فهرست مطالب

Nutrition, Fasting and Health - Volume:8 Issue:1, 2020
  • Volume:8 Issue:1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Mehran Rahimlou, Amirhossoein Ramezani, Mina Mahdipour, Elahe Palimi, Bahman Moradipoodeh * Pages 1-16

    This meta-analysis and systematic review aimed to attain specific data on the effect of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) administration on muscle injuries and the indices of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after exercise. Literature search was performed in databases such as Scopus, ISI, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database (SID), Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL), and Cochrane library for the articles published until January 2017. The clinical trials examining the effects of BCAA administration on athletes were considered eligible. In total, 42 studies were evaluated in terms of eligibility, 26 of which were excluded from the meta-analysis. According to the meta-analysis, BCAA supplementation significantly reduced the levels of creatine kinase 24 hours post-exercise (mean difference: -129.55 [95% CI: -237.02--22.07] IU/l; P=0.018). However, BCAA administration could not decrease lactate dehydrogenase promptly (mean difference: -10.11 [95% CI: -21.76-1.53] IU/l; P=0.08) 24 hours post-exercise (mean difference: -14.66 [95% CI: -32.16-2.83] IU/l; P=0.10). Therefore, it could be concluded that BCAA consumption is inversely associated with DOMS at 24 hours (standardized mean difference [SMD] =-0.43 [95% CI: -0.71--0.16]; P=0.002), 48 hours (SMD=-0.55 [95% CI: -0.81--0.29]; P<0.0001), and 72 hours post-exercise (SMD=-0.44 [95% CI: -0.72--0.16]; P=0.002). Furthermore, the findings of the systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that BCAA supplementation could alleviate muscle damage within the first 24 hours after exercise, and it seems that the consumption of daily doses of BCAA is more effective in the recovery of athletes compared to the periodic doses.

    Keywords: BCAA, Muscle injury, DOMS, CK, Meta-analysis
  • Ramona Massoud, Anoosheh Sharifan *, Armita Massoud Pages 17-22
    Introduction

    Nearly one billion adult Muslims across the world refrain from eating, drinking, and smoking from dawn until dusk during the holy month of Ramadan. The duration of Islamic fasting varies depending on the coinciding season and geographical location. The present study aimed to review the health benefits of Islamic fasting. 

    Methods

    This review was carried out after searching in several databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Medline, PMC, Google Scholar and also the related articles. 

    Results

    Islamic fasting is along with many health benefits such as the reduced risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and cancer. Although, some health problems have mentioned during Islamic fasting like dehydration, headaches. 

    Conclusion

    According to the results of this review, religious fasting positively influences the body weight and lipid and glucose levels, while exerting antioxidative effects, increasing longevity, and improving the renal and immune function. The health benefits of fasting could be reinforced through the balanced intake of various nutrients, such as dairy products, fruits and vegetables, meat and fish, cereals, and grains, as well as beverages such as water and milk, during Ramadan.

