فهرست مطالب

هنرهای زیبا - معماری و شهرسازی - پیاپی 77 (بهار 1398)
  • پیاپی 77 (بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • مجتبی رفیعیان*، آیدا کیانفر صفحات 5-16

    امروزه، فضای خاکستری شهری به یکی از پدیده های رایج کلانشهرها و به ویژه تهران تبدیل و منجر به ظهور مجموعه ای از نهادها، هویت ها، روابط قدرت، شیوه ها و گفتمان ها در این فضاها شده است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، بررسی و شناسایی ساختارهای موجود، جایگاه قدرت و سیاست در سطوح برنامه ریزی شهری این فضاها است. در راستای این هدف، پژوهش حاضر، در پی پاسخ به دو سوال اصلی است، ابعاد شکل دهنده ی تجربه زندگی در فضاهای خاکستری چیست؟ وآیا ساکنان این فضاها می توانند در برنامه ریزی و تصمیم گیری این محیط نقش داشته باشند؟ بنابراین، با اتکا بر روش تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی فرکلاف و بر پایه مصاحبه ی ساخت نیافته، به تفسیر توصیف های ساکنان شهرک رضویه پرداخته شده است. یافته های پژوهش حاکی از این است که شش مقوله ی "سایه اندازی مناسبات قدرت، سایه ی سرمایه ی محیطی، سایه ی تعارض منافع، حاشیه ی سیاست گفتمان، حاشیه ی حق شهری و حاشیه ی شهروندی نابرابر"، مقولاتی هستند که توسط آن ها می توان تجربه ی ساکنان این فضاها را توصیف و در چارچوب مدل پارادایمی، مفهوم یابی فضای خاکستری شهری و فرایند مشروعیت بخشی، آن را تعریف نمود. همچنین، اهمیت بعد اقتصادی- سیاسی تغییرات و جایگاه قدرت در کنار سایر ابعاد اجتماعی- فضایی این فضاها، طیفی از شهروندی نابرابر در مناطق کلانشهری با ضریب قطبش بالا را نمایان می سازد.

    کلیدواژگان: فضای خاکستری، برنامه ریزی شهری، مناسبات قدرت، شهرک رضویه، تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی فرکلاف
  • فاطمه السادات مجیدی*، شاهین حیدری صفحات 17-28

    سازگاری در آسایش حرارتی، شامل تمامی فرایندهایی ست که افراد برای تطبیق و متناسب کردن محیط و نیازهایشان انجام می دهند. به عبارت دیگر، انسان ها خود به نحو ممکن در محیط حرارتی تغییر ایجاد می کنند تا به آسایش حرارتی برسند. بر این اساس، در مقاله حاضر تلاش می شود تا با تحلیل نشانه های سازگاری در آسایش حرارتی فضاهای باز محلات مسکونی، به اثبات نظریه سازگاری در شهر اصفهان پرداخته و نهایتا معادله حرارتی جهت تعیین دمای راحتی کاربران در فضای باز محلات مسکونی ارائه شود. این مطالعه با بهره گیری از روش های پژوهش موردی و مطالعه میدانی، به برداشت متغیرهای اقلیمی و تکمیل پرسشنامه در چهار محله منتخب در دو فصل زمستان و تابستان پرداخته است. در این راستا چهار محله علی قلی آقا، جلفا، مرداویج و دشتستان مورد بررسی و ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. این انتخاب بر اساس معیارهای اولیه، ثانویه و نهایتا تمایز در ساختار فضایی- کالبدی و الگوی ریخت گونه شناسی محلات صورت گرفته است. نشانه های نظریه سازگاری جهت تحلیل و اثبات، شامل تحلیل دمای خنثی، رابطه دمای خارج و دمای خنثی، متوسط دمای ماهیانه و دمای خنثی و نهایتا مقایسه معادله به دست آمده با سایر معادله ها است. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل نشانه های فوق در محلات مورد مطالعه نشان می دهد که نظریه مذکور در شهر اصفهان اثبات شده و قابل تعمیم است.

