- سال یازدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 21، بهار و تابستان 1398)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/11
- تعداد عناوین: 9
پدیدارشناسی ماهیت فرصت های کارآفرینانه مبتنی بر تجارب زیسته کارآفرینان در کسب وکارهای حوزه سلامت کشورصفحات 1-26
هدف از پژوهش حاضر پر کردن شکاف بنیادی در باب دوگانگی ماهیت فرصت در مبانی نظری کارآفرینی و ارائه یک تفسیر پدیدارشناسانه از ماهیت فرصتهای کارآفرینانه مبتنی بر تجارب زیسته کارآفرینان حوزه سلامت کشور است. روش شناسی پژوهش پدیدارشناسی هرمنوتیک است. نمونه مورد بررسی متشکل از سیزده کارآفرین در حوزه های دارویی، تجهیزات پزشکی، زیست فناوری پزشکی، سلامت هوشمند و سه سیاستگذار حوزه سلامت کشور است. روش گردآوری داده ها مصاحبه های عمیق و نیمه ساختاریافته و روش تحلیل داده ها رویکرد تحلیلی پدیدارشناسانه تفسیری است. یافته های پژوهش از ماهیت بین الاذهانی دربردارنده ابعاد درون زا، برون زا و تعاملی فرصت های کارآفرینانه منبعث از تجربه زیسته کارآفرینان در زیست بوم کارآفرینی سلامت کشور حکایت دارد که در پنج حوزه شامل پیش ساختارهای ادراکی فرد، توانمندسازهای کلان محیطی، توانمندسازهای خرد محیطی، کنش و تعاملات برگرفته از توانمندسازهای بیرونی و کنش و تعاملات مبنی بر پیش ساختارهای ادراکی تفسیر شده است. یافته های پژوهش می تواند راهگشای کارآفرینان خبره، بالقوه و نوپای عرصه سلامت در حوزه تداوم نوآوری، برتری رقابتی و موفقیت در عرصه ملی و بین المللی گردد. همچنین نهادهای دولتی و خصوصی متولی امر سلامت کشور را در تبیین الزامات پیش روی کشور در بعد توسعه سلامت یاری رساند.کلیدواژگان: کارآفرینی سلامت، فرصت کارآفرینانه، ماهیت، پدیدارشناسی هرمنوتیک، تجربه زیسته
امروزه توجه به اخلاق حرفه ای و پیامدهای آن، از اساسی ترین موضوعات پژوهشی در حوزه های سازمانی است. با توجه به اینکه اخلاق حرفهای و جو اخلاقی میتوانند بر کیفیت برآیندهای سازمانی اثرگذار باشند، هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه اخلاق حرفه ای بر عملکرد شغلی و اعتماد با میانجیگری جو اخلاقی در سازمان هلال احمر استان تهران است. این تحقیق کاربردی و روش آن توصیفی از نوع همبستگی است. جامعه آماری حدود 470 نفر از کارکنان سازمان هلال احمر تهران بوده که از این تعداد، 198 نفر بهعنوان نمونه آماری بهصورت تصادفی، جهت مطالعه انتخاب گردید. دادهها از طریق پرسشنامه های استاندارد جو اخلاقی، اعتماد، عملکرد و اخلاق حرفه ای جمع آوری گردید. بهمنظور تجزیهوتحلیل آماری روابط بین متغیرهای پژوهش از آزمون همبستگی پیرسون و از مدل معادلات ساختاری توسط نرمافزار LISREL استفاده شد. بین متغیرهای اخلاق حرفهای با عملکرد شغلی و اعتماد سازمانی رابطه مثبت و معنی دار وجود دارد. اخلاق حرفهای با جو اخلاقی رابطه مستقیم دارد. همچنین بین جو اخلاقی با عملکرد شغلی و اعتماد سازمانی رابطه مثبت و معنی دار وجود دارد. بر مبنای نتایج این پژوهش، با زمینهسازی برای اخلاق حرفه ای و جو اخلاقی در سازمان میتوان باعث ارتقای اعتمادسازی و عملکرد شغلی در کارکنان شد و این چنین با اتخاذ تصمیمات منطقی و خردمندانه منافع بلندمدت سازمان را تضمین کرد.کلیدواژگان: اخلاق حرفه ای، عملکرد شغلی، اعتماد سازمانی، جو اخلاقی
مدیریت محیط پویای اقتصادی مستلزم توجه سازمانها به اهمیت توسعه رهبری تحولگراست؛ زیرا این رهبران نقش فوقالعادهای در فرآیند ایجاد سرمایه انسانی و سایر ابعاد سرمایه فکری برای مدیریت و اعمال تغییرات و بهتبع آن، بهبود عملکرد سازمانی دارند. بااینوجود، مطالعات اندکی برای ایجاد یک چارچوب مفهومی برای درک روابط فوق ایجاد شده است. بدین منظور، ما یک الگوی نظری را برای تبیین چگونگی ارتباط ابعاد سرمایه فکری و نقش میانجی آنها در ارتباط بین رهبری تحولی و عملکرد را توسعه میدهیم. در این مطالعه، دامنه سرمایه فکری شامل سرمایه انسانی، سرمایه اطلاعاتی، ساختاری و ارتباطی است. برای این منظور، 368 نفر از مدیران میانی و ارشد کسبوکارهای کوچک و متوسط فعال در صنعت غذایی واقع در شهرکهای صنعتی سراسر کشور با روش نمونهگیری خوشهای چند مرحلهای انتخاب و پرسشنامههای استاندارد بین آنها توزیع گردید. در تجزیهوتحلیل دادهها، از نرمافزار لیزرل 8.5 بهمنظور سنجش تاثیر متغیرها استفاده شد. نتایج نشان میدهد سبک رهبری تحولگرا، پتانسیل قابلملاحظهای در درک مزایای سرمایه انسانی در بین کارکنان دارد، و مهمتر اینکه سرمایه انسانی بهواسطه تاثیر بر سایر اجزای سرمایه فکری، پیشران و مهمترین عنصر این سازه محسوب میگردد. درنهایت شواهد حاکی از آن است که تنها متغیر سرمایه ارتباطی است که تاثیر مستقیم و معناداری بر عملکرد کسبوکارهای فعال در صنعت غذایی کشور دارد.کلیدواژگان: رهبری تحول گرا، سرمایه فکری، عملکرد، کسب و کار های کوچک و متوسط
پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر معنویت در محیط کار بر برخی از متغیرهای رفتار سازمانی همچون شادی سازمانی، رفتار ضد شهروندی و صداقت و اعتماد در بین کارکنان شرکت گاز استان قم انجام شده و از نوع توصیفی همبستگی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را کارکنان شرکت گاز استان قم که در زمان انجام پژوهش 250 نفر بودند، تشکیل میدهند. از این تعداد 200 نفر به روش نمونه گیری طبقهای متناسب با حجم، به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. برای جمع آوری داده ها از پرسشنامه ای محقق ساخته استفاده گردید که روایی آن به دو صورت محتوایی و سازه و پایایی پرسشنامه با استفاده از روش آلفای کرونباخ تایید شد. تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها بر مبنای الگوسازی معادلات ساختاری و با استفاده از نرم افزارهای AMOS 20 صورت گرفت. نتایج آزمون فرضیه های پژوهش نشان داد که معنویت در محیط کار بر صداقت و اعتماد بین کارکنان تاثیر مستقیم و معنا داری دارد. همچنین معنویت در محیط کار بر رفتار ضد شهروندی تاثیر معکوس و معناداری دارد. به علاوه معنویت در محیط کار بر شادی سازمانی تاثیر مستقیم و معناداری دارد و معنویت در محیط کار از طریق نقش میانجی گری رضایت شغلی بر رفتار ضد شهروندی تاثیرگذار است. بر اساس یافتههای پژوهش حاضر میتوان نتیجه گیری نمود که معنویت در محیط کار میتواند تاثیر مثبتی بر روی برخی از متغیرهای مثبت و تاثیر کاهشی بر برخی متغیرهای منفی رفتار سازمانی داشته باشد.کلیدواژگان: معنویت در محیط کار، شادی سازمانی، صداقت و اعتماد، رفتار ضد شهروندی سازمانی، رضایت شغلی
بررسی تاثیر پیشرفت شغلی، فلات زدگی شغلی، تعهد عاطفی، دل بستگی شغلی و فرسودگی شغلی بر ادراک کارکنان از عدالت سازمانی و تمایل به ترک خدمتصفحات 105-132
پژوهش حاضر باهدف بررسی تاثیر پیشرفت شغلی، فلات زدگی، تعهد عاطفی، دلبستگی و فرسودگی شغلی بر ادراک کارکنان از عدالت سازمانی و تمایل به ترک خدمت به روش همبستگی انجام شد. نمونه این پژوهش از بین جامعه آماری کارکنان دانشگاه اصفهان با روش نمونهگیری تصادفی طبقه ای مبتنی بر سهم به تعداد 291 نفر انتخاب شد. داده ها با استفاده از پرسشنامه جمعآوری شد و روایی صوری، محتوایی، سازه و پایایی پرسشنامهها تائید گردید. یافته های پژوهش حاکی از آن بود که بین متغیر های پیشرفت کارکنان، تعهد عاطفی، دلبستگی شغلی بر ادراک از عدالت سازمانی تاثیر دارد. ولی فلات زدگی شغلی و فرسودگی شغلی بر ادراک از عدالت سازمانی تاثیر معناداری مشاهده نشد. همچنین بین متغیرهای پیشرفت کارکنان، تعهد عاطفی، دلبستگی شغلی، فرسودگی شغلی و فلات زدگی شغلی با تمایل به ترک خدمت نیز رابطه معناداری وجود نداشت. اثر متغیر های فلات زدگی شغلی و فرسودگی شغلی بر متغیر ادراک از عدالت سازمانی به لحاظ آماری معنادار نبود. ولی اثر پیشرفت شغلی، تعهد عاطفی، دلبستگی شغلی بر ادراک از عدالت سازمانی به لحاظ آماری در سطح 05/0>p معنادار بود. اثر متغیرهای فلات زدگی شغلی، پیشرفت شغلی، تعهد عاطفی، دلبستگی شغلی و فرسودگی شغلی بر تمایل به ترک خدمت معنادار نبود. یافتهها همچنین نشان داد متغیر جنسیت در رابطه بین فلات زدگی شغلی، دلبستگی شغلی و فرسودگی شغلی با ادراک از عدالت سازمانی، نقش تعدیل گری ایفا نمی کند ولی براثر متغیر تعهد عاطفی بر ادراک از عدالت سازمانی بهطور نسبی تعدیلکننده است. متغیر جنسیت اثر متغیر پیشرفت شغلی بر ادراک از عدالت سازمانی را تعدیل می کند و این تعدیل گری در حد متوسط به بالا برآورد شد.کلیدواژگان: فلات زدگی شغلی، تعهد عاطفی، دل بستگی شغلی، فرسودگی شغلی، ادراک از عدالت سازمانی، تمایل به ترک خدمت
ازآنجاکه رفتار سازمانی نوین و عملکرد سازمانی با پیچیدگیهایی روز افزون مواجه است، آشنایی بیشتر مدیران و کارکنان سازمان ها با این پیچیدگیها و در نتیجه تلاش در راستای افزایش عملکرد منابع انسانی ضروری است. لذا پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر کار عاطفی بر عملکرد شغلی با توجه به نقش تعدیل گری حمایت سازمانی، حمایت مدیریت و حمایت همکار در سال 1396 در بین کارکنان یک سازمان عمومی در شهر مشهد انجام شده است. بدین منظور نمونه ای شامل 376 نفر از کارکنان به روش نمونهگیری تصادفی طبقه ای انتخاب و بهمنظور جمع آوری اطلاعات، پرسشنامه استانداردکار عاطفی، عملکرد شغلی، حمایت سازمانی، حمایت مدیریت و حمایت همکار توزیع شد. روایی محتوایی پرسش نامه با استفاده از نظر خبرگان و روایی سازه آن با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ضریب آلفای کرونباخ بزرگتر از70% برای سازههای مختلف پرسشنامه، پایایی آن را مورد تایید قرار داد. از روش مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری برای آزمون فرضیهها استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از این بود که اقدام عمیق و سطحی به ترتیب برابر با 141/0 و 146/0 بر عملکرد شغلی اثر گذار هستند که هر دو در سطح اطمینان 95/0 معنادار میباشند. علاوه بر این نتایج حاصل از بررسی نقش تعدیل گر حمایت مدیریت، حمایت همکار و حمایت سازمانی نیز بیانگر تایید نقش تعدیل گری این متغیرها در رابطه بین اقدام عمیق و اقدام سطحی با عملکرد شغلی می باشند.کلیدواژگان: کار عاطفی، عملکرد شغلی، حمایت سازمانی، حمایت مدیریت، حمایت همکار، سازمان عمومی
بررسی رابطه متقابل مولفه های مدیریت دانش و توانمندسازی روان شناختی کارکنان شرکت نفت مناطق مرکزی ایرانصفحات 153-180
