فهرست مطالب

Health Policy and Management - Volume:9 Issue: 2, 2020
  • Volume:9 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Zhen Luo, Guilhem Fabre, Victor G. Rodwin * Pages 47-52

    China’s estimated 114 million people with diabetes pose a massive challenge for China’s health policy-makers who have significantly extended health insurance coverage over the past decade. What China is doing now, what it has achieved, and what remains to be done should be of interest to health policy-makers, worldwide. We identify the challenges posed by China’s two principal strategies to tackle diabetes: (1) A short-term pilot strategy of health promotion, detection and control of chronic diseases in 265 national demonstration areas (NDAs); and (2) A long-term strategy to extend health promotion and strengthen primary care capacity and health system integration throughout China. Finally, we consider how Chinese innovations in artificial intelligence (AI) and Big Data may contribute to improving diagnosis, controlling complications and increasing access to care. Health system integration in China will require overcoming the fragmentation of a system that still places excessive reliance on local government financing. Moreover, what remains to be done resembles deeper challenges faced by healthcare systems worldwide: the need to upgrade primary care and reduce inequalities in access to health services.

    Keywords: China, Diabetes, Health Policy, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data
  • Fariyal F. Fikree *, Habtamu Zerihun Pages 53-64
    Background Donor funded projects are small scale and time limited, with gains that soon dissipate when donor funds end. This paper presents findings that sought to understand successes, challenges and barriers that influence the scaling up and sustainability of a tested, strengthened youth-friendly service (YFS) delivery model providing an expanded contraceptive method choice in one location – the YFS unit – with additional units in Amhara and Tigray, Ethiopia.   Methods This retrospective mixed methods study included interviews with key informants (KIs) (qualitative arm) and analysis of family planning (FP) uptake statistics extracted from the sampled health facilities (quantitative arm). A multistage convenience purposive sampling technique was adopted to randomly select 8 health facilities aligned with respective woredas, zones and regional health bureaus (RHBs). A semi-structured interview guide soliciting information on 6 scaling-up elements (stakeholder engagement, roles and responsibility, policy environment, financial resources, quality of voluntary FP services and data availability and use) guided the interviews. Fifty-six KI interviews were conducted with policy-makers, program managers, and clinic staff. Recurring themes were triangulated across administrative levels and implementing partners. Relevant FP data (acceptor status, age and method uptake) were extracted from the 8 sampled health facilities for a thirteen-month period. Qualitative findings triangulated with FP service statistics assessed the influence of the 6 scaling-up elements with trends in long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) uptake before and after training.   Results Our findings depict that respondents were knowledgeable and supportive of an expanded method mix. Statistically significant increases in long-acting contraceptive uptake were noted at 2 of the 8 health centers. Fidelity to the tested model was operationally constrained; respondents frequently mentioned trained staff absences and turnover as obstacles in offering quality FP services.   Conclusion Despite conducive policy environment, supportive stakeholders, favorable environment, and financial support for trainings, statistically significant increases in LARC uptake occurred at only 2 of the 8 health centers; indicating the influence of weak health systems, poor quality of voluntary FP services and a ceiling effect. Scale-up processes must consider potential bottlenecks of weak health systems and availability of financial resources by addressing these as crucial elements in any systematic scale-up framework.
    Keywords: Family Planning, Youth-Friendly Services, Scaling-up, Mixed Methods Study, Ethiopia
  • Abby Haynes *, Kate Garvey, Seanna Davidson, Andrew Milat Pages 65-76
    Background There is increasing interest in using systems thinking to tackle ‘wicked’ policy problems in preventive health, but this can be challenging for policy-makers because the literature is amorphous and often highly theoretical. Little is known about how best to support health policy-makers to gain skills in understanding and applying systems thinking for policy action.   Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 policy-makers who are participating in an Australian research collaboration that uses a systems approach. Our aim was to explore factors that support policy-makers to use systems approaches, and to identify any impacts of systems thinking on policy thinking or action, including the pathways through which these impacts occurred.   Results All 18 policy-makers agreed that systems thinking has merit but some questioned its practical policy utility. A small minority were confused about what systems thinking is or which approaches were being used in the collaboration. The majority were engaged with systems thinking and this group identified concrete impacts on their work. They reported using systems-focused research, ideas, tools and resources in policy work that were contributing to the development of practical methodologies for policy design, scaling up, implementation and evaluation; and to new prevention narratives. Importantly, systems thinking was helping some policy-makers to reconceptualise health problems and contexts, goals, potential policy solutions and methods. In short, they were changing how they think about preventive health.   Conclusion These results show that researchers and policy-makers can put systems thinking into action as part of a research collaboration, and that this can result in discernible impacts on policy processes. In this case, action-oriented collaboration and capacity development over a 5-year period facilitated mutual learning and practical application. This indicates that policy-makers can get substantial applied value from systems thinking when they are involved in extended co-production processes that target policy impact and are supported by responsive capacity strategies.
    Keywords: Systems Thinking, Co-production, Policy-Making, Capacity Development, Public Health
  • Cristiano Gori * Pages 77-79
    The ageing of the countries’ populations, and in particular the growing number of the very old, is increasing the need for long-term care (LTC). Not surprisingly, therefore, the financing of LTC systems has become a crucial topic across the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). In the last three decades, various financing policies have been carried out in different countries and the related international debate has grown. The latter has so far focused mostly on the different alternatives to collect economic resources to pay for care. The international debate needs now to focus also on other issues, so far less discussed. One is the politics of LTC: the degree and nature of the political interest in LTC, that affects the size and profile of public financing. The other is resource allocation: how different services and benefits are distributed among people with different care needs, that determines if resources made available are optimized. If we do not pay more attention to these issues – inextricably connected to policies aimed to collect funds – our understanding of LTC financing will remain inevitably limited.
    Keywords: Long-term Care, OECD, Financing, Politics, Resource Allocation
  • Johannes Geyer * Pages 80-82
    The comparison of long-term care (LTC) expenditures is a difficult task. National LTC systems differ widely in terms of eligibility criteria, level of benefits, institutional variety and regional heterogeneity. In this commentary I will first give some general remarks on cross country comparisons. Then I discuss the role of the informal sector which is the most important pillar of all LTC systems. I conclude with some background on current developments in Germany. Different from Japan Germany is extending its LTC insurance instead of containing costs.
    Keywords: Long-term Care, Social Insurance, International Comparison, Public Expenditures
  • Ming Jui Yeh * Pages 83-86

