فهرست مطالب

Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products - Volume:15 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:15 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Amir Jalali, Atefeh Raesi Vanani*, Maryam Shirani Page 1
    Context

     Asthma is the most common respiratory disease that has increased in prevalence worldwide during the last decade and causes an estimated 250,000 deaths annually. Due to adverse effects of chemical medicines, patients are seeking alternative therapy for management of asthma. This review aims at medicinal properties of Iranian traditional medicine and potential uses of these plants as antiasthmatics (both extrinsic and intrinsic).

    Evidence Acquisition

     Information was sourced from Iranian traditional medicine textbooks and scientific databases, such as PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, SID, IranDoc and MagIran. The data search was up-to-date as of October 31, 2017.

    Results

    This review reveals significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants to manage asthma from literature, which consists of botanical name, part used, preparation and administration. According to the main traditional Persian medicine texts Crocus sativus, Carum Carvi, Nigella sativa, Myrica sapida, Portulaca oleracea, Rosa damascene, Viola odorata and Zingiber officinale were the most efficacious medicinal plants for the improvement of asthma.

    Conclusions

    Iran has a precious traditional plant-based knowledge on healthcare and important scientists such as Razi and Avicenna used a lot of plants and plant extracts for treatment a large number of diseases. This study represents some pharmacological and phytochemical reports available on medicinal plants using for treatment asthma and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Due to no scientifically proven cure for asthma, this review introduces many traditional herbs that can be used for asthma treatment.

    Keywords: Asthma, Traditional Medicinal Plants, Treatment, lung, Iran
  • Majid Hemati, Jafar Fakhraei *, Akbar Yaghobfar, Hossein Mansoori Yarahmadi Page 2
    Background

    Poultry meat has high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can cause off-flavors, off-odors, and reduce meat quality and shelf life. Replacement of phytogenic feed additives (PFAs) with chemical additives are highly considered, which reduces the potential risk of using poultry meat.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed at determining the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of hogweed (Heracleum persicum) and anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) on broiler meat quality, immune responses, and intestinal microflora and morphology.

    Methods

    The current study was conducted on 400 male Ross 308 chickens divided into five treatment groups, based on a completely randomized design with four replicates of 20 broilers. The control group was not fed any feed additives, whereas the other groups received 100 mg/kg of probiotics (Primalac®), 200 mg/kg of hogweed extract, 200 mg/kg of anise extract, and 200 mg/kg of oxytetracycline, respectively. On day 35 of chicken breeding, the immune responses were investigated. At the end of chicken breeding, meat quality was analyzed. Also, the jejunal and ileal contents were investigated in terms of intestinal morphology and microflora.

    Results

    The findings indicated that the highest immune response belonged to the anise extract treatment. The best meat quality belonged to treatments with hogweed and anise extracts (P < 0.05). Also, the lowest number of harmful intestinal bacteria belonged to hogweed extract treatment (P < 0.05). Morphological characteristics of the intestine improved under the effects of hogweed and anise extract treatments (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Therefore, inclusion of 200 mg/kg of hogweed and anise extracts in broiler diet is suggested to improve meat quality, immune responses, and intestinal morphology as well as reduce the number of harmful bacteria in the ileum.

    Keywords: Hydroalcoholic Extract, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella anisum, Broiler
  • Ommoleila Molavi, Farshid Torkzaban, Sevda Jafari, Solmaz Asnaashari, Parina Asgharian Page 3
    Background

    Ecballium elaterium is one of the Cucurbitaceae plants distributed in many regions of the world. This unique species considered as a source of valuable herbal remedies such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial in traditional medicine.

    Objectives

    In the current research, cytotoxic activity of different extracts of the aerial parts and rhizomes of E. elaterium was evaluated on cancerous and non-cancerous cells which have not been assessed up to now. Furthermore, chemical compositions of potent samples were determined by GC-MS analysis for the first time.

    Methods

    The air-dried, powdered aerial parts and rhizome of the E. elaterium were Soxhlet-extracted, successively, with different solvents (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) and then the dried extracts subjected to cytotoxic assay. Subsequently, their anti-proliferative activity was assessed by a modified MTT assay. In this study, 4 cancerous cell lines were used, all of the cell lines were incubated in humid 37ºC, 5% CO2 and fed by RPMI and FBS. The cells were exposed to different extracts at different concentrations in 48 h. Their growth inhibition was defined as IC50 (µg.mL-1). For further investigations, potent extracts were subjected to VLC method for obtaining different fractions. Subsequently, the activity of all fractions was investigated and their phytochemical profiles were determined by preliminary phytochemical and GC-MS methods.

