample population for study. To estimate the number of sample population, the Cochran formula was used and for date collection researcher made questionnaire were used, that Face and Content Validity questionnaire were confirmed using the comments of experts. reliability of questionnaires through The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated in a preliminary study on 40 individuals (0.94). Data analysis was performed through exploratory factor analysis in SPSS21 software. The results showed that four factors of the processes (16 indicators), infrastructure (12 indicators), internal factors (9 indicators) and external factors (9 indicators) affect the empowerment of schools in the field of social care system of students. The purpose of this study is Identification of effective factors on empowerment of schools with emphasis on social care system of students. The research method is descriptive-survey. The statistical population of the study included the entire student academic levels (Elementary, first and second secondary), The parents and staff of the schools were in Sari and Neka. sampling method Multi-stage cluster is used that 386 were selected as the sample population for study. To estimate the number of sample population, the Cochran formula was used and for date collection researcher made questionnaire were used, that Face and Content Validity questionnaire were confirmed using the comments of experts. reliability of questionnaires through The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated in a preliminary study on 40 individuals (0.94). Data analysis was performed through exploratory factor analysis in SPSS21 software. The results showed that four factors of the processes (16 indicators), infrastructure (12 indicators), internal factors (9 indicators) and external factors (9 indicators) affect the empowerment of schools in the field of social care system of students. The purpose of this study is Identification of effective factors on empowerment of schools with emphasis on social care system of students. The research method is descriptive-survey. The statistical population of the study included the entire student academic levels (Elementary, first and second secondary), The parents and staff of the schools were in Sari and Neka. sampling method Multi-stage cluster is used that 386 were selected as the sample population for study. To estimate the number of sample population, the Cochran formula was used and for date collection researcher made questionnaire were used, that Face and Content Validity questionnaire were confirmed using the comments of experts. reliability of questionnaires through The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated in a preliminary study on 40 individuals (0.94). Data analysis was performed through exploratory factor analysis in SPSS21 software. The results showed that four factors of the processes (16 indicators), infrastructure (12 indicators), internal factors (9 indicators) and external factors (9 indicators) affect the empowerment of schools in the field of social care system of students. The purpose of this study is Identification of effective factors on empowerment of schools with emphasis on social care system of students. The research method is descriptive-survey. The statistical population of the study included the entire student academic levels (Elementary, first and second secondary), The parents and staff of the schools were in Sari and Neka. sampling method Multi-stage cluster is used that 386 were selected as the sample population for study. To estimate the number of sample population, the Cochran formula was used and for date collection researcher made questionnaire were used, that Face and Content Validity questionnaire were confirmed using the comments of experts. reliability of questionnaires through The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated in a preliminary study on 40 individuals (0.94). Data analysis was performed through exploratory factor analysis in SPSS21 software. The results showed that four factors of the processes (16 indicators), infrastructure (12 indicators), internal factors (9 indicators) and external factors (9 indicators) affect the empowerment of schools in the field of social care system of students.
    Keywords: Empowerment of Schools, Social Care System, schools, Student
  • Modeling Structural Relationships of Teachers' Educational Performance Based on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Mediating Job Engagement
    Bahman Kord *, Hiva Mahmodi Pages 260-280
    The present study was conducted with the aim of formulating a model of teachers' educational performanc based on organizational citizenship behavior and mediating job engagement. This research is an applied and descriptive correlational research. The population of the study consisted of teachers in Kurdistan province in the academic year 2019-20 which included 11040 people. The sample consisted of 358 teachers who were selected through cluster random sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires of Zarani educational performance, organizational citizenship behavior of Podsakov and job engagement of Schaufeli, et al. SPSS and LISREL were used to analyze the structural equations model. The results of this study showed that organizational citizenship behavior has a direct effect on teachers' educational performance; job engagement has a direct effect on educational performance. organizational citizenship behavior has an indirect effect (through job engagement) on teachers' educational performance. Therefore, organizational citizenship behavior and the mediating role of teachers' job engagement play an effective role in enhancing the quality of their educational performance. hence, attention to the dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior and teachers' job engagement is essential for the quality of their educational performance.The present study was conducted with the aim of formulating a model of teachers' educational performanc based on organizational citizenship behavior and mediating job engagement. This research is an applied and descriptive correlational research. The population of the study consisted of teachers in Kurdistan province in the academic year 2019-20 which included 11040 people. The sample consisted of 358 teachers who were selected through cluster random sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires of Zarani educational performance, organizational citizenship behavior of Podsakov and job engagement of Schaufeli, et al. SPSS and LISREL were used to analyze the structural equations model. The results of this study showed that organizational