فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Majid Mirsadraee *, Sanaz Dehghan, Shadi Ghaffari, Niloofar Mirsadraee Pages 1-7
    Background and Purpose

    Itraconazole therapy has been reported to control asthma in severe therapy-resistant asthma with fungal sensitization. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anti-fungal therapy on the treatment of severe asthma, irrespective of sensitization.

    Materials and Methods

    This active comparator clinical trial was performed on 110 therapy-resistant asthmatic patients who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and control. The patients in the case group were administered 200 mg itraconazole twice a day and the control group received 10 mg prednisolone after breakfast for 4 months. The asthma control test (ACT) which was used as a marker for the global evaluation of treatment effectiveness (GETE) was applied as the primary endpoint parameter. Cough, dyspnea, and sleep disturbance were measured on a scale of 1-4, with 1 representing no symptom and 4 indicating severe exhausting disturbance.

    Results

    Based on the obtained results, 71% of the itraconazole group demonstrated a marked improvement in the GETE score after a four-month treatment. Itraconazole was able to suppress clinical symptoms, including cough, dyspnea, and night symptoms, and their physical exam was indicative of normalization in 60% of the patients. On the other hand, the patients in the parallel group "prednisolone" were only able to control dyspnea. The ACT score represented a notable improvement with itraconazole (mean: 14 before the trial and >20 after the trial) and spirometry parameters underwent a considerable change from obstructive pattern to normal. Furthermore, adverse effects were only detected in 6% of itraconazole users.

    Conclusion

    The results of this clinical trial indicted the effectiveness of antifungal therapy for the control of the clinical condition of a subgroup of patients with severe steroid-refractory asthma.

    Keywords: Anti-fungal therapy, Asthma, Fungal sensitization, itraconazole, Resistant asthma, Triazole
  • Maryam Moazeni *, Majid Saeedi, Hamidreza Kelidari, Mojtaba Nabili, Amirhossein Davari Pages 8-13
    Background and Purpose

    Encapsulation can lead to improved efficacy and safety of antifungal compounds. The attention of scientists has recently turned to biocompatible lipids as the carriers for the delivery of antifungal drugs, such as fluconazole. Although several research reports have already been published on fluconazole loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (FLZ-SLNs) and fluconazole loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (FLZ-NLCs), the possible advantages of NLCs over SLNs have not yet been fully established. Studies performed so far have given several contradictory results.

    Materials and Methods

    Both formulations of fluconazole were synthesized using probe ultrasonication method and the characteristics were analyzed. Antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) was performed with FLZ, FLZ-SLNs, and FLZ-NLCs using CLSI document M60 against some common fluconazole-resistant Candida species.

    Results

    A significant decrease was observed in minimum inhibitory concentration values when both formulations were applied. Nonetheless, FLZ-NLCs were significantly more effective (P<0.05). However, three species groups were not statistically different in terms of the activity of FLZ-NLCs.

    Conclusion

    Based on the obtained results, FLZ-NLCs could reverse the azole-resistance phenomenon in the most common Candida species more effectively, as compared to FLZ-SLNs.

    Keywords: Candida, Fluconazole-resistant, NLC, SLN
  • Narges Aslani, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Reza Ataollahi, Saham Ansari, Yousef Gholampour, Ali Khani Jeihooni, Mohammad Hosein Afsarian * Pages 14-19
    Background and Purpose

    Incidence of fungal infections caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens, such as yeasts and yeast-like species, has undergone an increase in otherwise healthy individuals. These pathogens account for high mortality and show reduced susceptibility to the routine antifungal drugs. Accordingly, antifungal susceptibility testing is an urgent need in the determination of the susceptibility spectrum of antifungals and selection of appropriate antifungal agents for the management of patients with fungal infection.

    Materials and Methods

    The present study was conducted on 110 yeast strains belonging to 15 species recovered from clinical specimens. Susceptibility of the isolates to four antifungal drugs (i.e., fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole) was tested according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines M27-A3 and M27-S4.

    Results

    Fluconazole exhibited no activity against 4.3% (n=2) of C. albicans isolates, whereas the remaining 44 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 0.125-4 μg/ml. Voriconazole had the lowest geometric mean MIC (0.03 μg/ml) against all isolated yeast species, followed by posaconazole (0.07 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.10 μg/ml), and fluconazole (0.60 μg/ml). Overall, all of the isolates had reduced voriconazole MICs with a MIC range of 0.016-0.5 μg/ml, except for one isolate of C. albicans that had a MIC of 1 μg/ml. Candida haemulonii as a multidrug-resistant fungus showed a fluconazole MIC of > 64 μg/ml.

    Conclusion

    The current study provides insight into the antifungal susceptibility profiles of clinically common and uncommon yeast species to four triazole antifungal agents. According to our findings, voriconazole was the most active agent. Awareness about antifungal susceptibility patterns is highly helpful in the selection of appropriate antifungal drugs and identification of the efficiency of the currently used agents.

