فهرست مطالب

هویت شهر - پیاپی 40 (زمستان 1398)
  • پیاپی 40 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • سید حسین بحرینی، الهام فلاح منشادی* صفحات 5-16

    محتوای آموزشی هر حرفه از نقش و جایگاه آن حرفه در جامعه ناشی می شود و آموزش شهرسازی نیز از این قاعده مستثنا نیست. در واقع آموزش شهرسازی باید در عمل پاسخگوی نیازهای متخصصان شهرسازی باشد. در همین راستا، این مقاله ابتدا به بررسی نقش متخصص شهرسازی در ایران پرداخته و سپس با تعیین مهم ترین دانش و مهارت های متخصص شهرسازی، به ارزیابی میزان انطباق این نقش با محتوای آموزش شهرسازی می پردازد. نقش متخصص شهرسازی با مصاحبه با 12 فرد حرفه ای و مهم ترین دانش، مهارت و اهمیت ارزش ها در آموزش شهرسازی با تکمیل 341 پرسشنامه مشخص گردیده است. بررسی نقش متخصص شهرسازی در ایران مبین غلبه دیدگاه تکنسین و یا مشاور در فرایند تصمیم گیری بوده و تاکید اصلی بر تهیه طرح های توسعه در مقیاس های مختلف است. نمود نقش متخصص شهرسازی در محتوای آموزش شهرسازی غلبه دانش رویه ای/کاربردی، مهارت های تکنیکی و تحلیلی بوده و ارزش ها بی اهمیت است که نشان دهنده انطباق نقش متخصص شهرسازی با محتوای آموزشی در ایران است.

    کلیدواژگان: نقش متخصص شهرسازی، محتوای آموزش شهرسازی، کشورهای درحال توسعه
  • محمد حسین عابدی*، ایرج اعتصام، سید مصطفی مختاباد امرئی، ازاده شاهجراغی صفحات 17-28

    این مقاله به بررسی چگونگی آموزش طرح واره 1 در کارگاه معماری پرداخته است. ایده و طرح واره می تواند مبنای طراحی باشد و اهمیت آن در ارائه راه حل های نوآورانه توسط معمار قابل توجه است. این تحقیق با روش پیشنهادی خود، به دنبال ارتقای کیفیت آموزش طراحی معماری بوده است. ازاین رو طرح واره در دو سطح کلان و خرد طبقه بندی شده و پس از مشخص شدن نیازهای آموزشی و مهارتی لازم برای هرکدام از سطوح طرح واره، راهکارهای آموزشی بر اساس نظریه میزانسن پیشنهاد شده است. برای سنجش مطلوبیت راهکارهای آموزشی پیشنهادی از نمونه موردی در دو ترم متوالی استفاده شد. این تحقیق به صورت کیفی انجام شده و داده ها به روش تحلیلی و توصیفی موردبررسی و مقایسه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان دهنده آن است که روش طراحی پیشنهادی در توانمندسازی دانشجویان جهت خلق ایده، بیان و ارائه طرح واره های ذهنی در سطح کلان و خرد موثر بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: طرح واره، آموزش معماری، فرایند طراحی معماری، میزانسن
  • محمد رحیم رهنما، لیلی ابراهیمی* صفحات 29-40
    هدف این مقاله بررسی و تحلیل شاخص های استراتژی توسعه شهر و میزان تاثیرگذاری نقش شهر بر آنها و شناخت روند وعملکرد کنونی پیرانشهر در ارتباط با شاخص های یادشده است. داده های موردنیاز با استفاده از پرسش نامه با نظرخواهی از سهگروه شهروندان، مدیران و نخبگان شهری با حجم نمونه 474 نفر گردآوری شده است. تجزی هوتحلیل اطلاعات با استفاده ازنرم افزارهای SPSS و SmartPLS انجام شد. به دنبال تائید روایی مناسب پرسش نامه با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی، فنمعادلات ساختاری به روش حداقل مربعات جزئی، جهت بررسی روابط بین متغیرهای پژوهش به کار گرفته شد. نتایج نشان دادنقش بازرگانی شهر تاثیر مثبتی بر هر یک از ابعاد چهارگانه استراتژی توسعه شهری (قابلیت زندگی، حکمروایی، بانکی بودن،رقابت پذیری) اعمال کرده است. قابلیت زندگی با ضریب مسیر 798 / 0 و رقابتی بودن با ضریب مسیر 325 / 0 به ترتیب بیشترینو کمترین تاثیر را از نقش بازرگانی شهر پذیرفت هاند.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی شهری، نقش شهر، استراتژی توسعه شهری، پیرانشهر
  • سمیه ابوعلی*، مصطفی بهزادفر، حمید ماجدی صفحات 41-56