پژوهش حاضر به بررسی رابطه متقابل مولفههای مدیریت دانش و توانمندسازی روانشناختی کارکنان شرکت نفت مناطق مرکزی ایران با استفاده از روش دیمتل پرداخته است. نوع تحقیق، کاربردی بوده و از بعد روش، توصیفی - پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را صاحبنظران شرکت نفت مناطق مرکزی ایران تشکیل میدهند و حجم نمونه با استفاده از روش حد اشباع نظری تعداد 15 نفر در نظر گرفته شده است. ابزار پژوهش شامل پرسشنامه ماتریسی دیمتل بوده است. بهمنظور بررسی پایایی از آزمون مجدد استفاده شده است که ضریب همبستگی بین نتایج حاصل از نوبت اول با نوبت دوم، مقدار 87 / 0 محاسبه گردیده و پایایی پرسشنامه مورد تائید قرار گرفته است. برای شناسایی و نهاییسازی مولفهها از نظر خبرگان استفاده شده و علاوه بر آن از آنجا که در روش مقایسات زوجی ارتباطات تمامی عوامل با هم سنجیده میشوند، پرسشنامه از روایی قابل قبولی برخوردار است. بررسی نتایج نشان داد که در تاثیرگذاری با شدت تاثیر بالای 70 درصد، تاثیرگذارترین عامل کاربرد دانش است. از نظر شدت تاثیرگذاری مولفههای مدیریت دانش، به ترتیب مولفههای کاربرد دانش و ایجاد دانش بودهاند که بیشترین تاثیرگذاری را داشتهاند. همچنین در میان مولفههای مدیریت دانش، مولفه کاربرد دانش موثرترین مولفه بوده و بیشترین تعداد تاثیرگذاری را نیز بر مولفههای ایجاد، پالایش و انتشار دانش داشته است. دو متغیر توانمندسازی و ثبت دانش بااینکه در رده متغیرهای تاثیرگذار هستند، ولی در دامنه تاثیرگذاری بسیار بالا قرار نداشتهاند. بهعلاوه متغیر توانمندسازی و مولفه ثبت دانش بر مولفه پالایش دانش به ترتیب با شدت 514 / 2 و 602 / 2 دارای تاثیرگذاری نسبتا بالایی هستند.کلیدواژگان: مدیریت دانش، توانمندسازی روان شناختی، روش دیمتل، صنعت نفت
پژوهش حاضر با هدف طراحی مدل اثرگذاری همآوایی استراتژی سازمان با استراتژی های بخشی (منابع انسانی، فناوری اطلاعات، مالی، تحقیق و توسعه) بر عملکرد سازمانی با توجه به ساختار و فرهنگ سازمانی همسنگ با استراتژیها، در یک شرکت لبنیاتی انجام شد. رویکرد روششناختی این پژوهش آمیخته بوده و ابتدا با تکنیک تحلیل تم و با استفاده از مصاحبه نیمهساختاریافته با 18 تن از خبرگان، الگوی تحلیلی استخراج شده است و در ادامه با تنظیم پرسشنامه مستخرج از الگوی تحلیلی، مدل پژوهش به روش مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری برازش و ارتباط بین سازهها بررسی شده است. جامعه آماری فاز کمی، 85 نفر از مدیران، معاونین و مسئولین واحدهای شرکت بودهاند. یافتههای پژوهش در فاز اول نشان داد، همآواییاآوایی راهبردی در یک مدل ساختاری بر عملکرد با توجه به نقش ساختار و فرهنگ اثرگذار بوده است. با توجه به این مدل، فرضیاتی مطرح شده است که نتایج بررسی این فرضیات حاکی از آن است که تمامی فرضیهها تایید شده و همچنین مدل پیشنهادی نیز برازش خوبی داشته است. یافتهها نشان میدهد، حدود 70 % تغییرات عملکرد سازمانی شرکت، توسط ساختار، فرهنگ سازمانی و همآوایی راهبردی قابل پیشبینی و تبیین است. دانشافزایی این پژوهش در جامعیت تحلیل عوامل موثر بر عملکرد سازمانی است که هم از بعد محتوایی (همآوایی راهبردی) و هم از بعد ساختاری (فرهنگ و ساختار سازمانی) این کار صورت پذیرفته است. پیشنهاد میشود مدیران شرکتها، صرفا به تدوین برنامه راهبردی اقناع نشده، بلکه به سمفونی بین برنامههای راهبردی و همچنین همافزایی آن با ساختار سازمانی و فرهنگ سازمانی به طور همزمان اهتمام ورزند.کلیدواژگان: هم آوایی راهبردی، ساختار سازمانی، فرهنگ سازمانی، عملکرد سازمانی
Phenomenological interpretation of the nature of entrepreneurial opportunities based on lived experiences of entrepreneurs in healthcare business contextPages 1-26INTRODUCTION
The entrepreneurship is predominantly described as a process involves the nexus of two phenomena: ‘the presence of lucrative opportunities and the presence of individuals who create these opportunities. This framework has directed the scholarly domain of entrepreneurship by the way of focusing on the interplay between entrepreneurial opportunities and the individuals who discover, conceive, create or pursue those opportunities. However, the field of entrepreneurship has faced with disagreement over the ‘nature of the construct of entrepreneurial opportunities. Generally, there have been two different ontological approaches of realism and subjectivism about this construct. From the practical perspective, during recent decades there has been an on-going debate in developing countries regarding the healthcare industry as a leverage for national and international development. The healthcare industry is currently among those thriving areas of entrepreneurship in Iran as a developing economy. The review of academic literature in healthcare context indicated that few studies focused exclusively on the entrepreneurship in this context. Mainly, the existence of business opportunities which are highly reliant upon the entrepreneurs has been neglected in this field. Present research fills this gap in the literature by interpreting the nature of entrepreneurship in the healthcare context on the basis of the intersubjective meanings comes from the articulation of the entrepreneurs about their interaction in shaping the nature of their surrounding business environment. Such an interpretation achieves by applying qualitative contextualize methodology of the hermeneutical phenomenology. Hermeneutical interpretation of entrepreneurial opportunity simultaneously entails the lived experiences of entrepreneurs in earning their livelihood, along with their interaction with the environment, and the pre-existence and independence nature of opportunity which is embedded in the economic, historical ,sociocultural context.
