فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 35 (پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Mehdi Pirhayati, Behnam Pedram*, Alireza Anisi Page 1

    Lorestan province in west of Iran, with its rich rivers, established links between the capitals and important cities of Iran during different periods. The need for quick and easy access and permanent communication between these areas with rich rivers and deep valleys, has led to the construction of huge bridges. The undiscovered identity and value of these works for the indigenous people of the region, the country and the international community, destruction of the works and the natural environment associated with it by indigenous people, Absence of the program and the necessary funds for conservation and restoration by trustees, to ignore the natural environment and the natural context of bridges in conservation, all have made these valuable properties destroyed. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify the cultural landscape of the studied bridges and their challenges of conservation in order to provide a basis for a systematic model to conserve them. In this research, information gathering was carried out in the form of library and field studies, and four important bridges were identified on the Kashkan River. Ultimately, the Kashkan Bridge was chosen as a case study due to its location on ancient routs, Sassanian architecture roots and unique architecture. In the following, conservation challenges of cultural landscape of Kashkan historic bridge were identified, analyzed and categorized using qualitative research method, data analysis and its related coding.

    Keywords: Cultural Landscape, Historical bridges of Lorestan, Qualitative data coding, challenges of conservation, Kashkan Historical Bridge
  • Ameneh Golestan, Mehran Houshiar Page 26

    Nastaliq script has gradually fluctuated from the beginning until the middle of Qajar era. Simultaneously with the prevalence of lithographic printing in cities of Iran, some changes were made in shape of letters thanks to limitations of this emerging industry for writing Persian texts. While majority of calligraphers persisted to use their traditional writing style, a few number of artists such as Kalhor, however, developed a new method which resulted in creation of a special style appeared in the third period of Qajar era. The present study, analyzing library sources and also applying field research techniques, has endeavored to compare the shape and structure of letters and words of Nastaliq script in lithographic print of SafarName –ye- Khorasan (book of voyage to Khorasan) and manuscript of SafarName –ye- Qom (book of voyage to Qom) in comparativedescriptive method. The findings show that Kalhor's transcription of SafarName –ye- Khorasan, which has been written with the pen angle of 64°, includes more lines per page and the beginnings of lines and also proper names have been indicated in it by some marks. The readability of the script has been considered in the process of writing the mentioned work and the features of writing style in third period of Qajar are obviously manifested in it. Moreover, the shrinking form of letters and words, which has been of Kalhor's innovations reflecting the impacts of new method of lithography, is also found in the manuscript of SafarName –ye- Qom. These and other similar reforms attributed to Kalhor or created by the effects of lithographic printing, are found in other contemporary calligraphers' works as well and have been a prelude to dominating writing style of the third period of Qajar era.

    Aims

    1. Comparatively studying the structure and form of letters and words of Nastaliq script  in works by Mohammad Reza Kalhor and Mohammad Hossein Shirazi. 2. Impacts of printing industry on calligraphy method in Qajar era.

    Questions:

    What are the structural differences between lithography edition of "Khorasan Travelogue" and the manuscript of "Qom travelogue" in case of writing? 1. How lithography has influenced Nastaliq script and its writing style?

    Keywords: Qajar era, Nastaliq script, lithographic printing, Mohammad Reza Kalhor, MohammadHossein Shirazi
  • Peyman Alizadeh Oskuie, Esmaiel Baniardalan*, Kamran Afshar Mohajer, Mohhamad Reza SHarifZadeh, Mohhamadjawad Safian Page 49

    The sublime is at the heart of Kant's aesthetic philosophy. According to Kant it refers to infinite and infinite conceptions such as time, death, space, and the spiritual world; it refers to greatness that is superior to any comparison and beyond any deduction. This marvelous greatness can be attributed to moral action, the grandeur of pure thought, or the greatness of natural lords, such as the enormous storm or ocean of infinity, and even the greatness of a work of art. The research is based on a descriptiveanalytical method with inductive reasoning and data is collected via library research. The results of the study demonstrate that the theory of the sublime is best presented in the religious church art; moreover, the paintings of the Gothic period compared to the Byzantine period is a representative of this art that undoubtedly remarks Kant's theory of the sublime.

