فهرست مطالب

Iranian Journal of Educational Sociology - Volume:3 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:3 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 18
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  • Maryam Faribi, Ali Derakhshan*, Mohammad Robati Pages 1-11
    Purpose

    The purpose of the study was to examine teachers’ perceptions towards research by first investigating teachers’ conceptions about research and second, by examining the extent to which teachers read and do research.

    Methodology

    To this end, the participants of the present study were 98 English language teachers from language institutes and schools. Utilizing Borg’s (2009) questionnaire, at first, the questionnaire responses were analyzed to determine the teachers’ view of research; in this section, the teachers were asked to point out to what extent they felt the activities described in 10 scenarios were or were not research.

    Findings

    The results indicated that three scenarios were considered to be “probably research” and scenarios 4, 5 and 6 were regarded as “definitely research” by the participants. On the other hand, two scenarios were recognized as “definitely research”. The results of the second research question showed that among 98 English teachers only 24 teachers “often or sometimes” read published research which is a very high index. Teachers’ reasons for the answers to the second research question were lack of time, knowledge, access to resources, and institutional support. The findings of this research indicate that teachers’ conceptions of research are very near to conventional scientific theories. Only 12.2% of the teachers mentioned that they “do research”.

    Conclusion

     the findings of the present study may be useful for teachers who want to promote their English teaching as such findings are suggested to improve their level of engagement in research activities, and consequently the quality of their research.

    Keywords: Research, EFL Teachers, Teachers’ Conceptions
  • Shokofeh Nikookar, Ghodsi Ahghar*, Amineh Ahamdi Pages 12-23
    Purpose

    The present study was designed and validated the Entrepreneurial Skills Model in Saze Gostar Saipa Industrial Company.

    Methodology

    The research method was purpose-based, applied-fundamental; in terms of data type, mixed (qualitative-quantitative), of exploratory type; it was survey-based on data collection method. Statistical population in the qualitative section was academic and industrial experts including senior managers of Sazeh Gostar Saipa Industrial Company. The statistical population in the quantitative part of the study included all employees of Saze Gostar Saipa Industrial Company. Using Cochran formula, 309 persons were selected using multi-stage sampling. In this research, library method, semi-structured interview (qualitative section) and researcher-made questionnaire (quantitative section) were used for data collection. Content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data of the research and in the quantitative part descriptive and inferential statistical methods (structural equation modeling, exploratory factor analysis and single sample t-test) were used.

    Findings

    The findings showed that entrepreneurial skills include technical, managerial, interpersonal, interpersonal, applied and critical thinking skills. The model presented in the present study was also well-fitted.

    Conclusion

    According to the findings of the study, it can be acknowledged that in order to acquire entrepreneurial skills in Saze Gostar Saipa Industrial Company, it is necessary to pay attention to the technical, communication and thinking skills of the employees and to train them.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Skills, Technical Skills, Management, Individual, Interpersonal, Practical, Critical Thinking
  • Leila Rostami, Rashid Zolfaghari Zafarani* Pages 24-33
    Purpose

    The purpose of the research was to identify the status of the influential components of citizenship education in the direction of cultural and social development of citizens.

    Methodology

    Mixed inferential method (qualitative - quantitative) was considered. Statistical population included all key informants, experts and managers of urban management and quantitative part of all youth between 18-25 years in Tehran. To select the samples in the qualitative part, snowball or chain sampling method was used to identify and select key informants and in the quantitative part, stratified random sampling method was used. Citizenship education and its role in the socio-cultural development of citizens was used and its validity and reliability were confirmed. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistical methods.

    Findings

    The findings of factor analysis showed that attention to strengthening of legalism, attention to strengthening the spirit of participation, attention to strengthening sense of responsibility, attention to strengthening self-confidence, attention to strengthening communication skills, attention to strengthening civil awareness. And

    Conclusion

    focusing on strengthening the problem-solving skills of naming is one of the influential factors in citizenship education for the cultural and social development of citizens. It's desirable.

    Keywords: Citizenship Education, Cultural Development, Social Development
  • Saeede Derogar, Najaf Tahmasebi Pour*, Sadegh Nasri Pages 34-43
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy education on students' responsibility.