Reviewing the theoretical foundation of entrepreneurship indicated that significant progress has been made in the last few decades about the theoretical construction of entrepreneurial opportunities. However, the field of entrepreneurship has faced with a disagreement over the ‘nature of the entrepreneurial opportunities. Generally, there have been two different ontological approaches to this construct. The first is the realist position which assumes the opportunities as the reality formed by exogenous shocks in the pre-existing environment, waiting to be discovered by the conscious entrepreneurs. The second is the subjective position which assumes it as the social construction which is endogenously enacted by the creative imaginations perceptions and activities of the entrepreneurs. Both of these alternative views approve the importance of entrepreneurial opportunity in entrepreneurship and both have provided considerable knowledge about the nature of this concept.METHODOLOGY
The qualitative methodology of interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology was selected to gain a deeper understanding of participant’s lived experiences in the context of healthcare entrepreneurship. The study designed in both research design and analysis based on the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). It’s an appropriate way to explore the personal, interpersonal and sociocultural participants' perceptions. Research sample included 13 entrepreneurs from healthcare enterprises in the pharmaceutical, medical devices, medical biotechnology, smart health context, besides 3 health policy makers which were interviewed using semi-structured interviews.RESULTS & DISCUSSION
The findings emerged from the interviews consist of 642 meaning units, 489 clusters of meaning, 56 master-themes, 16 meta-themes, and finally 5 overall themes which indicate the nature of entrepreneurial opportunities in healthcare context. The five final themes are: (1) the perceptional pre-structures of individual; (2) the environmental empowerments in macro levels; (3) environmental empowerments in micro levels; (4) the entrepreneur's interactive based on the perceptional pre-structures; (5) the entrepreneur's interactive based environmental empowerments. This study makes several contributions to the understanding of the nature of entrepreneurial opportunities in the healthcare context. First, the findings of this research indicate the value and importance of the technological, sociocultural, juridical and institutional conditions, also, the market structures of the healthcare context of developing countries in the success of the healthcare entrepreneurs. Second, the significance of our findings heightens by the research's focus on the independent and efficient entrepreneurs of healthcare context and their contributions to the emergence and the development of the prominent business opportunities in the healthcare industry. Third, present investigation contains the multiple levels of analysis and explicitly indicated the individual, venture along with relevant macro and micro characteristics of the business environment as the essential parts of the healthcare entrepreneurial opportunities.Keywords: Healthcare Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Opportunity, Nature, Hermeneutic Phenomenology, Lived Experience
An Analysis of the effect of professional ethics on organizational performance and trust through the mediating role of ethical climatePages 27-56INTRODUCTION
Today, attention to professional ethics and its implications is one of the most fundamental research topics in the organizational field. Considering that professional ethics and ethical climate can affect the quality of organizational outcomes, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between professional ethics on organizational performance and trust by mediating role of the ethical climate in the Red Crescent Organization of Tehran Province.
Ethical behavior is one of the important issues of all organizations that can be affected by many factors, including intellectual capital. In organizations, what they know (intellectual capital) is more than what they are (material capital); on the other hand, organizations are increasingly engaging in ethical conundrum, the conditions that the professional ethics and existing ethical climate should be paid Special attention. stated that in the past two decades, extensive research has focused on the ethical climate of the organization, most notably by Coulen et al. Research on organizational ethical climate is relatively new and has attracted the attention of many researchers. In 2007, an investigation was conducted among managers of business, industrial and transportation company, which showed that the types of organizational ethical climate on various dimensions of job satisfaction (satisfaction with payment, promotion, co-workers, supervisor, and job) has a positive effect. Also, this research showed that organizational ethical climate types have a positive effect on different kinds of organizational commitment , organizational identity, involvement and loyalty. One of the consequences of behavioral and attitudinal outcomes resulting from ethical climate is job satisfaction, which is one of the most significant variables in the field of organizational psychology and management. job satisfaction refers to the general attitude of the individual about the job. In another study, Enayati and Hajji Zeinali's findings in 2013 showed that the status of organizational trust and work ethics is in a desirable level and there is a positive relationship between organizational trust and its components with work ethic. In the relationship between professional ethics and employee performance, some researches have recommended that, in order to improve knowledge management and employee engagement, it is necessary to focus on the establishment of ethical and professional workplaces. in another research, considered Expression of Organizational Existence and trust as factors involved in mental and physical health. The results showed that high levels of expression Existence have a significant positive correlation with excessive work and a negative correlation Has a significant psychological and physical health. showed that the organizational climate directly and indirectly affects social capital and has a positive and significant effect on job performance also social capital has a positive and direct effect on Job performance. Also, indicated that the performance and the willingness to leave were affected by organizational ethical climate and its dimensions.
So in this research, we examine these hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1: Professional ethics has a direct relationship with ethical climate.
Hypothesis 2: Professional ethics has an indirect relationship with performance through ethical climate.
Hypothesis 3: Professional ethics has a direct relationship with organizational trust.
hypothesis 4: Professional ethics has an indirect relationship with organizational trust through ethical climate.
hypothesis 5: Professional ethics has direct relationship with performance.
Hypothesis 6: The ethical climate has a direct relationship with organizational trust.
hypothesis 7: The ethical climate has a direct relationship with performance.METHODOLOGY
This research is an applied study in terms of its purpose and based on its method is descriptive. The population of this study was 470 employees of the Red Crescent Organization of Tehran that 198 employees were selected randomly as a statistical sample. Data were collected through questionnaires including ethical climate, organizational trust, organizational performance and professional ethics based on the Likert 5 range. in this study Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test normal. Considering that the level of distribution of variables in the organization is more than 5%, the distribution is normal. in this research, Cronbach's alpha test was used to examine the reliability of the research tool
All structures have a Cronbach's Alpha higher than 0.7. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, content validity and exploratory factor analysis have been used . For statistical analysis of the relationships between research variables, Pearson correlation test and structural equation model were used by LISREL software.RESULTS & DISCUSSION
According to the results of the data analysis, the proposed model was approved which shows the results of the correlation between the variables. The least correlation belongs to the relationship between ethical climate and job performance. Therefore, any improvement in professional ethics can be accompanied by improvements in its implications: ethical climate, organizational trust, and job performance. It was found that the existence of professional ethics in employees has a positive relationship with job performance. This has been confirmed in other investigations. The findings also indicate that the relationship between professional ethics and organizational trust is positive and significant. Some studies have also evaluated this relationship positively. The weakness of the ethical system leads to a reduction in communications and an increase in organizational losses. In an organization such as the Red Crescent, a reduction in the level of employee trust can lead to multiple damage to other functional and behavioral dimensions. also, the results of the analysis show a positive and significant relationship between ethical climate and job performance; several studies confirm the same conclusion. It seems that when employees recognize ethical climate , they will understand the values and ethical behaviors of an organization and will have better performance. Thus, the indirect relationship between professional ethics and performance through the mediating role of ethical climate is confirmed.Findings show a positive and significant relationship between ethical climate and organizational trust. Some researchers also pointed to this in their research. Finally, it can be concluded that professional ethics with organizational trust are indirectly related by the mediating role of ethical climate.CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
The research also encountered some constraints such as conservatism , lack of motivation and possibility of unrealistic responses of some respondents. regarding with practical suggestions it should be noted that ethical leaders should be used to create an ethical climate that leads to organizational ethics. In our organizations, since there is always a lack of organizational trust, the ethical climate and professional ethics of an organization have led to a climate of friendship so that trust can be built up. Also, given the importance of the subject, it is suggested that in future researches the relationship between adherence to professional ethics, ethical leadership in organizations, social acceptability of companies, and other similar issues are further considered, in order to be able to demonstrate the impact of ethics in management, The efficiency and effectiveness of companies, in addition to promoting the level of professional ethics and encouraging companies to be ethical, pursued standardization and approval of the necessary laws in this field more quickly and more easily.Keywords: Professional Ethics, Organizational Performance, Organizational Trust, Ethical Climate
Investigating the mediating role of intellectual capital in the relationship between transformational leadership and employee perception of business performancePages 57-80INTRODUCTION
The challenge of measuring the effects of intellectual capital on sustainable financial performance, in particular the rate of return and profitability of a company, is a research issue that needs to be dealt with more deeply, since, according to evidence, the knowledge available in this area is very limited. Also, although the strategic role of these assets has been well accepted, there is little knowledge about how their interaction affects organization and its performance. This paper expands the literature of intellectual capital by enriching research on the interrelationships between the various dimensions of intellectual capital. There are limited studies that consider human capital as the driving force behind of the other intellectual capital. Contrary to previous studies, we focus on intellectual capital in terms of informational, structural, relational, and human capital, and explore the relationship between these four types of intellectual capital. On the other hand, the existence of transformational leadership can be a key factor in the creation and development of intellectual capital for the long-term success of an organization. Hence, the purpose of this study is explaining the nature of the components of intellectual capital in small and medium enterprises and to explain their mediating role in the relationship between transformational leadership style and performance.
