فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
|
  • Lawrence Anna Sheba, Venkatraman Anuradha* Pages 1-11

    From ancient times, medicinal plants have been making important contributions to mankind owing to their healing properties. Their fundamental aspects such as safety, quality, and efficiency ensure the role of plant-based medicines in healthcare. Couroupita guianensis Aubl, commonly known as cannonball tree, is a member of the family Lecythidaceae (Brazil-nut family). Cannonball tree has gained worldwide attention because of its immense therapeutic values including antibiotic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, analgesic, antiarthritic, anti-biofilm, antidiarrheal, antifertility, antipyretic, antistress, antitumor, antiulcer, antidermatophytic, wound healing and immunomodulatory activities. Almost all parts of the tree have been used traditionally for treating various ailments. It has been reported that C. guianensis is a rich source of bioactive compounds, specifically the presence of isatin, tryptanthrin, and indirubin is noteworthy. The present review covers in-depth literature survey concerning ecology, morphology, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and toxicological information of C. guianensis. This review attempts to summarise information relating to the medicinal value of C. guianensis to date in order to provide baseline knowledge for future works.

    Keywords: Cannonball tree, Wound healing, Anticancer, Isatin, Tryptanthrin, Indirubin
  • Maryam Paseban, Saeed Niazmand*, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Naser Tayyebi Meibodi Pages 12-19
    Introduction

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered as one of the most administrated groups of medications worldwide. Due to the role of NSAIDs in inducing gastric ulceration, their clinical applications are still challenging. Nigella sativa seed is widely used as herbal medication against gastrointestinal complications. The present experiment was carried out to investigate the impact of N. sativa seed hydro-alcoholic extract on gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin (IND) and to evaluate its possible mechanisms in rat.

    Methods

    This study was performed on 48 male Wistar rats. Acute gastric ulceration was induced by IND (35 mg/kg). N. sativa seed extract (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and ranitidine (50 mg/kg) were administered orally for five days before induction ulcer. Ulcer index, gastric acid secretion, gastric mucus content, glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total hexose, gastric juice protein content were determined on the fifth day.

    Results

    The ulcer index in all groups of N. sativa seed was significantly lower than that of the IND group. N sativa seed considerably decreased MDA and protein content, but increased total thiol, total hexose, and mucus content compared to the IND group. N. sativa seed did not affect gastric acid secretion.

    Conclusion

    These findings were indicative of the gastroprotective effect of N. sativa seed against the IND-induced ulcer, suggesting that it can mainly be exerted through the anti-oxidant activity of the extract as well as its role in stimulating gastric mucus secretion and increasing total hexose in the gastric mucosa.

    Keywords: Gastric ulcer, Indomethacin, Nigella sativa, Rat, Oxidative stress
  • Gehan Fawzy Abdel Raoof *, Ataa Abdelhaleem Said, Khaled Younes Mohamed, Hesham A. Gomaa Pages 20-27
    Introduction

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phytoconstituents and various bioactivities of Pleiogynium timorense bark as a step towards the production of a new drug from natural origin to overcome the complications of the synthetic drugs.

    Methods

    The phenolic compounds were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods as ultra violet (UV) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The isolated compounds, as well as 70% methanol extract of P. timorense bark were tested for cytotoxicity against human colon carcinoma (HCT 116), human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2), normal melanocytes (HFB-4) and human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. In addition, the methanol extract was evaluated for renal protective, hepatoprotective, antioxidant and antihyperglycaemic activities.

    Results

    Seven phenolic compounds were isolated from the bark of the plant for the first time which were identified as; pyrogallol, catechin, gallic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin and quercetrin. Moreover, the methanol extract of the bark showed a promising cytotoxic effect against HepG2 cell line more than that of the isolated compounds comparing with doxorubicin (a positive control), where catechin and gallic acid showed moderate effects. In addition, the methanol extract showed potent antioxidant, hepatorenal protective and antihyperglycaemic effects.

    Conclusion

    Pleiogynium timorense extract possesses a potent cytotoxic effect against HepG2 cell line and significant antioxidant, hepatorenal protective and antihyperglycaemic effects.