citizenship behavior has a direct effect on teachers' educational performance; job engagement has a direct effect on educational performance. organizational citizenship behavior has an indirect effect (through job engagement) on teachers' educational performance. Therefore, organizational citizenship behavior and the mediating role of teachers' job engagement play an effective role in enhancing the quality of their educational performance. hence, attention to the dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior and teachers' job engagement is essential for the quality of their educational performance.The present study was conducted with the aim of formulating a model of teachers' educational performanc based on organizational citizenship behavior and mediating job engagement. This research is an applied and descriptive correlational research. The population of the study consisted of teachers in Kurdistan province in the academic year 2019-20 which included 11040 people. The sample consisted of 358 teachers who were selected through cluster random sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires of Zarani educational performance, organizational citizenship behavior of Podsakov and job engagement of Schaufeli, et al. SPSS and LISREL were used to analyze the structural equations model. The results of this study showed that organizational citizenship behavior has a direct effect on teachers' educational performance; job engagement has a direct effect on educational performance. organizational citizenship behavior has an indirect effect (through job engagement) on teachers' educational performance. Therefore, organizational citizenship behavior and the mediating role of teachers' job engagement play an effective role in enhancing the quality of their educational performance. hence, attention to the dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior and teachers' job engagement is essential for the quality of their educational performance.The present study was conducted with the aim of formulating a model of teachers' educational performanc based on organizational citizenship behavior and mediating job engagement. This research is an applied and descriptive correlational research. The population of the study consisted of teachers in Kurdistan province in the academic year 2019-20 which included 11040 people. The sample consisted of 358 teachers who were selected through cluster random sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires of Zarani educational performance, organizational citizenship behavior of Podsakov and job engagement of Schaufeli, et al. SPSS and LISREL were used to analyze the structural equations model. The results of this study showed that organizational citizenship behavior has a direct effect on teachers' educational performance; job engagement has a direct effect on educational performance. organizational citizenship behavior has an indirect effect (through job engagement) on teachers' educational performance. Therefore, organizational citizenship behavior and the mediating role of teachers' job engagement play an effective role in enhancing the quality of their educational performance. hence, attention to the dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior and teachers' job engagement is essential for the quality of their educational performance.The present study was conducted with the aim of formulating a model of teachers' educational performanc based on organizational citizenship behavior and mediating job engagement. This research is an applied and descriptive correlational research. The population of the study consisted of teachers in Kurdistan province in the academic year 2019-20 which included 11040 people. The sample consisted of 358 teachers who were selected through cluster random sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires of Zarani educational performance, organizational citizenship behavior of Podsakov and job engagement of Schaufeli, et al. SPSS and LISREL were used to analyze the structural equations model. The results of this study showed that organizational citizenship behavior has a direct effect on teachers' educational performance; job engagement has a direct effect on educational performance. organizational citizenship behavior has an indirect effect (through job engagement) on teachers' educational performance. Therefore, organizational citizenship behavior and the mediating role of teachers' job engagement play an effective role in enhancing the quality of their educational performance. hence, attention to the dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior and teachers' job engagement is essential for the quality of their educational performance.The present study was conducted with the aim of formulating a model of teachers' educational performanc based on organizational citizenship behavior and mediating job engagement. This research is an applied and descriptive correlational research. The population of the study consisted of teachers in Kurdistan province in the academic year 2019-20 which included 11040 people. The sample consisted of 358 teachers who were selected through cluster random sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires of Zarani educational performance, organizational citizenship behavior of Podsakov and job engagement of Schaufeli, et al. SPSS and LISREL were used to analyze the structural equations model. The
    Keywords: Educational Performance, Job Engagement, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, teachers
  • Leadership Skills at High School Girls
    Faezeh Mahdavipour, Fariba Adli *, Afsaneh Naraghizadeh Pages 280-300
    Today, the importance of effective management in the educational system, especially in schools as an operational category and the most important place for the realization of educational goals, is of great importance. In the last two decades, in most advanced countries, managers are considered to be the most important driver of educational programs and the effectiveness of schools. School effectiveness studies show that managers' influence depends not only on managerial qualifications and expertise, but also largely influenced by their leadership capabilities. The scholars of this field believe that today, with the increasing challenges of the emerging and ongoing, schools are slowly moving away from the past few decades, with only day-to-day management practices without effective leadership, and even in some cases impossible Educational leadership not only affects the quality of individual teacher training but many research in this area confirms the direct relationship between educational leadership and student