Intellectual capital can be defined as a set of knowledge, experience, intellectual property, and specific knowledge capabilities that a company can use to generate wealth or to gain competitive advantage. According to the resource – advantage theory, argued that competitive advantage was based on intangible resources, and in particular, it includes human, relational, structural and informational capital. To better understand the interaction between these components of intellectual capital, several researchers have attempted to identify the nature of relationships that exist between them. They found that human capital might have a positive impact on relational capital and these two components, in turn, may have a significant impact on structural capital. It is also shown that information capital indirectly and through structural capital, affects on relational capital and ultimately affects on business performance.on the other hand, transformational leaders, by providing an area of autonomy and participation of employees in decision making, create the field of promoting innovative behaviors in human capital. these innovative behaviors increase the effectiveness of human capital in terms of return on investment. hence, these leaders support the professional development of their employees in pursuit of the benefits of human capital.METHODOLOGY
This research is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of data collection, is a descriptive and correlation research based on the covariance-oriented of structural equations modeling . this research was conducted at the level of individual analysis and its population consists of senior managers of small and medium enterprises active in the food industry throughout the country in 2016. based on the morgan table, 400 people were selected as samples. finally, from a total of 450 distributed questionnaires to participants, 368 questionnaires (81.7%) were returned. the main instrument for collecting data in this research is a questionnare by likert scale. the face validity of the questionnaire was reviewed and confirmed by the experts and cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. finally, data analysis was performed using spss 19 and lisrel 8.5 software.RESULTS & DISCUSSION
Statistical analysis indicated that the transformational leadership style had a significant and direct effect on human capital (with an intensity of 0.55). further, evidence suggests that human capital has a significant impact on informational capital. in addition, the findings suggests a significant impact of informational capital on structural capital (with an intensity of 0.45), and the weaker impact of structural capital on relational capital with an intensity impact of (0.18). finally, findings in this regarding that how intellectual capital impact on business performance, show that relational capital is the only component that has the potential to have a direct impact on performance.
CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
According to the findings of this study, managers of selected companies should adopt a transformational leadership style in their management priority. also, the transformational leaders of these businesses must realize the harmonious and balanced development of intellectual capital dimentions so that their organizations can use their entire knowledge base. strengthening of informational and structural capitals can play an important role in avoiding the companies from the red ocean of competition. also to improve relational capital, managers must be committed to customer-orientation, create more profitable distribution channels, increase their market share and improve their brand image.Keywords: Transformational Leadership, Intellectual Capital, Performance, Small, Medium-Sized Business
Todays, employees spend more of their time in the workplace and with their colleagues. They tend to seek meaning, purpose, and sublimity in their work from which they somehow extract their social identity. Spirituality in the workplace refers to the employee' efforts in seeking meaning and purpose in their work. Indeed, employees tend to devote all three dimensions of their existence, i.e. physical, mental and spiritual, to the work, hence it may seem impossible to separate the work life from the spiritual one, for it may even reduce their morale as well. On the other, the workplace condition has changed, thus presenting meaningful work is considered to be a crucial element to attract and retain the new millennium generation. literature review reveals that the concept of 'spirituality in the workplace' is an emerging concept aiming to create a sort of integration between the external and internal life, especially in the business environment of organizations. Furthermore, it could create a trustful atmosphere among employees, provide organizational happiness, and reduce destructive behaviors. Accordingly, the present study aimed at investigating the impact of spirituality in the workplace on some of organizational behavior variables in an attempt to discover the effectiveness of spirituality in the workplace on both negative and positive variables that less studied in the previous research. These variables include: honesty and trust, organizational happiness, and anti-citizenship behavior. Thus, this study may address the question 'whether spirituality in the workplace affects the positive variables (honesty and trust, organizational happiness) and negative variables (anti-citizenship behavior) of the organizational behavior?
Spirituality in the workplace can be considered as the employees' experience of meaning in the workplace. One of the important achievements of spirituality in the workplace involves this recognition that employees have an internal life feeding and fed by the meaningful work taken place in the social context. reviewing the literature reveals that spirituality in the workplace given its impact on the various organizational variables including job satisfaction, employee motivation, professional conscience, honesty, trust, organizational commitment, turnover rate, job performance, organizational citizenship behavior and even employees' knowledge sharing, may lead to significant consequences towards increasing productivity of the organization. Accordingly, in the present study, the impact of spirituality in the workplace on some of important organizational variables was investigated in the form of the following hypotheses:
H1: Spirituality in the workplace significantly affects the honesty and trust of employees.
H2: Spirituality in the workplace significantly affects the organizational anti-citizenship behavior.
H3: Spirituality in the workplace affects the organizational happiness.