    در واکنش به جدایی گزینی اجتماعی، ترویج آمیختگی اجتماعی روندی نوپا در طراحی و توسعه شهر است. ترجمان اجتماعی این سیاست خلق محلاتی است که افراد متنوعی با سن، پس زمینه های قومی-نژادی، درآمدی و... را در خود جای دهند. به سبب کمتر موردعلاقه قرار گرفتن این موضوع آگاهی از این سازوکار در بوم شهری ایران ناچیز است. هدف از پژوهش سنجش بعد ریخت شناسی در ترویج آمیختگی اجتماعی است که با مورد پژوهی محلات آبادان تبیین شده است. معیارهای مربوطه با مطالعات کتابخانه ای، بازدیدهای میدانی و با استفاده از روش تحلیلی کمی و کیفی موردبررسی قرارگرفته است. لذا پس از مرور مفاهیم مرتبط، با بررسی نمونه موردی به آزمون فرضیات پرداخته و در قالب نتایج تحقیق، راهبردهای کالبدی قابل تعمیم در بعد ریخت شناسی به عنوان ابزاری در جهت طراحی محلات باهدف تنوع اجتماعی با دو رویکرد اختلاط و ارتباط ارائه شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: تنوع اجتماعی، آمیختگی، ریخت شناسی، آبادان
  • ثریا طاهری، جعفر طاهری* صفحات 57-74

    تحقیق حاضر بر پایه سنجش میزان تاثیر عوامل محیطی بر سلامت روان انجام گرفته تا نتایج آن راهگشایی برای طراحی محیط های مسکونی سالم باشد. جهت سنجش سلامت روان افراد از پرسشنامه GHQ-12 استفاده شد و ابزار بررسی کیفیت های محیطی شامل سه مولفه: محیط کالبدی، محیط اجتماعی و محیط زیست است. جامعه آماری شامل ساکنان دو مجموعه مسکونی 600 دستگاه و 512 دستگاه مشهد است که از بین آن ها نمونه ای 351 نفره مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. جهت انجام محاسبات و پردازش اطلاعات از دو نرم افزار spss و LISREL استفاده شده است. یافته های مطالعه حاضر نشان می دهد که از میان تمام عوامل محیطی موثر بر سلامت روان، محیط کالبدی دارای بیشترین نارضایتی و درنتیجه بیشترین تاثیر منفی بر سلامت ساکنان است؛ بنابراین لازم است تا با اصلاح کیفیت فیزیکی محیط مسکونی، سطح رضایت افراد را از محل زندگی بالا برده تا زمینه بهبود کیفیت روابط اجتماعی ساکنان فراهم شود.

    کلیدواژگان: سلامت روان، مجموعه مسکونی، محیط کالبدی
  • مسعود ناری قمی*، سجاد دامیار، سپیده ملایری صفحات 75-90

    در این مطالعه با توجه به گسست میان جامعه و معماران در کنار عدم موفقیت رویکردهای پست مدرن در مردمی کردن معماری و ضرورت پرداختن مجدد به آموزش معماری به عموم، یک تجربه برای برآورد تاثیر آموزش معماری به نوجوانان در تعمیق نگرش آنان به معماری اجراشده است. در این تحقیق انواع فهم از نما با تحلیل تصویری مشارکتی و افتراق معنایی، میزان درک مردم در مورد سه کاربری مسکونی، اداری و مذهبی سنجش شده است؛ با توجه به نوع سنجش از تحلیل تصویری مشارکتی استفاده شده است.54 تصویر در دودسته (نماهای محلی دامغان، نماهای پراکنده از کل ایران) در نظر گرفته شد و گروه آزمون پس از یک آموزش هدایت شده کوتاه مدت در شهر ایلام سنجش شد. نتایج بررسی میدانی حاکی از آن است که هر نوع از چهار گونه آموزش ارائه شده در این پژوهش، در تغییر دیدگاه ها و نزدیک شدن به مقاصد معماری در توجه دادن عموم موثر است.

