فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 4, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Masoud Dadashi*, Shaian Tavakolian, Ebrahim Faghihloo Page 106
    Background

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered as one of the most common carcinogenic viruses in humans throughout the world and is mostly associated with gynecologic malignancies. However, it is also one of the environmental factors that is involved in colorectal cancer (CRC).

    Objective

    A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in patients suffering from the CRC.

    Methods

    The frequency of the HPV in patients with CRC was studied from 2001 to 2016. To this end, several databases were reviewed, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Iranmedex, and the Scientific Information Database. Then, the analysis was done by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (V2.0, Biostat) software. Considering heterogeneity between different studies, the random effect model was used and then the results were checked with Cochran’s Q-statistic.

    Results

    The meta-analysis revealed that the frequency of HPV infection in patients with CRC was 33.7% (a 95% CI of 28.4-39.5). The additional stratified analysis also showed that HPV infection in CRC patients was more widespread in European countries compared to Asian and American countries.

    Conclusion

    The high rate of HPV infection is a major concern in sexually transmitted diseases around the world, therefore, controlling high-risk behaviors, vaccination, screening, and HPV subtyping can be useful in managing HPV infections.

    Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Colorectal cancer, Meta-analysis
  • Farzad Khademi *, Amirhossein Sahebkar Page 113
    Objective

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Yersinia species, especially Y. enterocolitica from non-clinical and clinical isolates in Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and the Scientific Information Database (SID) using "antibiotic resistance", "Yersinia", and "Iran" as major keywords until June 10, 2019. According to the predefined article selection criteria, published studies addressing the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Yersinia species in Iran were included in the meta-analysis. Data were extracted and exported to the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software to evaluate antibiotic resistance rates, heterogeneity of studies and publication bias.

    Results

    Twelve studies reported antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disk diffusion method. The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Yersinia species in food and clinical specimens in Iran was as follows: 22.4% to amoxicillin, 41.9% to ampicillin, 6% to gentamicin, 17% to trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, 19% to tetracycline, 10.3% to ciprofloxacin, 10.5% to streptomycin, 3.8% to chloramphenicol, 79.3% to cephalothin, 18.4% to nalidixic acid, 6.6% to cefotaxime, and 12.2% to trimethoprim.

    Conclusion

    This study revealed a high prevalence of resistant Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from food and clinical specimens in Iran to β-lactams, while the resistance rates to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolone and chloramphenicol were low. Our findings recommended the necessity of a continuous surveillance of the resistance patterns and prudent use of trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid to prevent the development of antibioticresistant Y. enterocolitica strains in Iran.

    Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Yersinia, Iran
  • Fatemeh Mahdavi, Fatemeh Zaboli, Rahem Khoshbakht* Page 121
    Background

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are one of the most important multidrug resistant microorganisms that threaten human health.

    Objective

    The present study was conducted to evaluate genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of erythromycin resistance among MRSA isolates recovered from raw milk in Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    A total of 50 MRSA isolates were recovered from raw milk. Tests for erythromycin and clindamycin susceptibility and inducible clindamycin resistance were done. In addition, the presence of the methicillin resistance determinant (mecA), erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA) and an important virulence gene (Panton– Valentine leukocidin) were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    Results

    Forty-eight percent (24/50) and 46% (23/50) of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Seven (14%) isolates showed inducible clindamycin resistance phenotype. The mecA gene was detected in 88% (44/50) of MRSA isolates. The incidence of the ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes was 14%, 64%, 12%, and 26%, respectively and the PVL gene was present in 18% (9/50) of MRSA isolates.

    Conclusion

    According to the results of the study, the incidence of erythromycin resistance genes and inducible clindamycin-resistant MRSA strains was high in raw milk samples in Iran

    Keywords: Methicillin resistant, Staphylococcus aureus, Erythromycin, Resistance
  • Kaveh Eskandari, Shahram Khademvatan, Batool Sadeghi Nejad*, Sedigheh Yusef Naanaie, Kobra kohansal Page 126
    Background

    Leishmaniasis is a major global health problem which affects millions of people, especially in the developing countries. The incidence of leishmaniasis has increased and there is no vaccination for Leishmania infections and standard drugs for treatment of the disease have many side effects; therefore, it is necessary to find new effective alternatives.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antileishmanial activity of Ixora brachiata root extract against Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum promastigotes.

    Materials and Methods

    Different doses of the selected plant extract was tested against L. major and L. infantum promastigotes using colorimetric MTT [3-(4, 5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Glucantime was used as the positive control.

    Results

    Anti-parasitic activity was revealed for I. brachiata root on L. major and L. infantum with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.91 and 2.63 µg/mL, respectively compared to the standard drugs, glucantime, which had an IC50 value of 40.2 µg/mL for L. major and 18.5 µg/ mL for L. infantum after 72 hours.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study created a new background on the development of drug against leishmania parasite.

    Keywords: Antileishmanial, Leishmania major, Leishmania infantum, Promastigote, Ixora brachiata, Colorimetric MTT
  • Vahid Raissi, Mohammad Zibaei, Parvaneh Sarani Aliabadi, Zeinab Hashemi Baghi, Soudabeh Etemadi* Page 130
    Background

    There are many pathogenic intestinal parasites in humans, one of which is Giardia lamblia. This parasite has a variety of clinical symptoms in individuals. Poor health, weather conditions, and inappropriate lifestyle are all factors contributing to the high incidence of giardiasis.

    Objective

    Based on factors influencing the prevalence of giardiasis in the region, this study was performed on subjects referred to Zahedan health care centers.

    Materials and Methods

    A total of 671 stool specimens of subjects who referred between March 2017 and October 2018 were examined using direct and formalin ether concentration techniques. All demographic and clinical data in questionnaires were recorded. Data were analyzed using X2 test to determine any differences in the prevalence of giardiasis and clinical symptoms between different age groups.

    Results

    Of 671 samples, 346 (51.1%) were positive. The most common complaint among participants was abdominal pain (64.1%), followed by diarrhea (53.7%), abdominal cramps (44.7%), nausea (32.6%), weight loss (30.9%), anorexia (26.8%), headache (22.2%), fatigue (14.1%), and fever (13.2%). Most of the clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain, abdominal cramp, weight loss, and headache were reported in females, and the results of chi-square test showed a significant difference (P<0.05). The age group of 1-12 years had the highest percentage of infection (49.42%). The data indicated that the highest rate of infection was observed in this group, showing a significant difference in comparison with other age groups (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that in addition to health education, preventing the transmission of parasites to children would also be necessary.

    Keywords: Epidemiology, Giardiasis, Clinical signs, Iran
  • Masoumeh Ghesmati, Alireza Jashni Motlagh* Page 134

    Non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting glycine metabolism that is a rare metabolic disorder in infants. The clinical manifestations of poor sucking, hypotonicity, lethargy, hiccups, and seizures develop within six hours to eight days of the birth of an otherwise healthy newborn. The present study introduced a newborn girl with poor feeding and hypotonia in the first day after birth with NKH. In addition, the patient was evaluated regarding hypotonia and poor feeding. The neonatal-onset NKH was diagnosed based on a markedly elevated cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glycine ratio of 0.32 and confirmed by the genetic test. It is extremely rare that NKH is manifested with poor feeding and hypotonia thus considering this diagnosis in infants with poor feeding and hypotonia is highly important.

    Keywords: Non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, Neonate, Hypotonia