    Keywords: Antifungal agents, In vitro susceptibility, Yeast species
  • Marjan Motamedi Motamedi, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Keyvan Pakshir, Sara Amini Akbarabadi, Marzieh Alikhani Khordshami, Fatemeh Asadian, Zahra Zareshahrabadi, Kamiar Zomorodian * Pages 20-25
    Background and Purpose

    Despite the various applications of Satureja species,there are limited data in this domain.Regarding this, the present study was conducted to investigate the essential oil (EO) biological activity of S.macrosiphon species in Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    The EO of S. macrosiphon flowers was obtained by hydrodistillation. Chemical compositions of the EO were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were measured by means of the broth microdilution method. The estimation of antibiofilm and cytotoxic activities was also accomplished using the tetrazolium salt and MTT assays, respectively.

    Results

    A total of 26 components were identified in the EO with linalool as the main constituent (28.46%). A MIC range value of 0.25-8 μL/mL was obtained against all of the tested fungi. The EO inhibited the biofilm development of the Candida tested strains at a concentration of 4-8 μL/mL. Cytotoxicity (IC50) of EO against the HeLa cell was greater than the MIC concentration (6.49 μL/mL).

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings, it was concluded that the EO of S. macrosiphon has the potential for further use as an antifungal agent.

    Keywords: Essential oil, MTT assay, Satureja macrosiphon, XTT assay
  • Seyedebrahim Hashemi, Tahereh Shokohi *, Mahdi Abastabar, Narges Aslani, Mahbobeh Ghadamzadeh, Iman Haghani Pages 26-34
    Background and Purpose

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the epidemiology of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent VVC (RVVC), as well as the antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida species isolates.

    Materials and Methods

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 260 women suspected of VVC from February 2017 to January 2018. In order to identify Candida species isolated from the genital tracts, the isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using enzymes Msp I and sequencing. Moreover, antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (M27-A3).

    Results

    Out of 250 subjects, 75 (28.8%) patients were affected by VVC, out of whom 15 (20%) cases had RVVC. Among the Candida species, C. albicans was the most common species (42/95; 44.21%), followed by C. lusitaniae (18/95; 18.95%), C. parapsilosis (13/95; 13.69%),  C. glabrata (8/95; 8.42%), C. kefyr (6/95; 6.31%), C. famata (5/95; 5.26%), C. africana (2/95; 2.11%), and C. orthopsilosis (1/95; 1.05%), respectively. Multiple Candida species were observed in 28% (21/75) of the patients. Nystatin showed the narrowest range of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (0.25-16 μg/ml) against all Candida strains, whereas fluconazole (0.063-64 μg/ml) demonstrated the widest MIC range. In the current study, C. lusitaniae, as the second most common causative agent of VVC, was susceptible to all antifungal agents. Furthermore, 61.1% of C. lusitaniae isolates were inhibited at a concentration of ≤ 2 μg/ml, while38.9% (n=7)of them exhibited fluconazole MICs above the epidemiologic cutoff values (ECV). Candida species showed the highest overall resistance against fluconazole (61.3%), followed by itraconazole (45.2%) and caspofungin (23.7%). All of C. albicans strains were resistant to itraconazole with a MIC value of ≥ 1 μg/ml; in addition, 87.5% of them were resistant to fluconazole. Moreover, 100% and 87.5% of C. glabrata strains were resistant to caspofungin and fluconazole, respectively.

    Conclusion

    As the findings revealed, the majority of VVC cases were caused by non-albicans Candida species which were often more resistant to antifungal agents. Candida lusitaniae generally had fluconazole MICs above the ECV. Given the propensity of C. lusitaniae to develop resistance under drug pressure, antifungals should be administered with caution. The emergence of these species justify the epidemiological surveillance surveys to watch out the distribution of yeast species.

    Keywords: Vulvovaginal candidiasis, Candida species, PCR-RFLP, Antifungal Susceptibility testing, C. lusitaniae
  • Mona Modiri *, Jamal Hashemi, Roshanak Daie Ghazvini, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Ali Ahmadi, Mansoureh Ghaffari, Sassan Rezaie Pages 35-42
    Background and Purpose

    Candida parapsilosis complex isolates are mainly responsible for nosocomial catheter-related infection in immunocompromised patients. Biofilm formation is regarded as one of the most pertinent key virulence factors in the development of these emerging infections. The present study aimed to compare in vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns and biofilm-related genes expression ratio in planktonic and biofilm’s cells of clinically C. parapsilosis complex isolates.

    Materials and Methods

    The current study was conducted on a number of 17 clinical C. parapsilosis complex (10 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5 C. orthopsilosis, and 2 C. metapsilosis). The antifungal susceptibility patterns of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin in planktonic and biofilm forms were closely examined using CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method. The expression levels of biofilm-related genes (BCR1, EFG1, and FKS1) were evaluated in planktonic and biofilm’s cells using Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique.