learning and shows that the quality of educational leadership has a significant difference in school and student outcomes. Accordingly, the focus of attention in international centers on educating educational leaders has been focused on important and influential factors in the progress and improvement of the status of schools. Among the wide range of issues related to leadership and leadership, most leadership skills are considered as the main factor in the difference between effective and less effective schoolsBut this issue has been underestimated in the literature of leadership, especially in native literature. Evidence suggests that school principals play less leadership role and rarely have the knowledge and skills they need. Among the school's courses, secondary education is important when it comes to adolescence. In this course, adolescent students become entangled in abstract thinking with issues such as vulnerability, problems and friendship issues and peer pressure, emotional balance and defensive behavior, and may easily engage in unsafe behaviors with long-term negative consequences. Therefore, it seems that the educational system should take the necessary measures to manage these issues and prevent their deepening. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify the leadership skills of high school girls in Tehran. In order to understand the experience of school administrators, a qualitative approach was used with phenomenological approach. The data collection tool was based on a triangulation technique: the fundamental transformation of education, participatory observation, and semi-structured interviews For interview, 15 school principals were selected by snowball method. Data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis method. The research findings were categorized in 21 categories, 26 sub categories and 5 themes: "landscape design skills", "effective communication skills", "parenting skill", "guidance and guidance" and "self-management skills". Considering the definition of the concept of leadership and the results of this research, it shows that the influence of the leader on school students occurs in two ways 1.Indirectly: Impact on students through the mediation of school staff, especially teachers, who are directly involved with students. 2. Directly: Influencing students through direct communication with them. In other words, the school principal may play a leading role in one of these two paths or both. The findings of this research are consistent with the skills gained from the compilation of leadership literature, but it is important to note that in existing literature, the main focus is on the influence of the leader through the mediation of teachers, and in this area issues Like the spirit of teachers, their motivation and the professional development of teachers are discussed. But there is not much talk about the direct relationship between the school leader and the students But the findings of this study emphasize the importance of leadership in the second path and show that the mere attention of the leader to the issues of staff and teachers is not enough to succeed in school performance, but it is necessary to address student leadership issues as an important part of the school's members Also pay attention. School leadership is a successful time to work both in relation to teachers and staff and to work well with students, because if the school leader fails to bring students on the path to the school's vision voluntarily, it would probably be an attempt Teachers in this regard will face serious resistance. Also, some skills are more relevant to each of these two groups, and others have a diminutive role. In this regard, paying attention to the age-specific characteristics of the students (in this study, high school students) is very important. Considering the importance of the training of educational leaders, it is suggested that professional development programs, the development of school administrators and leaders be designed and implemented. But not only in the literature of this field not only this issue has not been addressed, but in terms of the appointment of the directors of the country, there is also no effect on this discussion, and there is essentially no different understanding for school principals in different educational periods. In the Transformation Document, despite the emphasis on choosing managers based on meritocracy, this is somewhat ambiguous as the Transformation Document does not provide any theoretical definitions and operational plan for measuring meritocracy and achieving it. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that workshops be designed and conducted to continuously train managers for skills in simulated situations with real conditions; current school curricula and professional development programs for school principals, with emphasis on leadership skills, based on the characteristics of each curriculum ; Schoolchildren's selection policies should also be rewritten with emphasis on selection based on related education and leadership training courses, as well as rehearsals of the content of the management education with emphasis on attendance in the field of action (schools). Given that the document on the fundamental transformation of education (2011) is at the assessment stage, it is suggested that school management and leadership in the proposed goals and objectives of the document should be redefined according to the role of leadership in school management. Also, the term "meritocracy" is defined in terms of effective school management literature and research findings
    Keywords: Girls&#039, school Leadership Skills, vision design Skill, Effective Communication Skill, followers growth skill, followers guidance skill
  • Relationship between Entrepreneurship Personality with Tendency to Entrepreneurship among Elementary School Managers
    Khatereh Taghipour, Akbar Etebarian Khorasgani *, Faezeh Taghipour Pages 280-300