    کلیدواژگان: نظریه سازگاری، آسایش حرارتی فضاهای باز، دمای خنثی، متوسط دمای ماهیانه، محلات مسکونی شهر اصفهان
  • محسن سرتیپی پور، سحر ندایی طوسی*، سیما سعادت شورک حاجی صفحات 29-44
    نیازهای زیستی و معیشتی امروزین و تغییریابنده ی ساکنان روستایی و پیروی برنامه های روستایی از رویکردهای غیرمشارکتی و اثبات گرایانه، باعث بروز ناهم سازی هایی میان وضعیت اجرا با اهداف برنامه ها شده است؛ در نتیجه، باوجود موفقیت های نسبی برنامه ها، به روزرسانی آن ها امری ضروری به نظر می رسد. بر این اساس، هدف مقاله، با دستور کار سیاست پژوهی، به ارزیابی میزان تحقق پذیری"طرح ویژه ی بهسازی و نوسازی مسکن روستایی" اختصاص یافته است. در چارچوب روش شناسی پژوهش ارزیابانه و با استفاده از پیمایش تصادفی، سه استان نمونه ی گیلان، همدان و سیستان وبلوچستان با سه سطح متفاوت توسعه یافتگی، نفوذپذیری و تحقق پذیری طرح، هدف ارزیابی قرارگرفتند. با توجه به چارچوب منتخب ارزیابی، متشکل از معیارهای پالایش یافته ی مسکن مطلوب و پایدار روستایی و نیز معیارهای مستخرج از اهداف طرح ویژه، نتایج پژوهش، نشان گر موفقیت نسبی برنامه در دست یابی به اهداف ثبات جمعیتی و پایداری توسعه، صرفه مندی در پرداخت تسهیلات و به زیستی و رضایتمندی ذهنی از واحدهای جدید با انحرافاتی جزئی از معیارهای منتخب بوده است. ولی برنامه در زمینه ی معیار پاسخ گویی و انطباق با نیاز متقاضیان و نیز در خصوص معیار مقاومت و ایمنی، با ناهم سازی هایی مواجه بوده است. در نهایت نیز سیاست هایی هم چون طراحی مشارکت محور، ارائه نقشه های منعطف و به روزرسانی طرح های از پیش تعیین شده در راستای پاسخ گویی به نیازهای زیستی و معیشتی و اولویت بخشی به رویکرد توانمندسازی اجتماعات محلی روستایی، تشدید نظارت بر ناظران و تغییرات نقشه ای پس از اجرا به منظور ارتقاء سند و سازوکارهای طرح ویژه پیشنهاد شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی برنامه، نوسازی مسکن روستایی، شاخص های مسکن مطلوب، تحقق پذیری، مناطق روستایی ایران
  • آزاده مهاجرمیلانی، علیرضا عینی فر* صفحات 45-56
    در دهه های اخیر، در الگوهای ساخت مسکن متداول تهران، تحولات زیادی ایجاد شده است. این تحولات با تغییر خانه های حیاط مرکزی ساخته شده با مصالح بنایی به خانه های حیاط دار ردیفی آغاز و با تبدیل به بناهای آپارتمانی با فضاهای مشاع، ادامه یافت. به طوری که شکل گیری سازمان فضایی مسکن امروز تهران با تفاوت های عمده نسبت به الگوهای پیشین، تحت تاثیر ساختار ردیفی و ضوابط بناهای آپارتمانی با ارتفاع کمتر از شش طبقه شکل گرفت. هدف این پژوهش، شناسایی سازمان فضایی واحدهای مسکونی متشکل در الگوی ساخت بناهای مسکونی آپارتمانی ردیفی در تهران است. پرسش اصلی این است که الگوی غالب سازمان فضایی واحدهای مسکونی آپارتمانی ردیفی متداول امروز تهران چیست؟ برای این منظور، در چارچوب روش استدلال منطقی، در منطقه 2 تهران، 128 نمونه پلان واحد مسکونی آپارتمانی پس از کدگذاری در نرم افزار اگراف تحلیل شد. یافته های تحقیق، وجود پنج گونه سازمان فضایی متفاوت را نشان می دهد. از میان این پنج گونه، دو گونه غالب، معرف الگوی سازمان فضایی متداول واحدهای مسکونی آپارتمانی ردیفی امروز تهران است. نتایج به دست آمده بخشی از نتایج پژوهشی وسیع تر است که می تواند با بازنگری برخی از ضوابط طراحی، به انعطاف بیشتری در شکل گیری مسکن آپارتمانی در تهران و دیگر کلانشهرهای ایران منجر شود.
    کلیدواژگان: مسکن ردیفی، گونه شناسی مسکن، الگوی مسکن تهران، اگراف
  • ایرج اسدی* صفحات 57-70