H4: Spirituality in the workplace affects the organizational anti-citizenship behavior through job satisfaction.METHODOLOGY
The present study is considered as applied, from the perspective of purpose, and descriptive-survey, from that of research method. considering the size of the population, 195 employees were finally selected as the sample by stratified sampling method. Data was collected through a questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using structural equations. The questionnaire validity was confirmed through content and construct validity. Finally, the hypotheses were tested by structural equation modeling and AMOS 22 software.RESULTS & DISCUSSION
The results obtained from the hypothesis testing revealed that spirituality in the workplace has a significant impact on honesty and trust. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the more spirituality in the workplace, the higher the honesty and trust among employees, enabling organization to take advantage of such honesty and trust to establish effective and useful communication, perform tasks as teamwork, and create a friendly and transparent atmosphere in the organization. The results obtained from the second hypothesis testing indicated that spirituality in the workplace has a significant and negative impact on the employees' anti-citizenship behavior. Put it another way, establishing a workplace based on the spiritual values may reduce the occurrence of immoral and anti-citizenship behaviors in the workplace and decrease the latter on behalf of the employees. The third hypothesis testing indicated that spirituality in the workplace has a significantly positive effect on organizational happiness. And ultimately, the fourth hypothesis testing revealed that spirituality in the workplace may influence the anti-citizenship behavior through job satisfaction. Therefore, it can be concluded that spirituality in the workplace may indirectly affect the organizational anti-citizenship behavior through the employees' attitudes.
CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
Organization managers are recommended to strengthen the spirituality indicators to not only benefit from its further advantages but also to increase the level of trust and honesty among employees and subsequently create an atmosphere where employees can form their interaction with others in a trustful way, leading the feeling of worthiness and meaningfulness among employees. Furthermore, to ensure the occurrence of organizational citizenship behaviors and reduce anti-citizenship behaviors, managers are recommended to create a kind of intimacy, integrity and friendship between managers and employees and increase the variables of spirituality in the workplace by developing teamwork, creating mutual trust among members, creating common goals and values, realizing organizational justice as well as the primacy of public interest over personal ones. Additionally, managers are recommended to providing the condition for employees to feel being relaxed, pleasure, and happy during their working hours and feel satisfy with the condition in which they work and consequently pave the way for creativity, innovation and the emergence of latent talents by applying measures to increase the meaning and spirituality in the workplace.Keywords: Spirituality in the Workplace, Organizational Happiness, Honesty, Trust, Organizational Anti-Citizenship Behavior, Job Satisfaction
Investigating the impact of career progression, career plateauing, affective commitment, job engagement and job burnout on employee perception of organizational justice and the intention to turnoverPages 105-132INTRODUCTION
Undoubtedly, human resources are the most valuable source of today's organizations because they make organizational decisions, solve problems and give objectivity to productivity. the most important goal of each organization is to achieve predetermined goals and the organization must strive to achieve these goals and for achieving its predetermined goals the management needs to achieve optimal organizational productivity levels. on the other hand, the higher education system is considered as one of the most complex and large-scale organizations in any country that it has an inseparable linkage with social, cultural and economic development. this study examines the relationship between career progression, career plateauing, affective commitment, job engagement and burnout. these variables affect employees and their performance that may overwhelm the total productivity, but less attention is paid to this subject. this study examines the structural equation modeling of the relationship between above variables among staff of Isfahan university.
By establishing appropriate career progression for employees, organizations help not only their success but also the progression of individuals. In fact, career progression involves a series of occupations that a person is pursuing for a career goal. In addition, three types of structural, content and biological plateauing have been reported in theoretical sources. Structural plateauing occurs when people reach the highest organizational level that they are capable. Another kind of plateauing is the content that occasionally occur due to the content of the job, which is generally classified as "low diversity", "tedious" and "boring" content. The third type of plateau is a biological plateauing that will not be satisfied in any of the areas of life. one of the other influential factors in organizations is the level of organizational commitment of the members, which in the 1970s, had a large volume of management studies. Organizational commitment reduces absenteeism and displacement and improves citizenship behavior, work effort and job performance. Organizational commitment due to its role and effect on performance has been an important part of organizational studies. Theoritical sources suggested that employee commitment is a powerful and effective force in the success of organizations. The degree of job engagement is on the amount of commitment that a person represents in his job or career, and the internalization of individual values to proud of his/her job. Job burnout represents the physical and mental fatigue due to long-term work in extreme mental conditions. job burnout is defined as a lack of energy and vitality. person's burnout indicates a feeling of frustration with doing a job. Various factors affect the intention to turnover, some of which are: lack of appreciation, lack of progression opportunities, but as stated above, the most important cause is job dissatisfaction. one of the consequences of dissatisfaction is the intention and thought to leave the organization. The perception of justice is a polyhedral construction that incorporates three dimensions of distributive, procedural and interactional justice. all three types of justice have an important and independent role in customer satisfaction and intent to re-buy. In this regard, through distributive justice very important predictions is done.METHODOLOGY
This research is considered as applied research in terms of purpose and descriptive in terms of its nature. According to the data gathered from information and statistics center of Islamic Azad University of Isfahan, the research population consist of 1214 employees. According to the sample size set by Cohen, the sample size was calculated 291 employees and stratified random sampling method was used. Since this research is correlational, the Pearson correlation coefficient is used to determine the relationship between the components of career progression, organizational justice, job engagement, affective commitment, job burnout and Career plateauing, which is a two-variable correlation study. Structural equations modeling is used to determine the relationship between career progression, Career Plateauing, affective commitment, job Engagement and burnout. Research data were analyzed using Liserl 8.5 software and the Statistical Package of Social Sciences 22.RESULTS & DISCUSSION
The results obtained from the data analysis indicated that the Career Plateauing did not have a significant effect on the perception of organizational justice (P-value >0.05). The results of data analysis also showed that the career progression, affective commitment and job burnout have a significant effect on organizational justice perceptions (P value <0.05). It has also been shown that Career Plateauing have no statistical significant effect on the intention to turnover. In the past studies, there is a significant negative relationship between these two variables. On the other hand, the results of this study indicate that there is no significant effect of career progression affective commitment, job engagement and burnout on the intention to turnover.
CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
Because of the impact of knowledge, ability and competencies of employees as human capital on their job motivation, managers must plan for job progression through developing the level of their knowledge, skills and competencies. to create affective commitment and enhance the perception of organizational justice, employee participation in decision making, easy access to needed information, use of managerial factors and indicators such as goal setting, motivation and empowerment of human resources may encourage job motivation and effort. in this regard, appropriate use of incentive policies, active efforts to counter organizational intruder motives such as rumors, downsizing, revenue cuts, etc., and create a sense of unity and intimacy among employees through the definition of group activities, parties, sports and recreation competitions and family entertainment in organizational activities can be happen.job engagement of employees can affect by delegating and giving greater responsibility in decisions making, taking into account differences between individuals and supporting more, such as creating appropriate job shifts and working teams, dealing honestly, politely and with respect to employees, can be effective in the perception of Justice and reluctance to turnover. In order to reduce the job burnout of the organization, it is necessary to reform the organizational structure.Keywords: Career Plateauing, Affective Commitment, Job Engagement, Job Burnout, Perception of Organizational Justice, Intention to Turnover
Since the modern organizational behavior and performance have faced to increasing complexity, so the awareness of managers and staff with these complexities and, consequently, efforts to increase human resource performance is essential. The purpose of this study is the investigation the effect of emotional work on job performance considering the moderating role of organizational, manager and colleague on 1396 among employees of a public organization in Mashhad. For this purpose, the sample consist of 376 was selected with stratified random sampling method. In order to collect information, a standard questionnaire for emotional work, job performance, organizational, manager and colleague support was distributed and finally, Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. There are many studies about job performance and organizational support, but the innovation aspect of this research is the examination of the variables of emotional work, job performance, organizational, manager and colleague support that are combined in a single model.THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
One of the basic variables in organizational behavior is job performance. job performance is closely related to organizational performance and it measures the role of individual efforts and behaviors in achieving organizational goals.