    Methodology

    The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test with control group. The statistical population of this study was all female students of Shahid Sadeghi Secondary School (District 6) in Tehran during the school year of 2018-2019. The sample consisted of 30 students (15 experimental group, 15 control group) from those who had a lower than average deviation from the responsibility scale and were randomly selected and divided into two groups of 15 experimental and control groups. Were. The experimental group received 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy training while the control group did not receive any intervention. To measure the variables, Kordlow Liability Questionnaire (2008) was administered to both groups and data obtained from pre-test and post-test using multivariate analysis of covariance. And univariate analysis was performed.

    Findings

    The results of multivariate and univariate analysis of covariance showed that acceptance and commitment therapy education increased the students' responsibility in comparison with the control group in the post-test. (P <0.05).

    conclusion

    Therefore, it can be concluded that acceptance and commitment based training can be used to promote accountability and its components. Acceptance and commitment based therapy can be part of intervention programs in counseling centers. Schools should be targeted to increase accountability of target groups.

    Keywords: Acceptance, Commitment Therapy, Responsibility, and Students
  • Kolsoum Gholami*, Ebrahim Salehi Omran, Samad Izadi, Hojjat Saffar Heidari Pages 44-59
    Purpose

    The aim of this study was to develop a standard model of teachers' professional competence on the basis of high-level documents.

    Methodology

    This was an applied research in terms of purpose and was a sequential exploratory mixed study in terms of data collection. Data collection tools in the qualitative phase were the analysis of the content of high-level documents (Fundamental Reform Document of Education (FRDE), National Curriculum, Comprehensive Scientific Map of the Country, and 20-Year Perspective Document for Iran) to extract the components. In order to ensure the validity of the content analysis checklist, content and face validity method and expert opinion were used. The data in qualitative phase were analyzed through three open, axial and selective coding methods. The findings included 69 symbols in the open coding, where they were classified in the form of 4 concepts including recruitment, teacher education, teacher retention & promotion and evaluation in the axial coding. In the selective coding stage, a standard model of teachers' professional competence on the basis of high-level documents was developed. The research instrument in the quantitative phase was a researcher-made questionnaire derived from the qualitative results of the research. The face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts in the field of education. Confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, and divergent validity were used to evaluate the construct validity, and hybrid reliability was used to evaluate the construct reliability. As well as, in the quantitative phase of research, structural equations under Smart PLS software were used to evaluate the standard model of teachers' professional competence.

    Findings

    According to the results of t-statistic, all factor loadings were significant at 99% confidence level and played a significant role in developing the standard model of teachers' professional competence on the basis of high-level documents of Education.

    Conclusion

    The proposed model enjoyed an appropriate quality and was approved. Managers, teachers, and administrators in the education of teachers can employ the symbols, concepts, and categories identified in this study in their future planning to shape the teachers' professional competence.

    Keywords: Professional Competence, Teachers, High-Level Documents, Education
  • Bijan Zare, Mirnazir Mousavi* Pages 60-70
    Purpose

    The present study is a sociological study of the level of work commitment among teachers working in education in Maku city in West Azerbaijan province. Since one of the most important goals in the growth and development of society is its efficient workforce and human resources, so paying attention to this important resource is one of the duties of managers, officials and specialists to identify and identify relevant quality factors in the workforce. Maintain and enhance it and make employees committed to the organization.

    Methodology

    In this research, the required data were collected using the survey method and questionnaire technique. The statistical population of the study consisted of teachers working in three elementary, middle and high schools in Mikumi education, among whom 286 students were selected using Cochran sampling formula and using quota sampling.

    Findings

    After analyzing the data, the mean score of job commitment index was about 3.16 out of 5 and it was found that organizational participation, work attitude, perception of organizational justice, job motivation, management style, alienation from work, job satisfaction and job base with The dependent variable of work commitment had a significant relationship, but the underlying variables had no significant relationship with the dependent variable. The results of the multivariate regression test also showed that the remaining variables in the equation account for about 60% of the variance of the dependent variable of work commitment.

    Conclusion

    Exchange theories of tendency and tendency theories, which state that motivations have a great influence on people's behavior and behavior, are confirmed.

    Keywords: Perceptions of organizational justice, job motivation, Alienation from work, job commitment, job satisfaction
  • Fatemeh Khosravi, Tahmores Aghajani* Pages 71-77
    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of life skills training on coping strategies and psychological capital of adolescents.