    This paper comments on Naoki Ikegami’s editorial entitled “Financing long-term care: lessons from Japan.” Adding to the editorial, this paper focuses on analyzing the political and cultural foundations of long-term care (LTC) reform. Intergenerational solidarity and inclusive, prudential public deliberation are needed for the establishment or reform of LTC systems. Among various lines of ethical reasoning related to LTC, Confucian ethics and other familist ethics are specifically important in the societies that share these values. The core issue in the debates around LTC reform is how to (re-)define the scope of social entitlements and accordingly to allocate the responsibility for care between states and families, between social groups, and between generations with limited resources.

    Keywords: Democracy, Intergenerational Solidarity, Confucian Ethics, Responsibility for Care, East Asia
  • Trisha Greenhalgh * Pages 87-88
    This commentary addresses Bowen et al’s empirical study of perspectives of Canadian healthcare staff towards research and their call for multi-faceted action to improve misalignments in the system. This commentary argues that tensions and misalignments between research and service are inherent and can never be eradicated. Building on previous work by Lanham et al, I propose seven principles of complexity which may help to develop system capacities that will help bridge the research-service gap: acknowledge unpredictability, recognise selforganisation, facilitate interdependencies, encourage sensemaking, attend to human relationships, develop adaptive capabilities in staff, and harness conflict productively.
    Keywords: Health System, Knowledge Translation, Complexity, Research-Service Gap
  • Dick Chamla *, Claudia Vivas Torrealba Pages 89-90