Emotional work is the use of various strategies to express feelings in interaction with the client. Grande is one of the experts who considered two types of behavior in the concept of emotion. The first type is surface action strategy which involves suppressing real feelings and pretending to be desirable. The second type is the deep acting strategy which means that the person in the conscience adjusts or changes his feelings to choose the appropriate emotional sight. According to the theoretical framework and research background, the following hypotheses are proposed:
Deep acting has a significant and positive impact on job performance.
Surface acting has a significant and positive impact on job performance.
Organizational, manager and colleague support
Organizational support theory suggests that employees form a general view of the extent to which organizations support them and in exchange of this support, they try to achieve organizational goals. The manager support takes place when employees understand that manager’s value their participation, and they pay attention to their well-being, interests and comfort; because the managers represent the organization and are responsible for guiding the staff and evaluating their performance. Colleague support is defined as the employee's belief in the quality of helping colleagues' communications. According to the theoretical framework and research background, the following hypotheses are proposed:
Manager support moderates the impact of deep acting on job performance.
Manager support moderates the impact of surface acting on job performance.
Colleague support moderates the impact of deep acting on job performance.
Colleague support moderates the impact of surface acting on job performance.
Organizational support moderates the impact of deep acting on job performance.
Organizational support moderates the impact of surface acting on job performance.METHODOLOGY
This research is applied in terms of its purpose and it is a survey type in terms of its nature. For measuring variables, standard metrics of previous studies were used and have been localized to use in the Iranian organizational context using the translation-return-translation method. The face and content validity of the final questionnaire was confirmed by reviewing the sights of management experts. in order to measure the variables of this study, emotional work questionnaire, support questionnaire and Patrison (2004) job performance questionnaire were used. Also, the construct validity of the questionnaires was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis technique using smart PLS software and the significance of the related items to the structures was confirmed. furthermore, the reliability of the tools was evaluated using the cronbach's alpha coefficient and all values were higher than 0.7, which means that the questionnaires have the necessary reliability. All metrics were measured using the Likert scale of 5 and in the range of "1 = completely agree" to "5 = completely oppose".Population of this study consist of 2000 managers, experts and employees of a public organization in Mashhad. A sample of people was selected using Cochran formula and stratified random sampling method. In order to analyze the data, various statistical methods such as Pearson correlation analysis were used to calculate zero-order correlation coefficients, structural equation modeling was used to examine the fitting of the structural equation model with the collected data. The analysis was accomplished using Smart PLS software and a statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS v.19).RESULTS & DISCUSSION
Structural equation model which used partial least squares method (PLS) in its solution was analyzed and interpreted in two stages. First, the model was measured and then the structural model was analyzed and interpreted. After assuring the validity of the model, the hypotheses were tested. The basis of the path coefficients is to have the corresponding significant value greater than ± 1.96. The effect of deep and surface acting on job performance is 0.14 and 0.17 respectively, the significant value of each relationships is 664/2 and 822/2; both of which are greater than 1.96. It can be concluded that these coefficients are positive and significant. Hypotheses related to the moderator role of organizational, manager and colleague support were implemented simultaneously using the structural equation and Smart PLS software. The path coefficients for interactive variables are estimated to be 0.43, 0.51, 0.16, 0.33, 0.17, and 0.20 respectively. According to the amount of T statistic for these variables which is greater than the critical value of 1.96, it can be concluded that these path coefficients are significant at the error level of 0.05. This means that organizational, manager and colleague support moderate the relationship between deep and surface acting with job performance. It is clear from the path coefficients that the improvement of organizational, manager and colleague support increases the effect of surface and deep acting on job performance.
CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
The results of this research in general indicate that emotional work affects job performance. also the organizational, manager and colleague support influences this relationship. The hypothesis 1 proposes that "emotional work has a positive and significant effect on job performance" which includes two hypotheses: "Deep acting has a positive and significant effect on job performance" and "surface acting has a positive and significant effect on job performance." The results confirm these two hypotheses. Also, the effect of surface acting on job performance is more than the effect of deep acting. Based on research findings, it can be argued that the organizational, manager and colleague support moderates the relationship between deep and surface acting with job performance.Keywords: Emotional Work, Job Performance, Organizational Support, Manager Support, Colleague Support, Public Organization
Investigating the mutual relationship between knowledge management components and psychological empowerment of employees in iranian central oil fields companyPages 153-180INTRODUCTION
Todays, fast-changing environment, companies are required to acquire and update knowledge in order to gain competitive advantage. Knowledge enables organizations to anticipate the nature and commercial potential of changes. the ability to acquire, organize and disseminate knowledge helps organizations to improve decision making, cost effectiveness, customer satisfaction and cost control. therefore, successful companies in the world have focused on organizational knowledge management as a necessary requirement and a priority agenda for being a great leader in competitiveness arena. knowledge management (KM) can be defined as a strategic and systematic approach to value what the organization knows. on the other hand, the most important and valuable asset of an organization is human resource, and the role of skilled and efficient human resources in achieving organizational goals is obvious and indisputable. accordingly, human resource empowerment can prepare and success organizations in the face of today’s fast-changing environment. the use of KM in organizations can affect the psychological empowerment of employees.THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
KM is defined as a structured process including goals, identification, acquisition, development, dissemination, application, measuring and evaluation of organizational knowledge. managers try to extract accumulated knowledge in the minds of organizational members through the knowledge management, and share it among all people. in this case, the knowledge stored in the system becomes a permanent usable resource and provides a competitive advantage for the organization.