    Methodology

    The research design was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with the control group. The statistical population of this study consisted of all female high school students in the 4th District of Tehran in the academic year of 1396-97. According to Cohen's table, the sample size was 30 people. The initial random sampling method was used, but the participants in the control and experimental groups were randomly assigned and 15 individuals in the experimental group and 15 in the control group were replaced. The measuring tools included Lazarus's Coping Strategies Scale (1985) and Lutz's Psychological Capital Scale (2007), which subjects completed before and after the life skills training program. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using Spss21 software at a significant level of 0.05.

    Findings

    The results showed that life skills training (14.3%) played a role in explaining the problem-focused coping strategy, but it was not effective in the emotion-focused coping strategy (P = 0.824). Life was 19.7% in explaining self-efficacy, 23.2% in explaining hope, and 17.1% in explaining the resilience of the experimental group. But the experiment group was not optimistic (P = 0.904).

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings, it can be concluded that life skills training has been effective in coping strategies and psychological capital of adolescents.

    Keywords: Life Skills Training - Stress Coping Strategies - Psychological Capital
  • Lida Rajabi Sangtarashani, Asodollah Mehrara* Pages 78-89
    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to present an applied model for implementing knowledge management training.

    Methodology

    The purpose of this study was applied, and the research method was descriptive-survey and cross-sectional. The statistical population of the study consisted of Mazandaran city managers with experience of management and selected public administration professors in the universities of Mazandaran province (Qualitative) as well as all official, contracted, contracted, volumetric and corporate staff of Sari municipality (quantitative) in summer 1977 (1255). The analysis was based on data collected from 10 mayors and 295 staff of qualitative and quantitative subjects, using stratified random sampling and Cochran's formula (for quantitative phase). Was. The sampling method was "Samples containing rich information" (for the qualitative stage) from the target population. Data were collected in a qualitative phase using semi-structured interviews based on data theory and in a quantitative phase using a designed questionnaire including 88 items based on 5-point Likert spectrum, collected through soft SPSS and AMOS were analyzed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and Friedman test were used for data analysis.

    Findings

    The results showed that the model of knowledge management training implementation includes 12 variables: organizational culture, organizational structure, information technology, human resources, knowledge process, leadership and leadership support, organizational learning, organizational strategies, communication, environment, It was motivation (benchmarking) and benchmarking.

    Conclusion

    Knowledge management as a process effectively utilizes the competencies, experiences, specialties, skills, talents, thoughts, ideas, actions and imaginations of individuals and integrates them into the organization's information resources to achieve its goals.

    Keywords: Knowledge management, organizational culture, human resources, organizational learning
  • Ali Karimi, Hassan Ahadi*, Hassan Asadzadeh Pages 90-99
    purpose

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching positive thinking skills on decreasing depression among female students of the Sabzevar University of Sabzevar.

    Methodology

     The study population consisted of all female students of Azad University of Sabzevar Branch in the academic year of 97-96, including 30 people who were selected using purposeful sampling. They were randomly assigned to the experimental group (15) and the control group (15 People) was replaced. The Beck Depression Inventory and Positive Thinking Training Package, which was set up in 9 sessions one and a half hours, was used to collect data.

    Finding

     The results of statistical analyses showed that teaching positive thinking skills with an effect size of 0.13 reduces students' depression. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the effect of teaching positive thinking skills on reducing depression (p <0.05).

    Conclusion

     At the end of the treatment sessions, students learned in both groups to choose their own behaviors in order to attain their demands, each of whom should choose responsible behaviors while maintaining ethical principles and applying optimistic, correct and responsible actions to Your wishes are also met. Teaching positive thinking skills creates a supportive and safe environment where students can experience a feeling of acceptance and psychosocial security, which brings greater compatibility and fewer conflicts.

    Keywords: Positive Thinking Skills, Depression, female Students
  • Mehdi Bargamadi, Hossein Mahdian*, Mohammad Yamini Pages 100-111
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of teaching Mindfulness and Working Memory on academic well-being, academic self-regulation and academic achievement motivation of second-grade secondary school students. The statistical population of this study includes all second-grade secondary school students in Sabzevar city during the academic year of 2017-2018. To collect data, Tuominen-Soini et al. Educational well-being Questionnaire (2012), Kanle and Royan Self-Regulatory Questionnaire (1987) and Abd Khodaie's Achievement Motivation Questionnaire (2008) were used.