    Keywords: Sublime theory, Kant, Gothic painting, Byzantine painting, religious art
  • Maryam Charkhchian Page 70

    Islamic architecture as the symbol of identity, history and culture of this wide land has always been inspiring to many artists and architects. Therefore, restoring the values of the architecture as a valuable heritage depends on understanding of its different features and elements. In this regard, study on the Islamic architecture can focus on its meaning, design principles and physical elements. As the audiences of this art mostly concern with its physical aspects, using these elements based on their mental images can lead us to create spaces and buildings that can transfer the same valuable meanings to future generations. With this aim, the research tried to achieve audiences’ images from Islamic architecture by surveying their mental associations. Totally, 137 graduated of architecture participated and described their first mental associations and the first picture that they had in their mind about Islamic architecture. The results indicates design approach, light and space, decorations, physical elements, monuments and temples, and spirituality; were the most important associated elements and decoration was the first element among other mentioned elements. In addition, the mosques and religious buildings were the subject of most of collected pictures from participants.

    Keywords: Islamic architecture, mental association, mental image, physical element, space, light, decorations
  • Amrai Mehdi, Morteza Afshari*, Khashayar ghazizadeh Page 99

    Nowadays, with the development of traditional tools and the use of new tools in embossing, artists have been able to provide precision and elegance in the creation of their products, in addition to preserving the traditional and indigenous values embedded in embossing arts. Traditional arts and the necessity of adhering to and observing the artist's traditions have taken an important step in nurturing artists, creating exquisite works and restoring the cultural and national identity of the Iranian society. The present study is based on the role of tools in the development and evolution of contemporary wooden inlaid art while conserving ethnic values; this research is based on a descriptiveanalytic method and seeks to study the impact of tools in contemporary inlaid developments. The statistical population was selected based on the wooden inlaid artworks of contemporary Tehran artists. The role of tools in such phenomena is that it can aid with delicacy in creating cutes in wooden inlaid artwork and offer a variety of access to diverse types of wood texture, color and quality, uniformity and elegance in the preparation of wood with different dimensions, transformation in the use of precision connections, alteration in the structure of the products, especially fine works. Furthermore, the use of precision tools in executing inlaid artworks in proportion to the form and elegance of the work and the role of the tools in altering the base of the work are all features of the flourishment of contemporary inlaid art. Correspondingly, such artworks are boldly compared to the masterpiece counterparts in Iranian art history.

    Keywords: changes, tools, techniques, contemporary inlaid art, Tehran
  • Narges Kikha, Masoud Akbari Zadeh Page 121

    Contemporary literature is a very rich resource in regard of women; hence, poems by female poets composed in this field require further deliberation. This article intends to study the metaphorical image of women in the poetry of two prominent Iranian and Arab writers and poets; Forogh Farokhzad and Jama'ah Hadad and their approach regarding their poetry via an analytic study through the use of library data and translated material. Forough Farrokhzad is one of the preeminent Iranian female poets in which no other contemporary poet can be paralleled to her in the realm of modern poetry. Her poems exemplify all concepts of womanhood in contemporary poetry conveying love, sadness, joy and despair beautifully from her unique point of view. Jama'ah Haddad is also an Arabic poet whose language of poetry carefully resembles the poetry of Forough Farrokhzad. This closeness is due to the feminine sense and criticism of the status of women in society that is found in the poetry of both poets. The outspoken feminine language of both poets has made their poetry exceptional and distinct.

    Keywords: Forough Farrokhzad, Jama'ah Haddad, New Poetry, Metaphorical Image
  • Ahmad Mohammadi, Hossein Ardelani Page 141

    Realism as a trend in the art of painting declared its presence in the first and second decades of the nineteenth century. The founder of this artistic genre was French painter Gustav Corbé. Artists of Realism break the eternal rules of the artists of their time and focus on everyday issues, social excitement, critic the upper classes of society an ultimately reflect the lives of people destitute of romantic dreams and exaggerations build their aesthetic components and through this community-oriented tendency, they encounter the popular appeal of the audience. In the sense of the objectivist and societal nature of realism, its vibrant attitude has continued and sustained until contemporary times. From this point of view, the study of the aforementioned aesthetic elements, especially in the art of painting, and its reflection in the works of Gustav Corbé, has the potential to raise the aesthetic features of realism more than the aesthetic elements of contemporary abstract painting. Writings of this kind can provide a suitable context for art lovers to appreciate and encounter modern artworks. In this paper, while introducing a history of realism and expressing its aesthetic coordinates, we attempt to highlight some of the most prominent works of Gustav Korbe paintings, including "Crusaders", "Burial in Uranus" and "Ladies of the Village" from the viewpoint of aesthetic components of the realistic trend.