    از زمان طرح موضوع مدیریت مجموعه‏ های شهری در ایران، پیشنهادات متعددی برای تجدید سازمان حکمروایی چه از سوی دولت و چه از سوی پژوهشگران شهری برای اداره یکپارچه این مناطق پیشنهاد شده است. هدف مقاله حاضر طرح و بحث یک چارچوب نظری است که علی ‏الاصول باید در هرگونه تجدید سازمان و بازطراحی نظام های حکمروایی شهری و کلان‏شهری مد نظر قرار گیرد. فقدان این ملاحظه، پیشنهادات اصلاحی ما را فاقد پشتوانه علمی و عقلایی نموده و بغرنجی اجرای این پیشنهادات را بسیار افزون تر خواهد کرد. یافته های مقاله حاکی از این است که پنج اصل عام باید در پیشنهادات اصلاحی و ارزیابی هر نوع تجدید سازمان حکومت‏های محلی مورد ملاحظه قرار گیرند: الف) صرفه ‏های ناشی از مقیاس، ب) درونی‏ کردن اثرات بیرونی، ج) تضمین برابری، د) پاسخ دهی و پاسخ گویی، و ه) تفویض وظایف به پایین‏ترین و کارآمدترین سطح حکومتی. اگر تجدید سازمان حکومت محلی مورد نظر با هدف تاسیس «حکومت کلان‏شهری دوسطحی» صورت می گیرد، بازتاب پنج اصل عام فوق را باید در تدبیر اندیشی برای پنج عرصه زیر دنبال کرد: الف) اندازه قلمرو حکومت کلان‏شهری، ب) اندازه و مرزهای واحدهای حکومتی خردتر، ج) تقسیم مسئولیت ها بین دو سطح حکومتی، د)نوع نمایندگی و مشروعیت حکومت کلان‏شهری، ه) ترسیم روابط بین‏ حکومتی.

    کلیدواژگان: تجدید ساختار حکومت محلی، حکومت کلان شهری، منطقه کلان شهری، اصلاحات قلمرویی، مجموعه شهری
  • مهیار باستانی، امیر سعید محمودی* صفحات 71-84
    روش قیاسی همواره به عنوان یکی از خلاقانه ترین راهکارهای ایده پردازی در فرآیند طراحی معماری مورد توجه بوده است. قیاس به چهار دسته مستقیم، سمبلیک، شخصی و فانتزی تقسیم شده و دو موضوع انتخاب منبع و انتقال منبع به هدف، در فرآیند قیاس اهمیت می یابد. در این مقاله طی یک پژوهش توصیفی (اقدام پژوهی و همبستگی)، پس از تدوین ساختار مناسب برای روش تدریس قیاسی در دروس مقدماتی طراحی معماری، رابطه انواع قیاس با سبک یادگیری دانشجویان مقدمات طراحی بررسی گردید. گردآوری داده ها با استفاده از چک لیست کنترل ویژگی های قیاس و پرسشنامه فلدر و سالمون انجام شد. در سبک فلدر و سالمون، افراد بر اساس چهار معیار تاملی-فعال، حسی-شهودی، کلی-متوالی و دیداری-کلامی قابل تقسیم هستند. تحلیل داده ها با نرم افزار پی ال اس و روش معادلات ساختاری نشان می دهد افراد تاملی در انجام قیاس سمبلیک، افراد فعال در ایجاد قیاس مستقیم، افراد حسی در قیاس های شخصی و دانشجویان با سبک شهودی در قیاس های فانتزی موفقیت بیشتری دارند. همچنین یادگیرندگان با سبک شهودی در انتخاب منابع مناسب و افراد با سبک دیداری و متوالی در انتقال منبع به هدف قیاس موفق تر عمل کرده اند. نتایج این پژوهش در ایجاد روش های آموزشی جدید در دروس مقدمات طراحی مفید خواهد بود.
    کلیدواژگان: روش قیاسی، قیاس در فرآیند طراحی معماری، روش تدریس قیاسی، سبک یادگیری
  • حمید ندیمی، سمیه شریف زاده*، زکیه السادات طباطبایی لطفی صفحات 85-100