    Methodology

    This research was a semi-experimental design with a pre-test and post-test design with the control group. A sample of 45 people who were lower in the three dependent variables who were willing to participate in the training sessions were selected and randomly assigned to two groups of test and one control group (each group was 15). Within one week of pre-test run for each of the three groups, one of the experimental groups was subjected to an independent variable of mindfulness education (8 sessions one and a half hours, weekly one session), and the second group was subjected to working memory training (20 Half-hour session, three sessions per week) and the control group did not receive any training. In this research, to analyze the differences between the groups, the variance analysis of variables of multiple and single variable variables was used, taking into account the intra-group (test) and intergroup (group membership) variables.

    Findings

    The results showed that training mindfulness and working memory training increased academic well-being, self-regulation and academic achievement motivation in students. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the effectiveness of mindfulness education and working memory training.

    Conclusion

    Training mindfulness is more effective in increasing academic well-being, academic self-regulation and academic achievement motivation

    Keywords: Working memory training, Mindfulness education, Educational well-being, Educational self-regulation, academic Achievement motivation
  • Mahshid Darabigi, Parisa Irannejad*, Ramazan Jahanian, Mojgan Abdollahi Pages 112-123
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to identify and rank the authentic leadership components in professors with humanistic approach in higher education organizations.

    Methodology

    The research method used in this study a combination of applied and fundamental approaches. The research method was qualitative. The statistical population of the study consisted of professors who were selected using theoretical saturation principle and purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were conducted through reviewing the theoretical foundations. To evaluate the validity of the tool, the researcher used two types of descriptive and interpretive methods and test-retest reliability and in-subject agreement method were used to calculate the reliability of the interviews. Both validity and reliability were confirmed. The method of data analysis was theoretical coding based on the data theorization method.

    Finding

    The results of the content analysis and foundation data method in the present study showed that the components of genuine leadership with a humanistic approach in higher education organizations include, respectively, management strategy components, intra-organizational trust, organizational culture, justice. Internal organization, organizational citizenship behavior, organizational support, empowerment, transparency in communication, self-awareness, balanced information processing, in the field of genuine leadership and empathy components, respect, reasoning, interpersonal relationships, authenticity, job passion, positive self-esteem, reinforcement Selfishness and self-efficacy were at the heart of humanism.

    Conclusion

    Professors who adopt the humanistic and managerial approach, who believe in inter-organizational justice and good citizenship behavior, empathize with others, and achieve interpersonal relationships with others, and in interpersonal relationships with others. They are transparent, will be empowered internally and externally, will be supported by others, and ultimately attain authenticity and prosperity.

    Keywords: Genuine Leadership, Humanism, Higher Education Organizations
  • Javad Heydarian, Alireza Chenari*, Kourosh Parsa Moin Pages 124-130
    Purpose

    The necessity, importance, and role of leadership in an organization is not hidden from anyone. The purpose of this article is to identify the components of servant leadership in the Tehran Martyrs' Martyrs and Sacrifice Affairs headquarters and provide a conceptual model based on it.

    Methology: This study was applied in terms of data collection and descriptive-survey data and in terms of mixed method which included first qualitative research and fuzzy Delphi method and then quantitative research method. Practical is in a specific field and applied research is directed towards practical application of knowledge. This research was conducted in 1977, considering the dimensions and components of the models proposed in the field of servant leadership to provide a model for organizations. The results were refined using Fuzzy Delphi method formulas gone.

    Findings

    The model of servant leadership components in the Martyrs and Martyrs Foundation of Tehran headquarters is presented in 8 dimensions: servitude, humility, trust, insight, empowerment, grouping, kindness, and altruism that determine servant leadership.

    Conclusion

    The model presented in this study can evaluate the components of servant leadership and considering the use of rich theoretical foundations in relation to the subject and comparing with different models and indicators to be measured and applying expert opinions, It is possible for organizations to present a leadership plan while analyzing the current situation and utilizing successful experiences.

    Keywords: Component, Leader, Servant Leadership
  • Hoda Amiri, Ahmad Akbari*, Toraj Sadeghi, Moslem Charabin Pages 131-141
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to identify early growth indices of general managers in order to present the growth pattern of general managers of Iranian provinces in the academic year of 2017-2018.