    Keywords: Aesthetic Components, Realism, Painting, Gustav Korbe
  • Gholamhossein Khammar*, Habib Jadidolislami, Mustafa Salari Page 166

    One of the fundamental changes that have taken place in the last two decades in the study and analysis of artworks, especially poetry, is the utilization of psychological knowledge gains. Among the many facets of this knowledge, the school of humanistic psychology is of particular importance because it describes positive human components and provides a superior model of humankind and its abilities. In fact, humanism sees humanity and self-awareness at the center and believes that individuals have the right to liberty, selfactualization, and moral behavior. In the meantime, Abraham Maslow, the most prominent figure in the school of humanism, made a profound change in this tendency with the theory of self-actualization. The mystical or spiritual experience is one of the fifteen components of his theory that are clearly seen in literary works that have such foundations. Reading the literary texts with regard to the component of peak experience reveals the hidden parts of the authors' intellectual level of work and deals with its neglected aspects. Mullah Moshsen Feiz Kashani is one of the prominent literarymystical figures in Persian literature who has shown great interest in his works, especially the Divan of Poems to man and his needs. Reinterpreting his views based on Maslow's theory is effective in understanding the human model of Feiz Kashani. The results of the present study, written by a descriptive-analytical method, display such indicators as "unlimited horizons opening to the eyes", "intense ecstasy, transcendental and emotional astonishment", "sense of integrity and the unspeakable" and "tendency to poetry, mysticism and religion "have been similar in Maslow's subjects and the experiences explained by Feiz Kashani. Also, the manifestation of these characteristics in Islamic art has become prominent.

    Keywords: Mullah Mohsen Feiz Kashani, Maslow, Humanism, Aesthetics, Islamic Art, Poetry
  • Javad Nobahar Page 205

    Herat has documented one of the most thriving Iranian art courses during the Shahrokh period. Understanding the motives for the flourishing of paintings of this period necessitates this research. The success of painting in any given period is a consequence of two significant factors. First, external causes such as government support and economic prosperity, and second, internal influences that include the relationships between the constituent elements of the painting. This paper, with an analytical and descriptive approach, will study the internal factors, namely the structural performance of the works of two painters from Herat School. Herat's paintings seem to have their splendor and brightness due to the painters whose visual structure is one of the most important and enduring points of their work. Herat's paintings seem to have their splendor and brilliance due to the painters whose visual structure is one of the most imperative and enduring points of their work. Rhythm, balance, geometry and motion are four important elements of the visual structure whose quality of performance forms the specific space of each painting. Obviously, these four elements do not have the same function in the paintings, and some of them have the most visual impact on the audience through rhythm and balance. As some other works do, it is through geometry and motion that this is important. The results of this study show that the visual structure is one of the most important factors in the flourishing of the works of Mirkhali Mosavar and Molana Ali and endures a different function in the works of these two painters. The purpose of this article, which is based on Giorgio Copch's theories of visual structures and is carried out via library research, is to analyze and explain the basic structures of three works by two Herat painters; thereby to emphasize the importance of the function of the structure of painting which is less discussed today in the field of this art.

    Keywords: Visual structure, Rhythm, Balance, Mirkhali Mosavar, Molana Ali, Herat
  • Zahir Waqs Abbasi*, Reza Mehr Afrin, Seyed Rasoul Mousavi Haji Page 233

    "Oshida Mountain" (Mount Khajeh) has been used intermittently in the Sistan Plain because of its unique strategic position. In the southeastern slope of the mountain, there is a fortress trace that became known as the "Castle of the Disbelievers" after the arrival and conquest of the region. Based on the relative chronology of the pottery specimens of the two settlements in this castle, the first period dates from the third century BC to the end of the Sasanian period, and the second period is from the sixth to the eighth century AH. In the present study that follows a descriptive-analytical type of research, the stucco casts of the Khajeh Mountain Palace, which are divided into three groups: circular, square and congressional are investigated on the basis of archaeological reports. There is no plausible history for these stucco designs and no comprehensive comparative study has been carried out; in addition to architectural studies, more than hundreds of stucco art from various historical sites have been observed, identified and compared. These artworks were found to be very similar to the plaster castings of Bishapour of the Sassanid era, Hajiabad and Kish. Another point to note is the addition of porches on the north side of the courtyard on which the Khajeh Palace stucco designs are mounted and they were certainly added during the second phase of construction and this embarks the fact that they were added during the Sassanid era.