    توجه به زندگی انسان و نحوه ی حضور و رفتار او در فضا، از دغدغه های اصلی در طراحی معماری است. از رویکردهای مطرح در این خصوص، تفکر روایت محور در معماری و آموزش آن است. این جستار به بررسی رویکردهای ورود و حضور روایت در فرآیند طراحی و فرصت ها، قابلیت ها و راهکارهای عملی آن در ارتقای آموزش طراحی معماری مبتنی بر زندگی پرداخته است. این بررسی با استفاده از روش اقدام پژوهی؛ از یک سو با مطالعهی تجربیات موجود و ادبیات نظری مرتبط، و از سوی دیگر با پایش نقش و جایگاه تفکر روایت محور در پیش برد طراحی دانشجویان کارگاه طرح یک دانشگاه فردوسی انجام گرفته و از طریق مقایسه ی این دو، به دنبال آشکارسازی و سنجش میزان پاسخ دهی عرصه های نقش آفرینی روایت در فرآیند طراحی برآمده است. نتایج تحلیل ها حاکی از آن است که تفکر روایت محور و تمرین های مرتبط، بازخورد مثبتی در پیش برد و تسهیل فرآیند طراحی دارد و می تواند متناسب با موضوع کارگاه، سطح آموزشی، مراحل مختلف فرآیند و ویژگی دانشجویان، کاربردهای متفاوتی در تمامی مراحل فرآیند طراحی داشته باشد. از سوی دیگر، برخی بازخوردهای منفی دانشجویان و تحلیل مربیان از روند کارگاه، زمینه هایی برای بازبینی و یا ارتقای این رویکرد را آشکار ساخت که در بین آنها می توان به لزوم پرهیز از قرار گرفتن روایت ها در مسیر تخیل غیرواقع بینانه اشاره کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: روایت پردازی، سناریونویسی، فرآیند طراحی، آموزش طراحی معماری
  • مینو قره بگلو*، قاسم مطلبی، سامان صبا صفحات 101-114
    تعامل انسان و محیط را می توان واجد مفاهیمی اعتباری دانست که بنا بر ماهیتی ساختاری مستمرا در فرایند شکل گیری مکان، بر بستری فرهنگی- طبیعی بازتولید می گردند. مفهوم ارزش اساسی ترین شکل این مفاهیم اعتباری است و فضای باز سکونتی هم به جهت استقرار کوچک ترین واحد اجتماعی که ارتباطی بی واسطه با پدیده های طبیعی را فراهم می آورد، عرصه ای مناسب برای ارزیابی این مفاهیم به عنوان بخشی از نظام شناخت مفهومی و مداخله انسان در محیط پیرامون است. ازاین رو در این پژوهش باهدف ارائه یک مدل مفهومی از نظام ارزش ها، این پرسش مطرح گردیده که شکل گیری، کارکرد و ظهور ارزش ها در فضاهای باز سکونتی در معماری سنتی ایران چگونه قابل تبیین است. جهت پاسخ به این پرسش ضمن ارائه خوانشی کاربردی از مفهوم ارزش و بر پایه نظریه اعتبارات، ساختاری مدور بر مبنای ارتباط انسان با ارکان اصلی محیط پیشنهاد شد که از دو مولفه محتوی و اهمیت نسبی ارزش ها تشکیل شده است. این نظام مدور در 10 گونه فضای باز سکونتی در معماری سنتی ایران استخراج و مقایسه شده است که نشان می دهد علی رغم شباهت بسیار در محتوی ارزش ها، نظام ارزش ها بر اساس شرایط محیطی دارای تفاوت هایی در این گونه ها است و بنابراین نمی توان نظام ارزش ها را موضوعی مجرد و ذهنی در نظر گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختمان های مسکونی، فضاهای باز، نظام ارزش ها، نظریه اعتباریات
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  • Mojtaba Rafieian *, Ayda Kianfar Pages 5-16

    Today, the increasing process of urbanization has become one of the main phenomena of the 21st century. According to World Bank statistics, in 2018, more than 55 per cent of the world's population, equivalent to 4.2 billion lives in urban areas. The urban population will increase to 68% in 2050. Also, estimates show that about 2.5 billion people will be added to the urban population and about 90% of the expected increase will be in urban areas in developing countries. Based on estimates of Un-Habitat (2016), about 1 billion of the urban population lives in informal settlements expecting its population will be triple to 2050. The phenomenon involving about 41 per cent of the urban population in developing countries and 6 per cent of the urban population in developed countries.The phenomenon of informal urban settlement as an aspect of urban gray space has become one of the common phenomena of metropolises in the world, and in particular Tehran, characterized by poverty, migration, economic and social inequality, on the one hand, and, produced by the deficiency of the Urban policy and planning, on the other hand. This has led to the emergence of a set of the institutions, power relations, practices and discourses in urban gray spaces. Generally, the gray space is a space that is directly related to the power of action, the structure of content and the form of urban policies. The main objective of this paper is to study and identify existing structures, the role and place of power and politics at the levels of urban planning concerning these spaces. In line with, this research seeks to answer two main questions of what the dimensions of gray spaces are experienced by inhabitants. In addition, whether the inhabitants of gray spaces can contribute to the planning and decision making of this space? In this regard, Razavie district, located in the 15th district of Tehran, has been selected as the space to show power relations. Therefore, in this research, based on the analysis of the critical discourse of Fairclough and the interview done in this place, a descriptive interpretation has been revealed during interviews with residents of Razavie district. Research findings suggest the six categories Include power relations, the environmental capital, conflict of interest, discourse policy, right to the city and citizen inequality are the categories by which one can describe the everyday experience of the inhabitants of gray spaces and in the framework of the paradigm model defining the urban gray space conceptualize and legitimizes it. Based on this model, the paradigm of research and, with the help of the categories, the nature of the informal experience and the process of its occurrence are described. The importance of the economic and political dimensions of changes and the role of power along with other socio-spatial dimensions of these spaces reflect the unequal citizenship spectrum in metropolitan areas with increasing polarization. Nevertheless, planning can provide categories and mechanisms for varieties of powers, the possibility of whitening or blackening urban development.