    کلیدواژگان: آموزش عمومی معماری، نوجوانان، نما، آموزش ضمنی، آموزش صریح
  • علیرضا تقی زاده*، ویدا تقوایی صفحات 91-108

    وحدت در هماهنگی و انسجام عالم کثرت به انحا مختلف در بناهای ارزشمند معماری ایرانی- اسلامی از جمله خانه های سنتی ایرانی بروز داشته که از ویژگی های بارز آن می توان، به اصل محوربندی فضایی اشاره کرد که به طرق مختلف در معماری خانه های سنتی شوشتر نمایان گردیده است. روش تحقیق این پژوهش ترکیبی است که با استفاده از رویکرد کیفی و با بکارگیری روش تحلیل محتوایی در برگیرنده بن مایه های نظری اسلامی همچون اصل وحدت ها است. در حوزه دوم، معماری خانه های شوشتر مطابق با مبانی نظری پژوهش بصورت یک جدول مورد تحلیل قرار داده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که تک لایه بودن بنا به عنوان عامل گرمایی، از خصوصیات بارز محور اصلی خانه های شوشتر بوده که سبب گشته ایوان شدادی به عنوان یک فضا با عملکردهای گوناگون ازجمله، اقلیمی، زیستی و ارتباطی در راستای محور اصلی خانه مطرح گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: اصل وحدت، وحدت در کثرت، محوربندی فضایی، خانه های سنتی شوشتر
  • کمال قره خانی*، امید دژدار، سارا جلالیان صفحات 109-120

    پژوهش حاضر باهدف پاسخ به این سوال که چه رابطه ای میان فضاهای اجتماع پذیر و مجتمع های مسکونی وجود دارد که باعث افزایش کیفیت زندگی ساکنین می شود، صورت گرفته است. بر اساس مدل هایی که برای نیازهای انسان ارائه شده اند، تعاملات اجتماعی یکی از این موارد ضروری است. پیشینه پژوهش در طراحی محیط نشان می دهد که ویژگی های کالبدی فضاهای یک مجتمع مسکونی می تواند بر میزان مطلوبیت آن ها تاثیرگذار باشد. روش تحقیق موضوع به شیوه کمی و میدانی و برای بررسی نمونه های موردی، پرسشنامه سنجش شاخصه ها تنظیم گردید و در بین ساکنین مجتمع های مسکونی توزیع شد و اطلاعات به دست آمده با نرم افزارهای Spss و smartpls تحلیل گردیدند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که برای بهبود و ارتقای کیفیت زندگی و کمیت فضاهای شهری به خصوص مسکونی، نوع طراحی بر اساس اصول و معیارهای اجتماعی و فرهنگی ازجمله همسایگی و اجتماع پذیری است.

    کلیدواژگان: مجتمع مسکونی، تعاملات اجتماعی، اجتماع پذیری، کیفیت زندگی
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  • Eham Fallah Manshadi * Pages 5-16

    A review of the literature on the subject of urban planning education in the developing countries shows serious challenges in formulating the content of education in these countries. One subject is the relation between content of education in these countries and the role that planners play. No doubt the education content of what planners need should be in congruence with the professional role and position of planner in the society. In other words, before defining the education content, we should make it clear what kind of planner we intend to train and what do we expect of this planner to do. On these basis, this critical question may raise that what role urban planner essentially play in the developing countries and to what extent the content of education in these countries should adapt to this role? A brief review of the literature indicates that two general roles of active vs. advisory (or technician role) have been dominant in urban planning. Choosing between these two would imply different education content. The education content consists of three elements of knowledge, skills, and values, each of which has its own unique details. The importance of these sub-elements is different in different roles of planners. In the active role, the main knowledge needed is substantive/fundamental, the most important skill is communicative, and it is value or normative based. In the case of technician role, on the other hand, the dominant knowledge is procedural / applied, skills are technical and analytical and values are not important. In this article, the role of urban planner in Iran, as a developing country, will be analyzed, and, then, the most important knowledge and skills which are relevant to this role will be defined. In other words, this study intends to find answers to the following questions: What is the role of urban planner in Iran, as a developing country? What are the most important knowledge and skills needed by urban planners in developing countries? And finally to what extent the related educational contents are prioritized on the basis of actual role of planner? The study of planner role in the developing countries, and Iran as a case study, shows that the dominant view for the planner role is technician or advisory role in the decision-making process and the main focus is on preparing urban development plans at different scales (from national spatial planning to specific detailed plans). Planners are actively involved in physical studies. Reflection of the planner role on the education content in the developing countries shows the dominance of procedural / applied knowledge which are courses with physical orientation such as studios, urban space analysis, introduction to urban planning, urban design methods and GIS (versus environment, economics, social issues), and technical and analytical skills(versus communication skills) and values do not play any role in this regard. These results shows that there is a conformity between urban planner's role and educational content in Iran as a case study for developing countries.