    Keywords: Antihyperglycaemic agents, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic activity, Hepatorenal toxicity, Phenolic compound, Pleiogynium
  • Basma M. Awad, Mohammad M. Abd Alhaseeb*, Eman S. Habib, Amany K. Ibrahim, Safwat A. Ahmed Pages 28-34
    Introduction

    Achillea fragrantissima extract has been used in folk medicine as anticancer. The present study describes the antitumor activities of the extract and the flavonoid compounds and attempts to explain the mechanisms underlying these activities.

    Methods

    The whole plant of A. fragrantissima was collected and ground to produce a fine powder which subjected to maceration process. Step gradient elution was used using silica gel vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC). The fractions were compared by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and concentrated. Final purification was performed using Sephadex LH-20 to give three compounds cirsiliol, chrysosplenol D and cirsimaritin from F4 and one compound, eupatilin-7-methyl ether from F6. In this study, Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma (EAC) model was used as the model of cancer.

    Results

    Achillea fragrantissima extract and its isolated methoxylated flavonoids significantly reduced the weight of tumor discs compared to EAC-control group. In addition, cirsimaritin and eupatilin 7-methyl ether treatments produced a dose-dependent reduction in tumor weight. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ɑ) level showed that A. fragrantissima extract and its isolated methoxylated flavonoid compounds significantly reduced its serum level compared to the EAC-control group. Furthermore, A. fragrantissima extract and the flavonoids significantly increased the Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) compared to EAC-control. A. fragrantissima extract and its isolated methoxylated flavonoids produced a better differentiation of tumor cells, with reduced nuclear pleomorphism and better formed tubular structures especially with high dose indicating the induction of apoptotic mechanism.

    Conclusion

    Achillea fragrantissima extract and its isolated methoxylated flavonoids exhibit antitumor activities that may be attributed to the antioxidant properties and the induction of the apoptotic process.

    Keywords: Achillea fragrantissima, Cirsimaritin, Chrysosplenol D, Cirsiliol, Eupatilin-7-methyl ether, Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma
  • Hassan Sadraei*, Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi, Gholamreza Asghari, Majid Khalili Pages 35-41
    Introduction

    Pharmacological studies confirm antispasmodic activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) extract on intestinal smooth muscles and it has been suggested that chamomile increases uterus tone, but so far there is no scientific studies which support this assumption. Therefore, this study was designed to determine spasmodic and spasmolytic activities of M. chamomilla extracts on rat isolated uterus.

    Methods

    Hydro-alcoholic extract of M. chamomilla was prepared by maceration technique. Flavonoids rich extract was prepared by liquid in liquid extraction technique. Spasmodic effects of the extracts were assessed on spontaneously contracting rat uterus. The myorelaxant effect of M. chamomilla extracts was validated on isolated uterus contractions induced by KCl, acetylcholine (ACh), electrical field stimulation (EFS) and oxytocin.

    Results

    Hydro-alcoholic extract of M. chamomilla (0.8 and 1.6 mg/mL) enhanced spontaneous movement of rat isolated uterus smooth muscle suspended in organ bath. On the other hand, flavonoids rich fraction only diminished uterus contractile activities. Flavonoids rich extract of the plant at bath concentration ranges of 40 µg/mL to 400 µg/mL attenuated uterus response to ACh, KCl, EFS and oxytocin. The hydro-alcoholic extract of M. chamomilla at higher concentration ranges (250 µg/mL to 1.5 mg/mL) inhibited uterus contractions induced by the above spasmogens.

    Conclusion

    The present study confirms both spasmodic and spasmolytic activities M. chamomilla hydro-alcoholic extract. Therefore, medicinal use of the crude extract of M. chamomilla may initiate uterus contraction which could increase risk of spontaneous miscarriage or premature parturition.

    Keywords: Matricaria chamomilla, Uterus, Spasmodic, Spasmolytic, Smooth muscle
  • Mohammad Mazani, Shokofeh Banaei, Lotfollah Rezagholizadeh* Pages 42-47
    Introduction

    Feverfew is an herbal medicine with a traditional usage of treating several disorders. Some investigations have demonstrated that feverfew is an effective remedy for the prophylactic treatment of inflammatory conditions, migraine and menstrual disorders. Therefore, this study was arranged out to evaluate the protective or curative potentials of feverfew methanolic extract (FME) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) induced oxidative trauma in testis.