    Keywords: Gray space, Urban planning, Power relations, Razavie district, Fairclough Critical Discourse Analysis
  • Fatemeh Alsadat Majidi *, Shahin Heidari Pages 17-28

    Adaptability in thermal comfort involves all the processes people are doing to adapt their environment and their needs. In other words, human beings themselves have changed the thermal environments as much as possible in order to achieve thermal comfort. On the other, Comfort in outdoor urban is one of the main factors of using these spaces by citizens and creating an appropriate environment for them through protecting against inappropriate climatic conditions is essential. Accordingly, the present paper tries to analyze the signs of adaptability in the thermal comfort of outdoor of residential neighborhoods in order to prove the adaptive theory in Isfahan city and finally to provide a thermal equation for determining the users comfort temperature in open spaces of residential neighborhoods. by reviewing the history of research done, it can be concluded that despite some research in this field, a research that systematically analyzes the signs of adaptive theory in the thermal comfort of open spaces in residential neighborhoods and then confirms or rejects the results and finally proves the adaptive theory has not been conducted. In addition, by the help of review of literature of researches, it can be concluded that despite the necessity and importance of thermal comfort in urban open spaces, the studies devoted to this issue are less than evaluation of the thermal comfort in buildings and closed spaces. This research, in the first step, requires a field study of environmental and personal variables and then the assessment of thermal comfort in the studied areas. This study, using case studies and field study, has dealt to collect climate variables and complete the questionnaire in four selected neighborhoods in winter and summer. In this regard, four neighborhoods of Ali Gholi Agha, Jolfa, Mardavij and Dashtestan were examined and evaluated. Sample size includes residents and users of open spaces in selected neighborhoods. 100 questionnaires were used to survey 100 people in each field under the Nicol method Therefore, in this research, 800 residents and neighborhood users were selected as the sample size who randomly completed 800 questionnaires in four neighborhoods and in two cold and hot seasons. The results related to the analysis of the signs of adaptive theory including neutral temperature, outside temperature and neutral temperature ratios, monthly temperature average and neutral temperature, and comparison of the obtained equation with other equations in the studied neighborhoods indicate that the aforementioned theory was proved in Isfahan and can be generalized.Concerning this, two thermal equations are presented to determine the users comfort temperature in the open spaces of Isfahan neighborhoods. In these equations, with the average monthly temperature and outside temperature, the comfort temperature of the open space users of the neighborhoods of Isfahan is obtained.  In general, according to the obtained equation for open spaces of Isfahan and its comparison with other equations of the open space of the world and Iran, it can be stated that people in each city and country according to their climatic, cultural and social conditions, adapt themselves to the thermal conditions of that area.