    Results

    The obtained results indicated that all C. parapsilosis complex isolates were able to produce high and moderate amounts of biofilm forms. In addition, the sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations were reported to be high for fluconazole (≥ 64 μg/ml), itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole (≥ 16 μg/ml), as compared to planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations. Moreover, a significant difference was observed between antifungal susceptibility patterns for all azole antifungal agents (P<0.05). Furthermore, the BCR1 overexpression was considered significant in biofilms with regard to planktonic cells in C. parapsilosis species complex (P=0.002).

    Conclusion

    C. parapsilosis complex isolates were found susceptible to most of the tested antifungal drugs, while biofilms demonstrated a noticeable resistant to azoles. The marked discrepancy noted in antifungal susceptibility patterns among these species should be highlighted to achieve effective therapeutic treatment.

    Keywords: Antifungal susceptibility, Candida parapsilosis complex, Gene expression
  • Yashik Bansal, Nidhi Singla *, Neelam Kaistha, Sunandan Sood, Jagdish Chander Pages 43-49
    Background and Purpose

    More than 300 Fusarium species are grouped into approximately 23 species complexes out of which around 70 are involved in human infections. The nomenclature of these species has undergone considerable changes in recent years. These species cause localized infections in individuals while inducing systemic infections mainly in immunocompromised patients. The present study was conducted to identify Fusarium species in clinical isolates by molecular methods and determine their in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) patterns to address the lack of data in this domain in Northern India.

    Materials and Methods

    For the purpose of the study, Fusarium isolates obtained from various clinical samples were sent to the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Utrecht, the Netherlands, for molecular identification. The MIC testing was performed using the microbroth dilution method as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference method (M38-A2).

    Results

    Fusarium was isolated from 33 patients (i.e., 1, 1, 2, 14, and 15 cases with endophthalmitis, sinusitis, pulmonary involvement, onychomycosis, and keratitis, respectively). These 33 isolates belonged to three species complexes, namely F. solani species complex (FSSC; n=13), F. fujikuroi species complex (FFSC; n=13), and F. incarnatum equiseti species complex (FIESC; n=7). The species identified within FSSC, FFSC, and FIESC included F. keratoplasticum (n=6)/F. falciforme (n=6)/F. solani (n=1), F. proliferatum (n=7)/F. sacchari (n=5)/F. anthophilum (n=1), and F. incarnatum SC species (n=6)/F. equiseti SC species (n=1), respectively. The MIC results showed that all isolates had a lower MIC against amphotericin B than against the other antifungal agents.

    Conclusion

    Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment will facilitate the improvement of patient outcomes.

    Keywords: Fusarium, Molecular identification, Keratitis, Onychomycosis, Taxonomy
  • Ranjana Rohilla, Suneeta Meena *, Neelam Kaistha, Anusha Krishna Raj, Pratima Gupta Pages 50-53
    Background and Purpose

    We report a case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a treatment-naïve patient, incidentally diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and renal parenchymal disease. The patient succumbed to death given the very late diagnosis of the disease.

    Case report

    A 54-year-old male presented with the chief complaints of abdominal pain, chest pain, and phlegmy cough for a month. There was a past history of decreased urine output, lower limb swelling, and fever lasting for 15-20 days. After a general physical examination, the differential diagnosis of hepatitis C-related liver disease with hepatic encephalopathy, disseminated tuberculosis, and septic shock was made. Radiological examination revealed renal parenchymal disease on ultrasound abdomen and opacity with reticulonodular opacity in the bilateral lung zones. In laboratory investigations, serum reactive sample was tested for anti-HCV antibodies. In addition, Cryptococcus var grubii was identified in blood culture using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (Bruker Daltonics, Germany). The patient succumbed to death before the initiation of any specific antifungal therapy.

    Conclusion

    Cryptococcosis-HCV co-infection is a fatal condition with a fulminant course that might be difficult to treat.

    Keywords: Cryptococcosis, Hepatitis C Virus, Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry
  • A rare clinical entity as large intrarenal abscess in a typeII diabetic patient due to Candida tropicalis: A case report
    Abhilash Chandra *, Namrata Rao, Anupam Das, Manodeep Sen Pages 54-57
    Background and Purpose

    Fungal renal abscesses are rare entities associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Affected kidneys can have microabscess, pyelonephritis, pyonephrosis, or papillary necrosis.

    Case report

    Herein, we reported an unusual case of a large renal abscess cause by Candida tropicalis in a diabetic patient. The entity presented as a lump in the abdomen and later was diagnosed to be an abscess on computed tomography scan. Candida tropicalis was confirmed on the culture of the aspirate. The abscess was successfully treated by percutaneous drainage and administration of amphotericin B deoxycholate.

    Conclusion

    Candida tropicalis is now a global concern because of its rising prevalence and high virulence. The growing resistance of this Candida species to azoles, as in our case, calls for a more judicious usage of antifungal agents. Empirical therapy with either amphotericin or echinocandins is an option in case of high azole resistance. This case highlights the importance of timely diagnosis and implementation of aggressive management in cases suffering from fungal abscesses.

    Keywords: Abscess, Candida tropicalis, Diabetes, Fungal, Renal