Psychological empowerment refers to a set of mental states which is needed to perform tasks and control actions, and under these conditions, the experts focus mainly is on the methods of management and control of employees at different levels. on the other hand, the psychological dimension relies on employee experiences in the workplace. according to the psychological dimension, empowerment refers to employee's individual beliefs towards organizational roles.METHODOLOGY
This study is considered as a descriptive-survey research in terms of data collection. Research variables include: knowledge management components (knowledge creation, capture, refinement, dissemination, application) and psychological empowerment of employees. The population of the study includes the experts of Iranian Central Oil fields company. applying theoretical saturation method 15 experts asked to answer the questions. dematel questionnaire has been used for gathering the information.RESULTS & DISCUSSION
The order of importance of knowledge management components in terms of interaction with other components is as follows: knowledge application, knowledge creation, knowledge dissemination, knowledge refinement, knowledge capture and empowerment. on the other hand, the independent components include empowerment, knowledge application and knowledge capture and knowledge dissemination. dependent components also include knowledge creation and knowledge refinement. Therefore, it should be focused on independent variables, including empowerment, knowledge application, knowledge capture and knowledge dissemination to improve the variables of knowledge creation and knowledge refinement. Among the components of KM, the component of knowledge application has a significant impact on the other three components, including, knowledge creation, knowledge refinement, and knowledge dissemination. also, knowledge creation has a significant impact on knowledge dissemination, knowledge application and knowledge refinement. the component of knowledge capture has impact on knowledge dissemination and knowledge refinement. the component of knowledge refinement is the most dependent component and in the level of 70% is affected by knowledge creation, knowledge application, knowledge capture, and knowledge dissemination. In this regard, it is clear that knowledge refinement is meaningless without knowledge creation in the organization. While comparing the cause and effect intensity of the psychological empowerment variable with KM components, because none of the affected values of empowerment from components of KM is in the upper limit domain, generally it can be suggested that empowerment is an effective variable, rather than being affected. given what was said, it can be concluded that empowerment can strengthen KM. also, it can be concluded that among the components of KM, the component of knowledge dissemination has the most constructive interaction with other components, because this component is affected by three components of knowledge creation, knowledge application and knowledge capture and it affects the component of knowledge refinement.
CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
Encouraging and providing the necessary rewards to employees who contribute to the KM process should be prioritized and given special attention. By introducing top employees in the field of producing applied knowledge and appreciating them at different time intervals, human resources managers can encourage other employees to collaborate in the KM process. to improve the component of knowledge capture, the template of the managers themselves as an important part of the culturalize as well as the encouragement of successful people in the field of knowledge capture can be considered. In fact, the creation and display of a suitable behavior pattern, and the differentiation and encouragement of individuals having behavior consistent with the objectives of KM and organization, is crucial in the repetition and improvement of the components of KM, and specially knowledge capture. necessary training should be given to supervisors to enable them give adequate information to their subordinates to participate in decision making, support new and appropriate ideas and rely on the outcomes of work, as many subordinate decisions and ideas may be preferred to their opinions. Also, low-level employees should be trained to take the appropriate decisions in critical situations with full confidence in their work and by provoking a sense of ability.Keywords: Knowledge Management, Psychological Empowerment, Dematel Method, Oil Industry
Strategic symphony: influencing pattern of strategic Integration on performance in the context of organizational culture and structurePages 181-204INTRODUCTION
Most organizations, rather than having a comprehensive strategy, use a set of related strategies, each of which is designed at different levels of the company. Each strategy, in addition to responding to environmental conditions, is integrated with other levels of strategy, as well as with the strengths and competencies of the relevant business unit and with the level of the company as a single entity. this coordination can be carried out at various strategic levels with each other and with organizational elements (structure and culture). on the other hand, each level must have complementary strategies in order to reinforce each other, which is called horizontal integrity. each level of strategy has close coordination with other levels of strategy, and if the whole company wants to succeed, these levels should be integrated. garterl and Schenk stated that identifying factors is an important tool to understand how to achieve a successful alignment between company strategies and partial strategies such as IT strategy, human resource strategy, production strategy, financial strategy, marketing strategy, and so on. Therefore, in order to succeed on the path of achieving the organizational goals and high performance, vertical and horizontal integrity in business is crucial, and it is one of the most important discussions and concerns of organizational managers.
By reviewing the theoretical literature in the context of strategy fitness, significant points have been extracted. one of these issues is the importance of fitting and integrating partial strategies with organizational strategies. This integrity will result in coordination between the organizational macro policies and its partial policies, so the entire company grows in a balanced way. on the other hand, coordination, alignment and integrity between partial strategies (horizontal integrity) will lead to more attention to the synergy of resources in order to achieve competitive goals. in this regard, organizational structure and culture of the company should be in line with the strategies. adaptation to the outside environment explains the law of organizational thermodynamics. based on organizational thermodynamics, organizations will remain in a competitive environment if they match their internal conditions with outside requirements. one of the remarkable theoretical gaps in past literature is that past research has often studied only one kind of integration. according to the aforementioned, the main purpose of this research is presenting a model that verifies the vertical and horizontal integrity between the strategies of the company and investigating the effectiveness of this integrity on performance.METHODOLOGY
This research has been carried out with a mixed approach and implemented in two phases. in the first phase, using semi-structured interviews, 18 experts (5 faculty members of the strategic and marketing management, 4 executive consultants in the field of strategy and management of companies and 9 organizational managers and assistant) and by means of technique of thematic analysis, a conceptual model has been extracted. In this model, the strategy of the company has been shown to be integrated with the partial strategies, and also the organizational structure and culture affect this integration. finally, all of the variables of this model affect the organizational performance.RESULTS & DISCUSSION
Based on data analysis in PLS software, all hypotheses have been confirmed. The results of confirmatory factor analysis also indicate the validity of the tool of this research. the diagram below shows the test of the hypotheses of this research.
CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
Based on the results, a conceptual model of research demonstrates the impact of strategic integrity on organizational performance through organizational structure and culture. the results of the hypotheses indicate that partial strategies (human resources, production, finance, IT, etc.) have a vertically integration with corporate strategy. That is, partial strategies are in line with the company's strategy, and human resource, financial, marketing, sales, production, IT, etc. strategies are emerging from the company's main strategy. there is the highest vertical integration between the IT strategy and the company's strategy and production strategy has the lowest integration in this respect. the importance of the relationship between partial strategies with corporate strategy in the form of vertical integration comes from the fact that if this alignment does not exist between strategies, some kind of strategic dispersion is created and the focus on achieving the main and major goals of the company is neglected, so each department, regardless of the main goals of the company seek to achieve its specific goals. based on the results of the hypotheses, all partial strategies such as human resource, financial, information technology and production strategy are interconnected and mutually influential. this means that these strategies are designed in an integrated and coordinated system and there is a strategic horizontal alignment between them. it can be argued that there is a horizontal integration between segmental strategies. to achieve horizontal integration, it is recommended that regular meetings between the unit managers and the monthly meeting with strategic council with the presence of the company's CEO are held in order to accurately track the achievement of organizational goals and plans.Keywords: Strategic Integration, Organizational Structure, Organizational Culture, Organizational Performance