    Keywords: Adaptive Theory, Thermal Comfort of Open Spaces, Neutral temperature, Monthly Temperature Averages, Isfahan residential neighborhoods
  • Mohsen Sartipi Pour, Sahar Nedae Tousi *, Sima Saadat Shoorak Haji Pages 29-44
    Assessment is a systematic method of collecting, analyzing and using measurement results to improve the development plans and its timing. Initiated in 2005, the special plan for the improvement and renewal of rural housing to provide resilient housing in line with rural needs annually renovates 200,000 rural residential units according to the Islamic Revolution's Housing Foundation. Despite the relative success of the Rural Improvement and Renewal plan, two main factors necessitated the assessment studies for rooting, pathology and corrective suggestions: observing the paradox between the implementation and some process/content goals outlined in the Special Plan and the developments and complexities resulting from changes in construction technologies and spatial needs of rural applicants. Accordingly, our aim is to assess the realization and implications of special plan in the framework of the evaluative research methodology using theoretical assessment and impact assessment through randomized social survey in three provinces of Gilan, Hamedan and Sistan Baluchestan with three different levels of development, permeability and realization. Sampling was carried out in three stages: (1) selecting provinces based on human-physical indicators(showing the development level among the factors influencing the successful implementation), provincial institutional features including administrative, legal, and financial characteristics as well as realization and permeability coefficients as two variables indicating the status of the special plan’s permeation and realization in rural units. The main objectives of this study included: identifying theoretical and content constraints of the Special Plan, two research missions for desirability assessment and theoretical efficiency and assessing the realization of the improvement and renewal of rural housing in the three main axes: (1) the procedural axes, (2) the aesthetic/native-oriented quality axis, (3) the contextual axis such as resistance, satisfaction and mental well-being, etc. which are measurable using quantity criteria. Considering the research limitations, this study only deals with the third axis results. In the framework of the selected conceptual model of research based on the review of criteria of sustainable and decent rural housing, the theoretical adequacy assessment tools and realization of sustainable and decent rural housing measures in the targeted villages include a few criteria the validated through theoretical foundations and concordance with the actors of the special including population stability and sustainability of development, accountability and adaptation to needs, subjective well-being and satisfaction, economic continuity and ability of residents, compliance with the requirements of ambitious plans, resilience and safety, social security and the quality of cases. The results indicated that the plan was relatively successful regarding population stability and sustainability of development, economic continuity, affordability and economic capacity, well-being and mental satisfaction of residents. However, the plan partly failed to meet the criteria of accountability and adaptation to the needs of applicants with paradoxes such as failure to meet certain livelihood needs, as well as resilience and safety. Finally, participatory design policies, flexible mapping and updating of predetermined plans for meeting the livelihood needs and prioritizing the rural-community empowerment approach, intensified monitoring by supervisors, and post-implementation map changes have been proposed to promote documents and mechanisms of this plan.
    Keywords: Planning Assessment, Rural Housing Renewal, Desirable Housing Index, Realization, Iran's Rural Area
  • Azadeh Mohajer Milani, Alireza Aeinifar * Pages 45-56
    This paper addresses the typology of the internal arrangement of the common residential building in Tehran. It consists of two-principle study. The first is building a knowledge basis for the typology studies of row type apartments which conclude in introducing a framework of determinants defining different factors in which shaping the internal arrangement of apartments, and the second is the empirical survey of those factors in the sample of 128 row-type apartment layout. Addressing the common type, many developments had happened in the housing culture of Iran, which changed the common type through time. In recent decades, there have been many challenges in the planning and designing of apartment buildings. One of these challenges was matching cultural principles with new forces of the city, like densification. Furthermore, the increasing demand in the market caused because of the capital’s population growth, followed by modernization, changed the common apartment layouts. This expansion provides a massive housing construction in Tehran, which then happened to spread the new patterns of housing design, called residential units in row type apartments as the common type. In this regard, developments began with the replacement of the central courtyard brick houses into row type houses and continued to turn into row type apartments. Investigations showed that not only the urban fabric but also the internal arrangement of houses and then the apartment layout has changed through these developments. As a result, the internal arrangement of today’s residential units is different from the pattern used to be called Iranian housing pattern. This study is trying to investigate the internal arrangement of residential buildings today for the probable typologies made through new arrangements. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the pattern of residential buildings’ layout today for the probable typologies made through the new arrangements. The main question is what is the main type of the internal arrangements of residential units in today’s apartment buildings in Tehran? Where methodology is concerned, the framework of logical argumentation method seems to be appropriate for developing the framework. Secondly, the empirical part of this study has been analyzed in a sample of 128 apartments built in recent years, in district 2 of Tehran, known to be able to represent the whole city according to the multi-stage sampling method. In addition, a theoretical approach that particularly addresses configurational aspects of space, named Space Syntax has been selected as the basis for carrying out the analysis and the software AGRAPH, to graphitize the comparison of the plans. Some very similar configurational patterns have been found in this survey. The apartment’s “second form” emerge through the justified graphs as the result of using the software AGRAPH, illustrate the existence of five types of internal arrangement, two of which are the most frequent ones called type A and D and can be introduced as the internal arrangement’s pattern of today’s apartments. This study is a part of a residential building code research that can be extended to farther practical results.
    Keywords: space syntax, AGRAPH, Tehran’s apartments, Apartment’s typology, internal arrangement
  • Iradj Asadie* Pages 57-70