    Methodology

    To this end, the qualitative research approach and data arising theory (systematic design) have been the criterion for action in this study. The statistical population consisted of all heads of education provinces of Iran. Purposive sampling continued until the researcher saturated theoretically using a semi-structured interview with 14 sample members.

    Findings

    The results showed 16 main categories that were modeled as a paradigm model including: causal conditions (organizational factors; extra-organizational factors; individual traits), focal categories (leadership and management traits; individual traits), growth strategies (extras organizational factors, organizational factors; Individual factors), contextual factors (social factors, economic issues, cultural issues), intervening factors (organizational factors; individual factors) and outcomes (community; organizational factors; individual factors), using the results of theoretical and background studies Research and analysis of the content of interviews conducted, early indicators of modality development The whole thigh has been identified and included in three stages of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding of general manager maturity model in five main categories of causal conditions, pivotal phenomenon (general manager maturity model), general manager maturity strategies, intermediary conditions, and managerial maturity outcomes.

    Conclusion

    The professional development of principals leads to the implications that at the community level in the form of education and training of students, the formation of interaction with education and personal growth, growth, performance, communication, thinking and management and decision making, decision making. Finds and manages.

    Keywords: General Managers Growth, Foundation Data Theory, Ministry of Education
  • Explaining the Aesthetic Principles of Khaje Nasir and Rousseau's Thoughts to Develop an Artistic Pattern for Elementary Students
    Nehzat Safaei, Seyed Ahmad Hashemi*, Abbas Gholtash, Aliasghar Mashinchi Pages 143-151
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to explain the aesthetic foundations of Khaje Nasir and Rousseau's ideas in order to develop a model of artistic education for elementary students.

    Methodology

    Based on the stated purpose, the type of research is applied and its method is qualitative (quantitative). The study population in the qualitative section consisted of 17 experts using purposive sampling method and the target population in the quantitative section was 108 teachers of Bandar Kangan elementary school using proportional stratified random sampling method. . In order to collect the required information in the qualitative part, the deductive content analysis and structured interview were used and the researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The questionnaire was confirmed by content and face validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient and spss22 software were used to determine its reliability.

    Findings

    The findings obtained from the qualitative section were extracted in two general categories based on the aesthetic ideas of Khaje Nasir al-Din Tusi and Rousseau and 15 components. Accordingly, ethics, art, divine closeness, values, consciousness, perfection, nature, moral conscience, art, naturalism, community, intellect, aesthetic education are among the aesthetic elements of Khawaja Nasir al-Din Tusi and Rousseau's aesthetic elements. Similarly, structural equation technique using pls software showed that the above mentioned components are 0.95 at the significant level of 1.96 and these factors are effective in children's artistic education.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that artistic education of children is important and has aesthetic characteristics in the development of children which is clearly expressed in the thoughts of Khaje Nasir al-Din Tusi and Rousseau and can play an effective role in the development of humanity of children in all stages of individual life and Have their own community. The naturalistic approach of R. Usu and Khaje Nasir enables students to be more careful about the nature of individuals and to see the sophistication and sophistication of nature and to enhance artistic talent in different fields.

    Keywords: Aesthetics, Thoughts, Khaje Nasir al-Din Tusi, Rousseau, Art Education, Elementary Students
  • Identifying total rewards from the perspective of knowledge workers, with emphasis on learning and development strategies.
    Hadise Khorrami, Hamidreza Arasteh*, Abdolrahim Navehebrahim, Bijan Abdollahi Pages 152-163
    Purpose

    The main purpose of this study was to identify the components of SMEs' knowledge rewards, and based on other components, learning and development strategies were developed based on the obtained components.

    Methodology

    The present study was a descriptive survey in terms of purpose and method of data gathering and was mixed in terms of research method. Therefore, in the qualitative part, using semi-structured interviewing tool with 15 human resources experts and stakeholders Interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and a model was designed by combining them. Then, the model was tested by a researcher-made questionnaire and sample of 162 SMEs in Tehran, using quantitative structural equation research method with LISREL software and then to formulate strategies and strategies related to learning and learning. The paired t-test and SPSS software were used for development. Reliability of qualitative part of Holstein method was 0.83% and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.81.