    Results

    Our findings illustrated, among the extracts, n-hexane extract of the aerial parts and its 100% fraction showed potent growth inhibitory effects on MCF7 cell line with IC50 = 264.3 ± 5.2 and 351.2 ± 5.5 µg.mL-1, respectively. It is worth to mention that; potent samples act their inhibitory effect on cancerous with minimum effect on non-cancerous cells. Further chemical investigations indicated that steroids, hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes are responsible for showing anti-proliferative effects.

    Conclusions

    Overall, the results were showed n-hexane extract and its 100% fraction for having potent ingredients inhibit the cancerous cells and had minimum toxicity on the normal cell line.

    Keywords: Ecballium elaterium, MTT Assay, VLC Fractions, Chemical Composition Profile
  • Sahar Poorhashemi, Akram Arianfar *, Ameneh Mohammadi Page 4
    Background

    Ultrasonic extraction is one method for optimization of effective compounds from plants.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was optimization of the extraction conditions of Myristica fragrans seeds using ethanol as a food grade solvent and by ultrasonic-assisted extraction using response surface method (RSM).

    Methods

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was used for extraction of M. fragrans seeds. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize three parameters: time and of temperature extraction (min, °C), and solvent to material ratio. Antioxidant activity and phenolic contents were determined.

    Results

    The results showed that optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions were 29.57 minutes extraction time, 374.61 mL/g ratio of solvent to material and 41.89ºC extraction temperatures. The yield of extraction, amount of total phenolic content, IC50 (in DPPH method) and FRAP in M. fragrans seeds in optimum conditions were 18.14%, 63.41 mg gallic acid/g of extract, 43.66 mg/mL and 99.38 mmol/g of extract, respectively.

    Conclusions

    The results indicated of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction having power for optimization of the extraction condition and it is appropriate for extraction of antioxidant and phenolic compounds.

    Keywords: M. fragrans Seeds, Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Antioxidant, Phenolic
  • Gholamreza Amin, Zeinab Shaker Ardakani, Zahra Jafariazar, Shohreh Vosoogh, Mamak Shariat, Fedyeh Haghollahi, Shima Afshar * Page 5
    Objectives

    The current study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of garlic capsules in reducing the risk of preeclampsia in high-risk Turkmen pregnant women in Golestan Province, Iran.

    Methods

    The current double-blind, randomized, clinical trial was performed in Islamic Azad University, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch and health centers of Golestan Province. Primigravid pregnant women who were high-risk for preeclampsia, with a first-degree family history of preeclampsia, were enrolled in the study. A total of 112 participants were randomly allocated into the groups receiving either garlic capsules (800 mg/day) or placebo for two months (from 28th to 36th weeks of gestation) and the outcomes between the two groups were compared during the study. Pregnancy outcomes included high systolic and diastolic blood pressures, increased level of fasting blood sugar, and weight gain. The outcomes were measured at three time points: at the beginning of the study, as well as one and two months after the intervention.

    Results

    Using repeated measurement analysis, no significant different was found between the two garlic and placebo groups in terms of changes in the systolic blood pressure, one and two months after the intervention (P > 0.05). There was also no significant difference between the two groups over the follow-up period in terms of the diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.602).

    Conclusions

    It seems that administration of garlic capsules during the pregnancy had no effect on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure changes in patients with a positive family history of preeclampsia.

    Keywords: Garlic, Preeclampsia, Blood Pressure, Weight Gain
  • Maryam Ekhtelat *, Shima Arzani Birghani, Forough Namjoyan, Abdolghani Ameri Page 6
    Background

    One of the most important health challenges is to deal with infectious diseases due to their high prevalence. Since resistance of pathogens to antimicrobial compounds is rising, more studies are performed to develop new antimicrobial agents. Herbs are one of the best sources to achieve the goal.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed at examining the possible antibacterial activity of the barberry root and fennel seed extracts individually and in combination with sodium diacetate and nisin against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Methods

    Extract of the barberry root and fennel seed were prepared by soaking in ethanol 80% and analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was detected by disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods in triplicate.