    Keywords: Urban Planning Education, Urban Planners' Role, Developing Countries, Educational Content, Iran
  • Mohamad Hosein Abedi *, Iraj Etessam, Seyed Mostafa Mokhtabad Amreie, Azadeh Shahcheraghi Pages 17-28

    This article examines how concept as a lesson is taught in an architectural workshops. The idea and concept is the basis of design and its importance in providing innovative solutions by the architect is significant. A problem has to be found before starting the design. After finding the problem, search for the creative solution has begun. The challenge for the researcher has been to develop an innovative solution to architectural designers. This paper, in its proposed methods, has sought to improve the quality of architectural design education. Consequently, the concept is classified into two levels of macro and micro, and after identifying the training and skill needs for each of the levels of the concept, educational solutions are proposed based on the theory of Mise en Scene. The development of a concept in architecture can be created through the elements of the theory of Mise en Scene. The elements of the theory of Mise en scene are attention to the scene, light, angle of the camera, the arrangement of objects, the states of the actors, the costumes of the actors and the activities on the scene, all of which refer to the general idea that the atmosphere of film has made. This overall atmosphere of the film can be the same concept as the macro level in architecture, and the attention to each element of Mise en Scene can be the same concept of micro-level in architectural design. The way of using the Mise en Scene's theory of components to maintain the overall atmosphere of the film, helps the researcher to provide a design training strategy. To evaluate the desirability of proposed educational strategies, a case study was used in two consecutive semesters. This research was carried out qualitatively and the data were analyzed by analytical and descriptive method. A set of studies has suggested that the skills required by students for a macro-level concept are: visual memory, initial recognition of visual literacy, a strong archive of images with classified topics of architecture, memories and experiences of quality from the presence of architecture, face to face or documentary film from an architectural work, capable of free-style design, familiarity with drawing techniques and rendering, a three-way communication between the mind, eyes and hands of the designer. And the abilities required for a micro level concept include a three-way communication between the mind, eyes and the designer's hand, familiarity with sensible experiences for humans by architectural elements, familiarity with the definition of the event in spaces, and the circulation; therefore, the common factor in the abilities, the need for two levels of the schema is the existence of a triple bond between the mind, student's eyes and hands and the educational strategy presented in this article is to strengthen this three-dimensional relationship and other components. The results indicate that the proposed design method has been effective in empowering students to create ideas, expression and presentation of mental concepts in the macro and micro levels.

    Keywords: concept, Architectural Training, Architectural design process, Mise en Scene
  • Leili Ebrahimi * Pages 29-40
    In response to uncertain future conditions, managerial inefficient and reduction quality of life in cities, since 1999 was proposed a new approach in the literature of planning under title city development s trategy by the Cities Alliance with s trategic nature and to help to create of democracy, decision-making and life improvement. City developments trategy (CDS) is an action plan for balanced development in cities. City development s trategy is defined based on the characteris tics of each city and is evaluated and through its output and it should change the current performance and trend toward optimal conditions. Therefore the purpose of this paper is analyzing the city development s trategy indicators andmeasure of the effectiveness rate of city role on them in order to unders tand current trends and performance Piranshahr city in connection with mentioned factors. The required data were collected using ques tionnaires. The s tatis tical population in this s tudy consis ted of three groups: urban managers, citizens and urban elites. In the group of urban managers, experts and people familiar with urban issues, 50 people and in the urban elite group, 50 were selected as samples. In the group of citizens, also according to the population of the city is 69049 people, using the Cochran formula, the sample size determined and 382 citizens selected and participated in completing the ques tionnaires. At firs tby using the relevant theoretical literature, as well as on the empirical s tudies related to the city development s trategy, four dimensions selected for city development s trategy and finally were selected 56 items. To assess of two dimension indicators of livability, 15 items, to assess three dimensions of competitiveness indicator, 11 items and to assess good urban governance indicators with four indicators, 13 items and Also tow dimension of bankability indicators 16 items were selected and respondents were asked to rate Piranshahr city on each of items on a 5-point Likert scale where 1=Strongly Disagree to 5 = Strongly Agree. Data analysis was done by s tructural equation modeling (SEM) using SPSSand SmartPLS softwares. The reliability of the ques tionnaire is confirmed by using an internal consis tency coefficient of alpha for all variables. Following Verification of the appropriate validity of ques tionnaire by using confirmatory factor analysis, s tructural equation technique with method partial leas t squares was applied to s tudy the relationship between variables. The results of s tructural equations showed that the business role of Piranshahr city has a positive impact on four dimensions of city development s trategy. The Livability with 0.798 s tandard coefficients and the Competitivenesswith 0.325 s tandard coefficients respectively have accepted impact highes t and impact from the role of city. Improving the quality of CDS indicators is effective s tep in order to achieve sus tainable development. The s tudy showed the role that city plays can have a positive impact on city development s trategy indices. Accordingly, attention to the position,city role and the opportunities that have each city, and codification and development of s trategies of appropriate tailored to these the positions and the opportunities can be an effective s tep to further improving these indicators.
    Keywords: Urban Planning, city role, City development strategy, Piranshahr
  • Somayeh Abuali *, Hamid Majedi Pages 41-56