    Now a day's entrepreneurship considered as a one of the development tools. Because existence of entrepreneurial persons creates a success platform. Organizations that wants to do organizational entrepreneurship successfully needs entrepreneurial orientation. Entrepreneurial orientation could be about strategic approach and managers methods in business activities, or adoption and presentation of new plans in one complex. Also, entrepreneurial orientation is a strategic advantage that has been explored in opportunities investigation of one complex, and organized this things in order to used opportunities. Entrepreneurial tendencies known as a best indicators for programmed behavior. On the other hand in today's world success is for community and organizations that create significant relationship between scarce resources, management capabilities and human resource entrepreneurship. For this reasons present study was conducted by the objective to determine relationship between Entrepreneurship personality with tendency to be Entrepreneurship among elementary school managers. Case study in this research are elementary school managers, because entrepreneurship in education is a regular and continuous process, that in one hand leads to identification and effective utilization of all external and internal resources of educational system and in the other hand caused new opportunities for teaching and learning. The role of managers is also important and sensitive in complex in which entrepreneurship is one of the necessary and essential factors because managers could create, promote, and encourage ability and entrepreneurship talent in persons or his behavior or performance could prevent this critical issue. Managers are the most important factors of change and progress in school, therefore manager's personality and behaviors had a great impact on school staff and educational goals achievement. School managers must by improvement of educational environment and creating desirable organizational system in school create appropriate opportunity to increase entrepreneurship spirit for teachers and students, until through this way entrepreneurial spirit and entrepreneurial behavior dominate the entire society, and country move towards development and progress. Research method was descriptive-correlational and its statistical population were all the elementary school managers in Isfahan during 2018-2019, which were 180 individuals. For data collection were used the Entrepreneurial Personality Characteristics Questionnaire (Kordnaichi and et.al) and Lumpkinds Entrepreneurial tendency questionnaire. Questionnaire's content validity were confirmed by supervisor and some subjective writers and formal validity were confirmed by some individuals in statistical population. Also questionnaires reliability by using Cronbach's alpha for the entrepreneurship personality characteristics questionnaire was calculated 0.857 and for entrepreneurship tendency questionnaire was calculated 0.802. To investigate the research hypotheses, descriptive and inferential statistics including Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was used for SPSS software. The results of the study showed that entrepreneurial personality characteristics are related to entrepreneurial tendency in primary school administrators (r=0.885), as well as the relationship between risk-based balance with managers' willingness to entrepreneurship (r=0.760), internal control center with entrepreneurial inclination (r=0.877), the need for success with an entrepreneurial tendency (r=0.908), intellectual fluctuation with an entrepreneurial tendency (r=0.885), pragmatism with an entrepreneurial tendency (r=0.685), tolerance of ambiguity with a tendency to Entrepreneurship (r=0.702) with a desire to entrepreneurship (r=0.667). The results showed that there were a relationship between entrepreneurial personality characteristic with tendency to entrepreneurial in elementary school managers. And also moderate risk appetite relationship, internal control focus, needs to success, mental health, pragmatism, ambiguity tolerance, dreaming and challenging with tendency to entrepreneurship were positive and significant. In the interpretation and explanation of this subject, it should be noted that tendency to entrepreneurship refer to amount of motivation and potential desire of human resource organization for carry out entrepreneurial activities and amount of their ability and knowledge to have this type of responsibility. It's obvious that every one according to his personal characteristics has the level of ability and necessary knowledge to take this type of responsibility, in a way that according to research results it could said that each Entrepreneurship school manager had unique personal characteristics, but in general significant points exist in personality of all entrepreneurs that caused to improve his tendency to entrepreneurs behaviors. Also, many entrepreneurs hate working for others and therefore work for themselves. They are their own director and they accept the results of their decisions, and this characteristic refer to entrepreneur’s autonomy and caused mangers tendency to do new jobs (entrepreneurship). Of course it should be considered that, in school management autonomy doesn't have sense and manager should dynamically and creatively interact with all teachers, assistants and other full-time and part-time executive forces. Entrepreneur managers are people who decide on uncertainty situations, for this reasons they should be risk appetite and they must realize that risk appetite and its tendency should help to improve all participated people in school. Elementary school managers choose logical, appropriate, and at the same time challenging risk with fair and acceptable chance, so it's clear that a managers who accept chance more easily had more ability and knowledge to take new responsibilities and entrepreneurship, also each entrepreneurial school managers authentic his work competence. They personally solve problems that happened during construction of new school or revival of an old school that is needed and honesty working for successful performance of whole project in subjective school and therefore they are challenging and they love to do new work, also flexibility of such managers is high in relationships and job decisions. Most of the successful entrepreneurial managers measures positive and negative aspect of one decision and based on the situation change it. They have a good mental analysis ability. Entrepreneurs are not influenced by their personal hardships so that they have entrepreneurship ability and tendency to new plan, finally it should be mentioned that they are logical and realistic in their theory so that they keep themselves away from prejudices, and in activities if they need helps used experts not friends and family. So that such managers avoid emotional look to school problems and issues and could do new works and accept new responsibilities, so that it could claim that there were a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial personality characteristic with tendency to entrepreneurship among elementary school managers.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Personality Characteristic, Tendency to Entrepreneurship, Challenging, Moderate Risk Appetite, Elementary School Managers