    Keywords: Religious fasting, Ramadan, health, Soul, Body
  • Maryam Ghandehari, Zahra Dehnavi, Farkhondeh Razmpour, Mahsa Miryan, Davood Soleimani, Seyed Mostafa Parizadeh, Reza Jafarzadeh Esfehani, Majid Sedaghat, Habibollah Esmaily, Mohsen Nematy * Pages 23-27
    Introduction
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important health problem globally that characterized as a disease spectrum which includes simple steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The prevalence of NAFLD has significantly increased recently. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anthropometric parameters and hepatic steatosis.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was performed on 415 eligible participants. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated by standard methods and fat mass was measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed using FibroScan.
    Results
    Of the 415 participants, 308 (74.2%) had hepatic steatosis. Body mass index and waist circumference were significantly higher in patients with hepatic steatosis.  Hepatic steatosis had a significant and positive association with WC, body fat mass, and trunk fat mass. The trunk fat mass had the highest association with hepatic steatosis.  
    Conclusion
    The present study demonstrated that anthropometric measurements are related to increase hepatic steatosis even after adjustment for age and weight.
    Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Hepatic steatosis, transient elastography, FibroScan, Anthropometric
  • Shirin Assar *, Pegah Almasi, Afshin Almasi Pages 28-33
    Introduction
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory peripheral polyarthritis with unclear etiology. RA usually leads to joint deformity and cartilage destruction in joints of RA patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Islamic fasting on RA (rheumatoid arthritis) severity. 
    Methods
    A total number of 28 RA patients in an observational study were randomly divided into two groups. The duration of the study was from 2 weeks prior to start of Ramadan month in 2015 until one month after end of Ramadan. One group followed Islamic fasting during the Ramadan month and another group did not fast. The two groups were visited twice: first before Ramadan and the second time after Ramadan. The number of tender and swollen joints, DAS-28 score, patient-VAS, physician-VAS, and ESR and CRP values were recorded. 
    Results
    Mean (±SD) number of tender joints decreased from 1.36 (±1.94) to 0.42 (±0.85) in fasting group (P= 0.02). Mean (±SD) number of swollen joints decreased from 0.79 (±1.05) to 0.07 (±0.26) in fasting group (P= 0.02). DAS-28 and physician-VAS also showed significant decrease in fasting group only. Patient-VAS did not show significant decrease in either group. Mean (±SD) DAS-28 score decreased from 2.74 (±1.06) to 2.18 (±0.64) (P= 0.003) in fasting group. In contrast, mean (SD) DAS-28 score decreased from 2.71 (±0.8) to 2.27 (±1.01) (P= 0.24) in non-fasting group. 
    Conclusion
    Islamic fasting during the holy month of Ramadan was effective in decreasing RA severity, but further evidence is required to recommend this type of dietary intervention for RA patients.
    Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, fasting, Islamic fasting, Disease activity score, Joint
  • Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Mahsa Hajizadeh, Homa Ilkhanpour, Iraj Shahramian *, Ali Bazi, Gholamreza Kalvandi Pages 34-39
    Introduction
    Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is defined as a congenital malformation characterized with the interruption or obstruction of esophagus. Affected neonates may present with cyanosis during breast feeding, sialorrhea, coughing and difficulty in respiration. The defect should be corrected by surgery; otherwise, the condition can be life-threatening. Little is known about the long-term nutritional problems of children with EA. Our aim was to assess growth status and nutritional difficulties in children with EA. 
    Methods
    This was a retrospective study on 32 children with EA between 2007 and 2016. Nutritional status and feeding problems were assessed by a questionnaire. 
    Results
    The most common EA-associated complications were esophageal stricture (84.4%), dysphagia (46.9%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (37.5%), and respiratory infections (25%). Majority of our patients showed normal growth parameters, and 96.9% of them had experienced at least one complication or feeding problem including needing to drink water to swallow food (25%), coughing during feeding (34.4%), vomiting (12.5%), and abdominal pain (34.4%). There were no significant associations between feeding problems and growth parameters. 
    Conclusions
    Feeding problems are relatively common in children with EA. There is a need to provide nutritional consults to these patients to prevent or mitigate these problems.
    Keywords: Esophageal atresia, Feeding behavior, growth retardation
  • Marina Shariati *, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Gholam Reza Kaka, Shirin Zilaei Bouri Pages 40-47
    Introduction
    studies have shown that the increase of active oxygen species is associated with damage to bone cells and the role of exercise and vitamin D on bone health has been proven;the aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of aerobic exercise with vitamin D supplements on bone resorption markers in rats exposed to oxidative damage induced by H2O2.
    Methods
     Sixty male adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 10 groups of six rats including:1)1 mmol/kg H2O2, 2)2 mmol/kg H2O2, 3)1mmol/kg H2O2+vitamin D,4) 1mmol/kg H2O2+aerobic training,5)1mmol/kg H2O2+Vitamin D+aerobic training,6)2 mmol/kg H2O2+Vitamin D,7)2mmol/kg H2O2+aerobic training,8)2mmol/kg H2O2+Vitamin D+aerobic training;9)Sham (D-methyl- Sulfoxide+normal saline); and(10)control and for 8 weeks were under the protocol of intervention.The levels of TRACP/5B and NTX were measured by ELISA method. Two-way and one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test was used to analysis of data (p≤0.05).
    Results
    1and 2 mmol/kg H2O2 had no significant effect on NTX and TRACP/5B levels(p≥0/05). Eight weeks of aerobic training increased of NTX levels in rats exposed to 2mmol/kg H2O2 (p≤0/05).Eight weeks of Vitamine D had no significant effect on NTX and TRACP/5B levels (p≥0/05).Also eight weeks of aerobic training along with Vitamin D had no interactive effects on increase of NTX and TRACP/5B levels in rats exposed to 1and 2mmol/kg H2O2(p≥0/05).
    Conclusion
    It seems that doses of 1 and 2mg/kg H2O2 have not significant effect on changes in bone resorption markers,but aerobic exercise had a significant effect on NTX increase in rats exposed to oxidative damage induced by 2mg/kg H2O2.
    Keywords: Training, Vitamin D, Bone, H2O2
  • Hadi Razavi, Seyed Ali Hosseini *, Masoud Nikbakht Pages 48-54
    Introduction
    Obesity is known as a multifactorial physical disorder. On the other hand, regular sport exercises and crocin consumption have beneficial effects on obesity. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of eight weeks of swimming training with crocin consumption on neurotrophic factors in the heart tissue of obese rats. 