    Results

    Nisin showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli O157:H7 followed by the extracts of barberry root and fennel seed, and sodium diacetate. The data were consistent with the results of the disk diffusion test. Moreover, a significant difference was observed between antibacterial activity of nisin and sodium diacetate individually, and in combination with the extracts.

    Conclusions

    The results of the current study showed that the inhibitory effects of sodium diacetate and nisin combined with barberry root and fennel seed extracts were higher compared to their individual effects; it leads to the application of lower amounts of sodium diacetate and nisin in combination with herbal extracts and highly prevents their individual side effects such as toxicity and organoleptic changes.

    Keywords: Antibacterial Activity, Barberry Root, Fennel Seed, Nisin, Sodium Diacetate, Escherichia coli O157:H7
  • Idin Sahidin *, Andi Bahrun, Muhammad Taufik, Agung W. Mahatva Yodha, Carla W. Sabandar, Imran Imran, La Ode Kadidae, Ahmad Darmawan, Harto Widodo, Ajeng Diantini Page 7
    Background

    Persicaria sagittata (L.) H.Gross (Polygonaceae) has long been used in Indonesian traditional medicine to treat diarrhea, skin diseases, and internal problems. To date, the chemistry and biological activity of P. sagittata have not investigated, requiring more research.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to investigate the chemical constituents of P. sagittata stems, evaluate their antioxidant activity, and discuss their chemotaxonomy values in genus Persicaria.

    Methods

    Compounds isolated from the plant stems were identified using physicochemical and spectroscopic measurements (1D and 2D NMR) and by comparison with literature data. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the qualitative and quantitative DPPH assays. The chemotaxonomy value was assessed based on extensive studies of the phytochemically investigated Persicaria species.

    Results

    We successfully isolated 10 compounds for the first time from P. sagittata, including arborinone (1), 25-hydroxycholest-5-en-3β-yl acetate (2), β-sitosterol (3), methyl-4-hydroxy cinnamate (4), protocatechuic acid (5), gallic acid (6), methyl gallate (7), quercetin (8), vanicoside A (9), and vanicoside B (10). Of these, compound 6 (IC50: 8.88 μM) exhibited the most significant antioxidant activity relative to ascorbic acid (IC50: 30.49 μM), followed by compounds 7, 9, 8, 5, and 10 (IC50: 15.37, 26.82, 29.18, 32.38, and 35.06 μM, respectively). Meanwhile, compounds 1 - 4 were inactive toward DPPH radicals (IC50 > 400 μM). The chemistry of P. sagittata showed a relatively similar profile to other species profiles, implying a close chemotaxonomy relationship of P. sagittata with other species of genus Persicaria. Compounds 2 and 4 were first reported in genus Persicaria, which may serve as chemical markers for P. sagittata.

    Conclusions

    The chemical constituents of P. sagittata have potent antioxidant activities, in particular, phenolics, flavonoids, and sucrose esters. The presence of compounds 1 - 10 could enrich the chemotaxonomy value of P. sagittata in genus Persicaria.

    Keywords: Persicaria sagittata, Polygonaceae, Chemical Constituent, Antioxidant, Chemotaxonomy Significance
  • Farzane Tamimi, Abedin Vakili, Hossein Miladi Gorj, Mahdi Zahedi Khorasani * Page 8
    Background

    Some studies have shown therapeutic properties of Prangos ferulacea, but its effect on blood pressure (BP) is unidentified.

    Objectives

    So acute and chronic feeding effects of P. ferulacea on BP and its mechanism were evaluated in male rats.

    Methods

    Hydroalcoholic extract of P. ferulacea (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously and mean arterial BP and heart rate were measured. The mechanism of effect of the extract on BP was evaluated by intraperitoneal administration of L-NAME, atropine or indomethacin (4, 1, and 5 mg/kg, respectively) and then intravenous injection of extract (50 mg/kg). In addition, the extract (500 mg/kg/day) was given orally in L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day)-induced hypertensive rats during 4 weeks. Then anxiety behaviors and BP were assessed.