    Keywords: Oshida (Mount Khajeh), the Khajeh Mountain Palace, Stucco designs, Typology, Dating, Sassanid Period
  • Neda Yans, Kamran Pashai Fakhri*, Parvaneh Adelzadeh Page 262

    The feminist movement with its assertion to defend women's rights is one of the most controversial topics of the modern era that has evolved widely in recent decades in a variety of contexts. Today, feminist theory is a collection of intellectual minds, political parties, and all genera of mental and behavioral tendencies of women that have been incorporated into various fields, including works of art and literature. The challenge has constantly existed in the history of art and aesthetics to recognize women's power in the creation of art and literary works and to emphasize the fact that women's artistic creativity has been overlooked throughout history. Therefore, this movement has employed various strategies in the creation of these works and has attempted to emerge with the introduction of feminist thoughts and ideologies. Among the feminist tendencies that have had a significant impact on the art of contemporary Iranian artists is the postmodernist intellectual trend. A new door has been opened to reflect feminist thought in Iranian art and literature. Hence, through a descriptive method and by the use of library research, this paper seeks to study and analyze feminist approaches in aesthetic features of women’s artistic and literary artwork. The results of this study show the profound effects of feminist thinking on the phenomenology of postmodernism in art and literature, more evident in the works of contemporary artists.

    Keywords: Feminist Movement, Postmodernist Approach, Feminist Aesthetics, Worksof Art, Literature
  • Forouzan Biranvand*, Abbas Malek Hosseini Page 291

    A city is a comprehensive concept comprised of various cultural, social, economic, historical and environmental aspects. These interconnected dimensions give specific attributes and identities to cities, which is the key to identifying urban areas. The city of Khorramabad, the capital of Lorestan province, has a unique distinctiveness bestowing a rich historical and cultural background and a host of favorable environmental factors and conditions. Located in the North-South funnel-shaped valleys at the heart of the Zagros Mountains (inscribed between the highlands) and among the rich water resources (rivers and springs), this city has distinct features, specifically its central range. A look at the natural geography of the city of Khorramabad indicates that security plays an important role in its formation and that the core of the city is organically formed in the vicinity of the Falak-al-Aflak castle. These features, along with the communication status of the city (located on the north-south route), have had a significant impact on the direction of its physical expansion. Thus, the genesis and development of the city was largely influenced by its natural, historical, and strategic features.

    Keywords: Khorramabad City, Identity, Sustainable Development, Falak Al-AflakFortress
  • Sattar Zolfi, Shahrbano Delbari*, Ardeshir Asadbigi, Mahmoud Mahdavi Damghani Page 319

    In this descriptive-analytic study with data and images collected through library and virtual methods, a number of Shi’ah themed manuscripts of the Qazvin school have been introduced. The results of this study indicate that the stories derived from the Qur'an, events and teachings of Islam and Shi'ism, which explicitly or symbolically represent the truth and legitimacy of Shi'ism, constitute the main frame of these images. In addition, the important concepts and notions of Shi'ism such as the right of succession and Imamate of Prophet Ali (PBUH) chosen by God, the infallibility of the Shiite Imams, the belief in the miracles and wisdoms of the Imams; also the intercession of the Imams and the expression of the dignity and status of the Imams, are represented in these paintings. Artists who have created such works have been able to visualize coded and spiritual beliefs, narratives, and concepts by avoiding a realistic approach and by applying symbols, signs and visual and tangible arts; moreover, Shi’ah paintings are distinguished from religious paintings. They have also portrayed sacred figures and icons of Shi’ah Islam in a symbolic manner with the use of special decorative elements, emphasizing their unique and sacred status and directing the audience to their spiritual and intrinsic perfection.