    Since the initial introduction of the management of metropolitan regions in Iran in 1995, numerous governmental structures have been proposed by the government or by urban researchers to manage these large-scale territories. Studies show that managerial proposals related to the Integrated Administration of metropolitan regions, which are proposed by the government in a concrete respect to the existing laws, were very crude, loose and inefficient, and later they are abandoned and forgotten in the absence of enabling factors of metropolitan governance. On the other hand, at least in the framework of three research projects that have been carried out on the integrated management of metropolitan regions, various governmental structures have been proposed for the integrated management of such territories. In many cases, both the scientific community and policymakers also neglect these proposals. Our surveys show that each of the proposals in these researches has several weaknesses in terms of the theories, principles and criteria that should be considered in any urban local government reorganization. The purpose of this paper is to prepare and discuss a theoretical framework that should be considered in any reorganizing of local and regional governments in metropolitan scale. The findings of the paper suggest that two important functional and local community dimensions influence the size and function of metropolitan governments, where the lack of attention to them can lead to the production of proposals that are not fitted to the existing contexts and in terms of scientific methodology are defective. These two dimensions are discussed in five distinct criteria: a) economy of scale; b) internalization of externalities; c) equity; d) responsiveness and accountability; and e) subsidiarity. In addition to presenting the theoretical framework of this topic, this paper tries to apply its theoretical principles in evaluating one of the comprehensive proposed models for the governmental restructuring of Iran's metropolitan regions, which is a federative/two-tier metropolitan government. It is clear that if the intended local government reorganization is aimed at establishing a "two-tiered metropolitan government", the reflection of the above five general principles should be followed in devising following five areas: (a) the size of the metropolitan government territory, b) the size and boundaries of the lower units of government,c) the division of responsibilities between two levels of government, d) the type of representation and legitimacy of metropolitan government,e) the delineation of intergovernmental relations. It should be remembered that the issue of the reorganization of the metropolitan government is one of the most complex, multidisciplinary and highly political topics that make it extremely difficult to provide a perfect model and structure in terms of scientific methodology, political acceptability and economic efficiency. With implementing such local government reorganizations, so much power resources must be transferred, which is why such a thing is politically serious. It is evident that former owners of those power and stakes in former framework will resist this great transformation. The theoretical framework presented here can be expanded much more widely and will guide the thinking and practice of political and territorial reorganization in our country.

    Keywords: local government reorganization, metropolitan government, metropolitan region, territorial reforms, majmoo-e-shahri
  • Mahyar Bastani_Amir Saeid M Mahmoodi * Pages 71-84
    The current literature review of design studies indicates the importance of “conceptualization” period during the design process of architecture. There are four major design methods frequently used by architects in the phase of conceptualization. They are called: “analogic”, “typologic”, “pragmatic”, and “theoretic” methods. Analogical method has always been considered as one of the most innovative methods for conceptualization. It is usually considered in four types of: “Direct”, “Symbolic, “Personal” and “Fantasy” analogy. It is important, however, to recognize that there are two critical issues in all analogies: “Identification” and “Retrieval” of selected data source. Two challenging factors in selecting analogical design method are related to the “teaching method” of the educator and the “learning style” of the learner. Learning in design is an internal process that is different for each student. A student’s preferred method for receiving information in any learning environment is considered as his/her Learning Style. Evident show, various learning-style models are employed in design education. The most common learning-style models are known as Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (1981), Felder-Soloman’s Index of Learning Styles (2004) and Ned Herrmann Whole Brain Model (1989). In their definitions, for example, Felder & Soloman identified eight types of learning styles and place them in four scales of: Active/Reflective, Sensing/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal and Sequential/Global. In the first section, this article using Action Research method introduces a new teaching method in the field of analogical methods. This teaching method is applied over a period of three weeks in pre design courses. The second section, using correlation method, investigates the relationship between the types of analogy and the learning styles used by 100 predesign students at 2 Universities, in Gorgan. Data collection was conducted by using a checklist for comparison between the features of analogy and Felder & Soloman questionnaires.The analysis of the data was conducted by SMART-PLS software. The findings of the Structural equation method in this research indicate that: =Students with different learning styles tend to use different types of analogies in the process of ideas and they got different levels of success in performing analogy. When professors use analogical method or when faced with students who use an analogical method to create their design concept, they should pay attention to their individual differences in the direction of students. =Most students of architecture tend to use Direct and Symbolic analogy in their projects. On the other hand, in learning style field, a strong preference is reported in Active/ Intuitive/ Visual and Sequential scales by the students. =Reflective learners use symbols and concepts for analogy and they are more successful in performing Symbolic analogy. On the other hand, Active learners are more likely to use the available sources and have more success in direct analogy. =Sensing learners is reported more successful in Personal analogy and Intuitive learners make better outcomes in Fantasy analogy. =Investigating design sketches indicates that Intuitive learners act better in Identification and Retrieval of the source of analog. =Sequential and Visual learners have been more successful in mapping and transferring the source into the target.
    Keywords: Analogical method, Design process in architecture, Analogical teaching method, Learning style
  • HAMAID NADIMI, Somayyeh Sharifzadeh *, Zakiyeh Tabatabaei Pages 85-100