    Methods
    In this experimental study, 28 obese Sprague Dawley rats (24 g fat, 24 g protein and 41 g carbohydrates per 100 g) were selected randomly and divided in five groups of seven subjects, including: 1) control (receiving normal saline); (2) swimming training; (3) crocin consumption; and (4) swimming training with crocin consumption. Groups 2 and 4 performed swimming training for eight weeks, three sessions per week, and each session 30-60 minutes, and groups 3 and 4 daily received 25 mg / kg of crocin peritoneally. 
    Results
    Eight weeks of swimming training and swimming training with crocin consumption led to increased expression of BDNF in the heart tissue of obese rats (p≤0.05). Crocin consumption had a significant effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) increase in the heart tissue of obese rats (p ≤0.05). There was no significant difference in BDNF and NGF gene expression levels in the heart tissue of rats in the swimming training with crocin consumption group compared to the crocin consumption group (p ≥0.05). 
    Conclusion
    According to the results, swimming training, swimming training along with crocin consumption, and crocin consumption have the same effects on the increase of BDNF in the heart tissue of obese rats. Also, crocin consumption has a significant effect on increased expression of NGF in the heart tissue of obese rats
    Keywords: Crocin, Heart, Nerutrophins, Obesity, Training
  • Ramadan Fasting and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Women with Hypothyroidism
    Roghayeh Pakdel, Masoud Mohebbi, Nastran Rezaie, Mousa, Al, Reza Hadjzadeh * Pages 55-60
    Introduction
    According to some studies, Ramadan fasting causes minimal changes in the levels of thyroid hormones. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Ramadan fasting on the levels of thyroid hormones in fasting women with hypothyroidism and levothyroxine intake. 
    Methods
    Serum levels of free thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in 36 women with hypothyroidism aged 12-56 years, who fasted during Ramadan. Three blood samples were collected three days before Ramadan, on day 27 of Ramadan, and two months after Ramadan. In addition, the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit (HCT) were measured during and after Ramadan. 
    Results
    The serum level of free T4 significantly decreased during Ramadan compared to before Ramadan (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in the serum free T4 level before and after Ramadan. On the other hand, the TSH was higher during Ramadan compared to before Ramadan although the difference was not considered significant (normal range). TSH level reduced after Ramadan compared to during Ramadan, while no significant difference was denoted in the TSH level at the three measurement times. In addition, hemoglobin and HCT decreased significantly after Ramadan compared to during Ramadan. 
    Conclusion
    According to the results, Ramadan fasting could reduce the serum levels of free T4 in the women with hypothyroidism. However, only a slight increase was observed in the TSH levels, which was not considered significant. Further investigation is required regarding the changes caused by Ramadan fasting in the levels of hemoglobin and HCT.
    Keywords: Ramadan, fasting, Hypothyroid, Thyroid hormones
  • Ammar Salehi *, Amin Mokari, Masoume Dorosti, Aref Momeni, Hossein Jadidi Pages 61-66
    Introduction
    Nutrition as a modifiable risk factor that plays an important role in prevent or delay the onset of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess and compare physical activity, dietary fiber and sugar intake between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals.
    Methods
    The present case-control study was done on 225 cases of NFLD and 450 controls. International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Food Frequency questionnaire were used respectively to assess the physical activity level and dietary intake of individuals. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio ware calculated for the subjects. All data were analysed using SPSS version 21.0. 
    Results
    the result of our study showed that the physical activity level of NAFLD patients were lower than control group (P<0.05). For the insoluble dietary fiber, we observed a significant lower consumption in the case group as compared to the control group (P<0.05). The fructose, galactose, total sugar, and glucose variables showed significant increase in the case group (P<0.05).
    Conclusions
    Our results indicated that following unhealthy diet such as high consumption of simple carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, and galactose might be related to NAFLD. However, consuming dietary fiber and insoluble fiber may play protective roles in NAFLD.
    Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD, fiber, Sugar, Exercise
  • Maryam Ghasemi Hemami, Gholamreza Sharifi *, Farzaneh Taghian, Mehrdad Modaresi Pages 67-72
    Introduction
    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of pectin supplementation and 14 weeks of endurance training on the serum atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels and lipid profile of obese pregnant mice. 
    Methods
    This experimental study was conducted on 40 female laboratory mice (mean weight: 30+5 g), which were purchased from Tehran Pasteur Institute, Iran and received a high-fat diet with canola oil. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 10, including control, pectin intake, endurance training, and pectin intake with endurance training. Training was performed for11 weeks (five sessions per week) with the intensity of 30-65% MEA on the treadmill. After becoming pregnant, the exercise groups were trained on a treadmill for three weeks five days per week with the intensity of 20-60% MEA).In the pectin groups, 400 milligrams of pectin per every kilogram of the body weight was injected gavage during days 2-19 of pregnancy. Data analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov- Smirnov test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and least significant difference (LSD) test. 
    Results
    Maternal blood sampling was performed on day 19 of pregnancy to measure serum ANP, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, reduced carbohydrate (RC), and HDL levels. The ANP levels decreased in the pectin group, while it increased in the exercise and exercise with pectin groups (P=0.056); however, the difference was not considered significant. Moreover, the serum levels of TC (P=0.012), TG (P=0.029), LDL (P=0.049), LDL/HDL (P=0.011), and RC (P=0.043) Significantly decreased in all the experimental groups (P=0.05), while the HDL levels significantly increased in these groups. 
    Conclusion
    According to the results, pectin consumption and exercise could effectively decrease serum TC, TG, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, and RC and increase HDL.
    Keywords: Pectin, endurance traning, lipid profile, ANP