    Keywords: Shi’ah, Safavid era, historical sources, manuscripts, Qazvin school
  • Mansour Morrei, Habib Jadidolesmali * Page 347

    The act of deception and behavior of the deceivers is clearly evident in the two books of Shāhnāmeh and Bayhaqi History which are among the many rich works of Persian literature and art. Hoax is applied in the epic-mythical and historical sections of the Shāhnāmeh and appears to have the most usage in the epic section along with personal, humane and national motivations and objectives. Contrary to the conventional meaning of deception which bears an undesirable denotation, its positive features and concepts can be perceived in the Shāhnāmeh. Is the deception caused by the behavior of influential political figures such as Mahmoud, Massoud, Abu Sahl Zawzani and others who have ruled, dealt with and managed to prevent chaos in the society or have the Mahmoudians have forced the dismissal of Masoud’s supporters and spread instability and anxiety? Deception in the two mentioned literary works at times deceive the perpetrator or the deceit becomes neutralized with no harm made. When the truth is glanced upon in a fair and honest way, it is discovered that there are people who do consider their deeds and if so it would have been of necessity and ineffective. In this paper, it is sought to decipher the type of hoax and deception carried out by the deceivers and their possible aims. The author has inserted moral, epistemic, political, and social points to protect and punish as to serve as a guiding light for the followers of truth.

    Keywords: Shāhnāmeh, History of Bayhaqi, Epic, Myth, Illustration, Deception
  • Kobra Mirkamali, Mohammad Farokhzad, Reza Heydari Nuri Page 368

    Translators often translate rhetoric as rumor, semantics, sermon, or eloquence. Romans called oratory and orator as rhetorica and rhetor respectively. As the beauty of an architecture is the product of the exquisiteness of its different parts, rhetoric and aesthetic aspects of poetry is also the result of the aesthetics of its structural units, including the attention to the phonetic structure and the use of techniques and methods that enhance the aesthetic effects of the vocal of speech more and more. Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi (Mawlana)’s skill in expressing concepts and using language is shown in his sonnets by utilizing poetic creations and artistic processing as well as various figures of speech. The mastery of Mawlana on language has a great contribution to his artistic personality and literary creativeness. As one of the most prominent Iranian poets and mystics in Iran, Rumi has skillfully used the phonological elements of the language to musically create his own words and, as a result, has had a greater impact on the addressee. By using his knowledge of language capacities especially in the field of phonology, he has not only made music and formed pictures but also has paid special courtesy to transfer the necessary concepts to the addressee. Hence, Mawlana’s prominent and distinguishing feature in this field is his selection of appropriate formal elements in order to induce his poetic meanings in a way that his sonnets are not only regarded as a suitable tool to transfer the supreme concepts of his mystic thought, but also as a kind of musical tool to impress the aesthetic emotions of the addressee. Results of this research, which are based on a bibliographic and descriptive-analytical method, show that Rumi has used phonetic clusters at all phonological, lexical and syntactical levels appropriately.

    Keywords: Rhetoric, Aesthetics, sonnets, Rumi, Phonetic Structure, Safavid Carpet
  • Jafarimoghadam Tahere, Falahi Manijeh*, Farokhzad Malek Mohamad Page 396

    One way of expressing technique is to use metaphor in its general sense - to use one word or phrase instead of another based on the similarity between them. The use of metaphor as linguistic phenomena is not general in the literary language but specifically cognitive and mental occurrences, and what appears in language is merely a manifestation of this mental phenomenon. On the other hand, this cognitive and subjective expression of thoughts can be analyzed and interpreted in the context of critical discourse and linguistic criticism. The use of descriptive and intuitive metaphors in the poems of Nima Yushijj and Mehdi Akhavan Saleh can be one of the examples of critical discourse analysis approach from Fairclough's perspective. Accordingly, although the approach of critical discourse analysis prioritizes the relation of language, power, ideology, and discourse, the literature of nations can also be analyzed and interpreted within the framework of critical discourse and linguistic criticism. In this descriptive-analytical research based on library studies, after studying the poems of these two poets, the descriptive and visual metaphors of the poems have been identified and quantitatively and qualitatively studied. Finally, by comparing the sonnets of Yushiij and Akhavan, it can be concluded that the metaphorical application of the prevailing political and social conditions and conditions in the Akhavan’s poems can be more conclusive. According to the above-mentioned intertextual analysis both poets have been influenced by the governing social and political conditions; however, this is more evident in the poetry of Akhavan.

    Keywords: Descriptive, Visual Metaphor, critical discourse analysis, NormanFairclough, Nima Yooshij, Mehdi Akhavan Saleh