    An acknowledged approach in the design process aiming at conformity with the life of inhabitants and their attitude towards the built space is using narratives. With an action research approach, this research aims to study the role of narrative approach in the architecture education, and the potentials of narrative-based methods for upgrading the design studio practice for beginning architecture students. To this end, the theoretical framework of the research was first developed; the research was then followed through a practical survey on the beginning architecture students in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The survey was conducted through a number of studio tasks based on scenario writing. Data was gathered by examining the students’ scenarios besides their answers to a number of key questions about the effectiveness of the investigated approach. In this survey, the narrative approach showed to be capable of; helping to interpret the design problem, facilitating thinking about solution concepts, organizing a spatial narrative due to the events of life, provoking creative thinking by activating exploratory imagination, enabling visualization of spaces, clarifying the stages and steps of the design process, helping to uncover the clues to leap over hurdles, organizing data and constructing meaning out of them, facilitating effective communication of ideas, and evaluating the design throughout the design process by repetitive narration of the conceivable presence of the users in the built space. From the mentioned roles, the better understanding of the design problem at the beginning of the design process and activation and promotion of thinking about the solutions through scenario writing was most evident in the survey results. This was made possible by focusing on the role-players, activities and the scenes as the threefold aspects of the narrative event in the written scenarios. Shedding light on the stages of the design process was the second most mentioned role. ‌Besides the positive roles, there has also been some negative feedback and faults unfolded. Some of these are as follows: weakness of some at writing, to be solved by using non-literary forms of scenarios; discontinuity of the ideas created through scenarios in the further design levels which needs repititive use and reference of scenarios through the design process; and the lack of complete competence of design with the real life of the predicted users due to lack of time and facilities for precise field studies and limited and mostly personal narrative imagination of the students. The latter is the most important issue which needs the notice of the instructors to guide the students to more real and executable designs with more information-based scenarios. To summarize the findings, it can be declared that with guidance to avoid the flaws, narrative thinking does have a positive effect on the development of the design process. It speeds up and facilitates the design ideation for the beginning students and helps them to better explore and interpret the subject of design and finally, it can play different roles in various stages of the process, in accordance with the subject of design task as well as the competence level of the design students.

    Keywords: Narrative, Scenario writing, design process, architecture education
  • Minou Gharehbaglou *, Ghasem Motalebi, Saman Saba Pages 101-114
    Human-environmental interactions contain contingent concepts which, for their structural quiddity, are constantly reproduced, as a product of these interactions, in the placemaking process and in a natural and cultural context. The concept of value is the most fundamental instance of a contingent concept. Besides, an open space for a residential building, as the smallest unit that provides immediate communication between the human society and natural elements or phenomena, is an appropriate field for evaluating these concepts as part of the conceptual recognition system and human intervention in the environment. Therefore, with the aim of providing a conceptual model of the value system in the relationship between humans and the built environment, this study tries to figure out how we can explain the emergence, development and functioning of values in open spaces for residential buildings in traditional Iranian architecture. Additionally, the term value is used to introduce a diverse range of concepts, and this indiscrimination in usage seems to have led to theoretical obfuscation in the terminology. It is a necessary first step, then, to recognize the concept of value at the theoretical level via an interdisciplinary research that spans the fields of sociology, philosophy and architecture. Accordingly, to answer the research question, an applied interpretation of the concept of value will be presented based on the theory of contingents (i`tibariāt) with auxiliary recourse to the theory of structuration. In this interpretation, values are contingent concepts which, with structural properties in individual and social behavior, serve as norms in human-environmental decision making. To explore this in selected cases, as based on the relation of humans to the main elements of environment, the present study proposes a circular structure which is comprised of two components: content of values and relative importance of values. This circular system was extracted from and compared in ten types of open spaces for residential buildings in traditional Iranian architecture. The samples were selected based on theoretical sampling, relevance to the research subject and the richness of patterns. The content of values were extracted through an integrated analysis of formal/physical features as well as environmental constraints, patterns and concepts, and then inferring values from those environmental concepts. The analysis is organized into four axes including human communication with God, nature, history and society as the main elements of environment. The relative importance of values was also achieved through the grading of compatibility between the optimal, the possible and the ideal in the realization of environmental concepts in discovered patterns. An analysis of the circular system of values in selected cases shows that, despite a strong resemblance in content, the human-environment value system exhibits different properties depending on environmental conditions. Therefore, the value system cannot be conceived of as abstract, independent and subjective. This highlights the importance of focusing not only on the content but also on the structure and system of values. In addition, environmental conditions can be considered as an important factor in the reproduction process and the sustainability of values in society.
    Keywords: residential buildings, open spaces, value system, theory of contingents