    Promoting "Social Integration" can be considered as an approach to "Segregation" and "Social Exclusion". Neighborhood with disparate characteristics reflects the mutual attributes such as race, income, lifestyle and nationality. This matter is an objective fact in modern settlements which leads to social conflicts, variance, etc. Thus, social Integration has been considered as a new trend in design and development of the city. Physical interpretation of this policy in terms of physical is creating neighborhoods which can place a variety of age, gender, ethnic-racial background, income, etc. In this regard, many urban designers and planners have supported social mixed communities and tried to promote social Integration, using different concepts such as creation of safe spaces, public areas vibrant, mixed use, etc. These protagonists believe this approach leads to viability, economic health, security and sustainability of place. Also it is affected by functional, morphological and social features of urban design. The purpose of this study is measuring the role of morphology in promoting the "social & diversity Integration" term. Morphological feature of urban design describes the qualities which are related to physical environment. Segmentation and block pattern, land use and roads are the most effective parameters in physical qualities of urban spaces. Regarding this issue, fifteen neighborhoods in Abadan has been chose. The amount of mixing in these neighborhoods had been assessed in three levels of low, medium and high. Among them, four neighborhoods got the lowest and highest valuation: Amiri and Ahmadabad have the most amount of mixing and Northern and Southern Bovarde have the less deal in opposite. The main question of this research asks if there is any relation between main components of morphology feature and the amount of social Integration in case studies. The hypothesis tries to find a meaningful and rational relation between divisibility of place and urban design solutions in morphology feature. Relevant parameters such as job type, income level, education level, race, family type and lifestyle have been investigated using library studies and field visits. Also different qualitative and quantitative analytical methods have been used. To get quantitative data, the results of filled questionnaires had been analyzed in SPSS. Qualitative measuring of social & diversity Integration in mentioned neighborhoods is based on using "Simpson" formula. By reviewing the relevant concepts, theories and analyzing case studies, the hypothesis has been tested. The criteria and effective factors on morphology feature of urban design are defined in the final part. The result shows the effectiveness of two factors: mixing and connection. The term "mixing" is about two subjects: 1- mix of housing types, 2- mixture of facilities in order to support different demands and deficiencies in a neighborhood. In presentation of different house types with different house prices in neighborhoods leads to positive social interactions among citizens with different age, race or income. Therefore, it will lead to betterment the social qualities in presence of unequal circumstances in neighborhood, Regarding morphological issues, "Connection" depends on accessibility and traffic network rather than social interactions, as it helps interactions itself.