    Results

    Intravenous P. ferulacea reduced BP significantly (P < 0.01). There was a significant difference between the effect of 12.5 and 50 mg/kg of extract (P < 0.001). The effect of hypotension of the extract was eliminated by atropine and decreased by L-NAME. Chronic administration of L-NAME increased BP from 112 mmHg in the control group to 149 in hypertensive rats (P < 0.01), while the oral extract in these rats reduced BP to 119 mmHg (P < 0.01). The P. ferulacea had no effect on heart rate and anxiety behaviors in normal and hypertensive rats.

    Conclusions

    Intravenous P. ferulacea reduces BP, which may be via the muscarinic receptor. Oral P. ferulacea prevents BP augmentation induced by L-NAME. The P. ferulacea seems to be useful for prophylaxis of hypertension.

    Keywords: P. ferulacea, Hypertension, Rat, L-NAME, Atropine, Indomethacin
  • Sasan Dastaran, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei*, Siavash Parvardeh, Shiva Ghafghazi, Ali Pouramini Page 9
    Background

    Cerebral ischemia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of Multiple Sclerosis and psoriasis.

    Objectives

    In this study, the effect of DMF on memory and learning impairments and nitrosative stress after cerebral ischemia in rats, was evaluated.

    Methods

    Cerebral ischemia was induced via common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Rats were randomly divided into three groups (N = 5). Group I included Sham-operated animals who underwent surgery without arterial occlusions, group II (control ischemic) underwent surgery to induce transient global cerebral ischemia for 20 min and received 0.2 - 0.25 mL of distilled water, twice a day by oral gavage, group III included rats which underwent cerebral ischemia and then received DMF (15 mg/kg, twice daily, for 1 week) by oral gavage. Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory. Nitric oxide (NO) level in the hippocampus was measured using Griess test.

    Results

    Treatment of rats with DMF (15 mg/kg, orally, twice daily for 7 days) resulted in a significant decrease in escape latency during training trials. Besides, the time spent in the target quadrant and the number of crossings over the platform area were significantly increased in the DMF-treated rats which were accompanied by a decrease in the proximity to the platform in the probe trial. Furthermore, the results of the Griess assay indicated a significant reduction in the NO levels in the hippocampus of DMF-treated rats.

    Conclusions

    Overall, our findings indicate that DMF improves memory impairment induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats through the suppression of nitrosative stress in the hippocampus.

    Keywords: Dimethyl Fumarate, Cerebral Ischemia, Memory Deficit, Nitric Oxide
  • Atena Majidi, Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hojat Allah Arab, Zohreh Momeni, Ali Davoodi, Mohammad Azadbakht * Page 10
    Background

    Trichomonas vaginalis infectious disease is an important worldwide health problem. Although, several drugs especially metronidazole and tinidazole have been used in the treatment, their-resistant strains have been developed and unpleasant adverse effects exist. Garlic and other Allium species are old medicinal plants, which were used for infectious diseases, cardiovascular disorders and hair and skin cosmetic diseases.

    Objectives

    We aimed to compare the anti-trichomoniasis activities of three species of Allium.

    Methods

    The Trichomonas vaginalis strain was isolated from vaginal discharge of women with vaginitis symptoms and cultured in a modified TYM medium. After confirmation of herbarium of the plants, their extracts were prepared. For testing, 24 sterile plates were used. In all 24 homes, 200 μL of TYM were poured out. The tube containing the parasite, counting the number of angels with the aid of Neubauer slide and set to 500,000 per mL, was added to the amount of 100 μL to all wells. In order to investigate the anti-trichomoniasis of the plant, concentrations of 37.5, 75, 150, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 µg/mL of extract have been tested. For positive control, 50 mL of metronidazole, 50 μg/mL, was added to culture medium. In addition to, no herbal extract and metronidazole was added to the well of negative control.

    Results

    The leaf extract of bell circus with a concentration of 2000 μg/mL after 48 hours and boiled cabbage bulb onion at a concentration of 24 μg/mL and leaf extract of turmericum at a concentration of 1500 μg/mL in 48 hours and boiled horseradish onions at 48 μg/mL concentration in 24 hours could achieve 100% GI and significantly inhibit parasite growth. Leaf extract, boiled onions and essential oils inhibited the growth of Trichomonas parasites, were not as high as 100%.

    Conclusions

    According to the results obtained in our study, these Allium plants have inhibitory activity on growth of Trichomonas vaginalis parasite.

    Keywords: Allium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Gastro-Intestinal Tract, Infectious Disease, Plant