    Findings

    The findings showed that 22 sub-components of comprehensive reward factors were identified, all of which had appropriate factor loadings and the model was confirmed. Among the non-material dimensions of learning and development, it was the most important factor and in explaining learning and development strategies, the highest gap was observed in education, which was the first and foremost strategies in this field.

    Conclusion

    The findings of the study confirm the relationship of each of the material and non-material components to the concept of comprehensive reward, but the most important is the importance of the material components to the comprehensive reward. In the payment component, cash awards and in benefits, the benefits of flexibility had the highest impact, but among the non-material components that were secondary to the overall reward, the highest impact was on the learning and development component, which included performance evaluation. It matters the most. Non-material factors were expected to be of high priority for knowledge workers, but this was not favorable to the statistical population.

    Keywords: Financial rewards, non-financial rewards, total rewards, knowledge workers, learning, development
  • Design and validation of a model for improvement of in-service training evaluation system of Khuzestan University of Medical Sciences staff
    Forogh Peymanfard, Alireza Assare*, Gholam Hosein Barekat, Mohamad Hoseinpor Pages 164-170
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to design and validate a model for improving in-service training of medical university staff.

    Methodology

    This research is an applied type of qualitative-quantitative research. The study population consisted of 15 elites who were selected through purposive sampling and in the quantitative section of 380 persons by stratified random sampling with proportional allocation among staff of Khuzestan University of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through structured interviews and a researcher-made questionnaire that was implemented in qualitative and quantitative sections, respectively. The findings showed that organizational development, role of instructor, assigned tasks, professional skill, training facilities, content, attitude to training, trust building, knowledge of elites and experts were among the influential components in in-service training.

    Findings

    Findings related to Structural Equation Technique using pls software also showed that all the above-mentioned components were significantly higher than the value of 1.96 at the significant level of 0.95. In other words, these components are highly influential in evaluating in-service education from the perspective of course learners.

    Conclousion

    The findings also showed that the improvement of in-service training evaluation system plays an important role in the effectiveness of the workforce as well as the proper training of human resources in the direction of achieving the goals of the system of managers in the Medical Sciences University.

    Keywords: Improving Evaluation System, In-Service Training, Staff, University of Medical Sciences
  • The relationship between social capital and quality of life with job satisfaction of teachers
    Sadegh Ahmadi Pages 171-180
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social capital and quality of life with job satisfaction of teachers.

    Methodology

    The present study was a descriptive correlational one in terms of purpose and method of data collection. The target population of this study was the teachers of Tehran city in 1998-99. 180 individuals were selected through multistage cluster random sampling. Data were collected using the Gannon Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (1981), Nachapithe and Guchal Social Capital Questionnaire (1998), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (1996).

    Findings

    The results showed that social capital and quality of life had a significant positive relationship with teachers' job satisfaction. Also, structural capital, communication capital and cognitive capital and quality of life significantly predicted 48% of teachers' job satisfaction (P <0.05).

    Conclusion

    The results of the study showed that social validity and validity, which are the major components of teachers 'social capital, determine the quality of life and will lead to teachers' job motivation and job satisfaction.

    Keywords: Social Capital, Job Satisfaction, Quality of Life, Teachers
  • Comparison of the efficacy of trans-cranial magnetic stimulation and cognitive-behavioral therapy on depression
    Alireza Salemi Khamene, Saeed Bakhtiari Pour*, Farah Naderi, Alireza Heidari, Parvin Ehteshamzadeh Pages 181-190
    Purpose

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (tms) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (cbt) in patients with depression in Tehran.

    Methodology

    The purpose of the present study is to apply the pre-test and post-test with control group in terms of semi-experimental research method. The study sample consisted of 60 clients with depression who had been diagnosed by the Psychiatric Commission and admitted to psychology clinics in 2015. They were selected by random sampling and were randomly divided into three groups (two experimental and one control group) in each group of 20 persons. . Experimental groups in one group underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy for 12 sessions and the other group underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation for 20 sessions. Control group received no intervention. Data were analyzed using covariance analysis.

    Findings

    The results showed that there was a significant difference between transcranial magnetic stimulation and cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing depression in clients (P <0.01).

    Conclusion

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy are effective in reducing depression in patients referred to psychiatric clinics.

    Keywords: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Therapy, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Depression