    Keywords: Social Mixing, diversity, Morphology, Abadan
  • Sorayya Taheri, Jafar Taheri * Pages 57-74

    The dominance of technology over human lifestyle affected the human health and quality of environment. Therefore, mental health problems, stress, and depression are currently considered as the leading causes of somatic disability and premature death.  An evolving body of scientific evidence demonstrates solid relations between housing and health. The public health community is developing, testing, and implementing effective interventions that yield health benefits through improved housing quality.  Due to the growth of social and environmental challenges, the stress-related diseases are increasing. Stressors that come from poor design of residential environments -crowding, noise, poor indoor air quality and light – can have a negative impact on human mental health. Evidence also increasingly suggests that people with access to quality green space are healthier. Being outside can promote mental well-being, relieve stress, overcome isolation, improve social cohesion and alleviate physical problems. So knowing how environment affects health can help mitigate the impacts of environmental stress and improve health. Since healthy environment is defined as one of the factors in human’s sustainable life and basic needs. Hence, in designing the housing environments, infrastructure planning has a significant role in recreating the environmental factors which have impacts on health. The aim of this study is to be prepared based on assessment of environmental factors effective on mental health and its results can be regarded as a solution for designing the healthy housing environments. GOLD BERG GHQ-12 questionnaire was used to assess mental health of the subjects in the residential complex. The instruments needed for investigation of the environment quality include three components: physical, social and natural environments. All the participants lived in two residential complexes which are called “600- unit” and “512- unit” in Mashhad. A 351-subject sample was surveyed. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data, and SPSS16 and LISREL software were used to carry out the calculations and process the information. Findings of this study show that there is a relationship between qualities of human’s living environment (including physical, social and aspects of the environment) and mental health. Therefore, the quality of each residential complex can be measured by the variables related to mental health of the residents. Results of the study shows that, among all factors affecting the mental health, the physical component of the environment has the most dissatisfaction and the most negative impact on the health of the residence; and after that, social and environmental factors have the most impact on each residents’ health, respectively, in both residential complexes. Therefore, by improving the physical condition of housing environment, it can be used to improve the health of people living in residential complexes. In this regard, most efforts should be in order to maximize the amount of light (to control the height of the buildings), increasing green space and the right to organize, assign spaces for walking and observing the hierarchy summarize from the public to private. We can expect in such an environment, social relationships, and improved the quality of their environment to enhance biological inhabitants.

    Keywords: Mental health, Physical environment, residential complex
  • Masoud Narighomi *, Sajad Damyar, Sepideh Malaieri Pages 75-90

    The catastrophic breakup between public realm and architectural society, along with the lack of successful achievement of the postmodern elite attitudes towards the popularization of architecture, has prompted the public to reintroduce architectural education as a necessity not only for architects and architecture students themselves but also for all people. The researchers' experiences indicate that there are potentially active areas for youth and teens to engage in architectural issues that public educations are the most feasible area amongst them. In this study, an elementary experience has been taken to assess the effectiveness of architectural training on teens to deepen their attitude towards architecture. To assess the role of education, people’s common judgment about the elevations of buildings has been used as a tool of inquiry, since elevation alone, is the most visible part of buildings for the public. In the at hand research, different interpretations of building elevations are categorized within six terms so basic elements along with allegorical, behavioral, contextual, memorial and gestalt ordering characteristics are specified as specialized factors. This research is based on participatory picture ordering with semantic differential technique are used as survey to study perception of people about three residential, administrative, and religious uses of various samples. 54 images were used as an evaluation tool in two different categories (City of Damghan local images and scattered building pictures of the whole of Iran) to be sorted due to three architectural functions. Every 18 images were specified for one of the three groups of usages while amongst these 18 pictures, 6 were selected from urban context of Damghan, 6 were chosen from famous recent works of Iranian architects all around the country based on 6 factors of cognitive characteristics of architectural elevation. The other 6 ones were selected from various locations of Iran from more ordinary of less famous buildings amongst architects. Evidence from respondents in Damghan city was considered for assessing teen’s raw mentality. The experimental group was assessed after short-term guidance workshop in the city of Ilam. These workshops were intended as a pilot experience for studying feasibility of public education about a special discourse of architecture. So upon its discovery nature, four proposed types of transferring data to the public were considered: implicit critical debate, explicit critical debate, implicit positive (informational) debate and explicit positive (informational) debate. The results of the field survey and the four proposed training types including implicit and explicit positive debate show that any training could be effective in changing the unique and collective viewpoints of teens towards the goals of architecture and the change in the type of teaching to people brings different directions into public views. It is worth to mention that there were significant differences between the results of our trained people with those who have official architectural education. While there is no considerable content in architectural education about the matter it is not very surprising. The cornerstone of it can be founded in high school textbooks and workshops to accommodate architectural concepts.

    Keywords: popular education of architecture, youth, teens, buildings facades, elevations, tacit tutorial, Explicit tutorial
  • Alireza Taghizadeh *, Vida Taghvaei Pages 91-108

    One of the main trends of Iranian-Islamic architecture is unity in multiplicity that can be defined clearly in traditional houses in the particular relation between the part and the whole. In the Iranian-Islamic architecture, each element, form or space can be understood in isolation, or in combination as a concept. This is clearly reflected on the spatial organization of the Iranian houses as the principle of spatial orientation, which has been revealed in different ways in the architecture of the traditional houses in Shoushtar. The purpose of this research is to investigate the manifestation of unity in multiplicity in architecture that plays an effective role in creating the harmony between the fabric and meaning in the spatial organization of the houses in Shoushtar. This research has been conducted in two domains: the first covers the related topics of Islamic theoretical foundations such as the principle of unity, and the second includes the criteria and indices of spatial orientation in the spatial organization of the architecture of the houses in Shoushtar. The research has employed a mixed method with a qualitative approach which uses content analysis to systematically analyze texts and writings. In this way, library research has been used for collecting theoretical data. Accordingly, concepts such as the spatial orientation of the manifestation of unity principle have been analyzed as the theoretical basis of the research. In the second domain, the architecture of the houses in Shoushtar, including Aminzadeh House and Gazor House has been explained and analyzed in a table according to the theoretical foundations of the research, such as the spatial orientation. The results show that the single layer structure of the houses as the thermal element has been one of the main features of the main axis of the houses in Shoushtar, which has led to the presentation of a Shadadi Iwan as a space with various climatic, biological and communicational functions along the main axis of the house. Therefore, it is suggested that the future studies consider the central spatial system in the spatial organization of the traditional houses and the effect of light on the formation of open, semi-open and closed spaces around the main axis of the houses and its role in the way of space arrangement in the spatial organization of the modern houses so that the criteria derived from these studies would affect the development of the rules and guidelines for the design of house architecture in Shoushtar.

    Keywords: unity principle, unity in plurality, spatial orientation, Shoushtar Houses
  • Kamal Gharekhani *, Omid Dejdar, Sara Jalalian Pages 109-120

    Present research has been done with the purpose of answering an important question: How could we improve the quality of resident's lives by developing assemble able spaces in residential blocks?  The necessity of this issue is based on the models presented for human necessary demands. Social connections is one of this necessary factors that have to take place in residential blocks. Research records on present designs shows that shell properties of a residential block space and their features can be effective on their ideality and affect the quality of resident's social life. Therefore assemble able spaces in architecture shall get under study as a base to improve communication and formation social connections of assemble able aspect. In assemble able spaces people tend to link up together and these spaces will use up by almost all sorts of available people who live in milieu, and by this way their sites belong to population personality. In fact assemble able spaces which have routine life origin are multipurpose spaces which provide the required space for plenty activities and are used by users and provide users social coordination. This research aims to find an architectural solution to increase resident's social connections in residential spaces and thereupon improving resident's life quality. In the subject of research method, sources and histories of the subject reviewed and research literature have studied at first and generic factor were studied, then assemble ability in different spaces in residential blocks as the subject specified. To achieve to effective properties in assemble ability and on its process, improving residential blocks life quality, quantitative and thematic research methods have been used. In this instance cases Sa'eedieh, Kashani, Bu-Ali, and Imam Reza residential blocks which all four cases located in Hamedan- Iran were chosen. To study the aforementioned cases,  indices test questionnaire administrated and adjusted and by using KUKRAN test, the statistic population specified and dispensed between residential blocks’ citizens and after perusing and comings, obtained data imported in computer and by using SPSS and SmartPlus have been analyzed and indices analyze results have been presented.  Research findings show that to improve and promote life quality and urban spaces quantity specially in residential spaces, and changing people's minds about home, one of the basic guidelines to resolve this important matter, is designing based on social characteristic and cultural principals and standards, including neighborhood and assemble able stations. On the base which have narrated a residential lap divided into four aspects including activity and cultural aspect, welfare aspect, social aspect and shell aspect which each one of them has its different factors, should observe on residential spaces design. In general, conclusion of this research points to two principals about determination of programming and designing principals to programming and treating subbases, designs and suggestions based on user’s demands and will. The findings demonstrate that there exist a constellation of factors of physical, mental and psychological nature, green spaces, defined physical characteristics, and a set of architectural and environmental factors which determines the people’s contentment.

    Keywords: residential complex, social interaction, Socialization, quality of life