    Methods

    In this experiment, male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n=6). Group I as a normal control received 1 mL/kg distilled water for 14 days orally and on the 14th day olive oil (1.5 mL/kg, i.p.). Group II received 1 mL/kg distilled water orally for 14 consecutive days. Groups III, IV and V animals were pretreatment groups and treated with three different doses of FME (40, 80, and 120 mg/kg, p.o, respectively) for 14 days. All groups except group one, were also intoxicated with 1.5 ml CCl4 (i.p, in a 1:1 dilution with olive oil) on the 14th day. Groups VI and VII were post-treatment groups and received FME (80 and 120 mg/kg, p.o, respectively) at 2, 6, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 injection.

    Results

    Injection of CCl4 significantly (P<0.001) reduced antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) and increased malondialdehyde when compared to the control group. Administration of FME significantly (P<0.05) improved these alterations near to control rats.

    Conclusion

    It is suggested that FME has the ability to protect testis against oxidative damage, possibly through antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.

    Keywords: Feverfew, Carbon tetrachloride, Testicular damage, Antioxidant, Rat
  • Cyrus Jalili, Amir Abdolmaleki, Shiva Roshankhah, Mohammad Reza Salahshoor* Pages 48-54
    Introduction

    Methotrexate (Met) as a chemotherapy drug has many side effects, such as infiltration of neutrophils and development of oxidative stress. Crocin (Cro), a carotenoid isolated from saffron, has numerous therapeutic characteristics including anticancer and antioxidant activities. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Cro against hepatic damage in rats induced by Met.

    Methods

    In this study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 8 groups, control normal (saline), Met control-treated group (20 mg/kg), Cro groups (12.5, 25, 50 mg/ kg) and Met + Cro treated groups (12.5, 25, 50 mg/kg). Treatments were administered by intraperitoneal injection daily for 28 days. Griess technique was hired for the determination of serum nitrite oxide (NO) level. Concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in order to assess liver function disturbances. In addition, Thiobarbituric acid reactive species, antioxidant capacity, diameter of hepatocytes and central hepatic vein (CHV) were investigated.

    Results

    Met administration significantly increased the liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO level, the mean diameter of CHV, hepatocytes and hepatic enzymes. Met also decreased the tissue FRAP level compared to the normal control group (P<0.01). The Cro and Cro + Met treatments in all doses significantly reduced the mean diameter of hepatocytes and CHV, hepatic enzymes, hepatic MDA and NO levels and increased the tissue FRAP level compared to the Met control group (P<0.01).

    Conclusion

    It seems that Cro administration improves liver injury induced by Met in rats.

    Keywords: Histopathology, Hepatotoxicity, Methotrexate, Herbal antioxidant
  • Ghazal Imani, Alireza Khalilian, Dara Dastan, Behzad Imani, Maryam Mehrpooya* Pages 55-60
    Introduction

    Treatment of Helicobacter pylori has various side effects like antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cinnamon extract on complications of treatment and eradication of H. pylori in infected people.

    Methods

    In this randomized clinical trial, a total of 98 eligible healthy and H. pylori-infected patients approved by esophageal endoscopy were selected. The cinnamon group received multidrug treatment including clarithromycin, amoxicillin and pantoprazole as well as a cinnamon extract capsule. The control group received multi-drug treatment and a 40 mg starch capsule. In order to analyze the cinnamon extract efficacy, the urea breath test (UBT) was performed 3 months after the start of treatment. Clinical symptoms were evaluated by a questionnaire at the beginning (day of 0), 7 days and 14 days after starting treatment.

    Results

    The clinical symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, headache, metallic flavor, epigastric pain, burp, and appetite were significantly reduced in cinnamon group (P<0.05). The odds ratio exhibited a higher eradication rate of H. pylori in cinnamon group (73.47% in cinnamon group compared to 53.06% in the control group) (P = 0.036).

    Conclusion

    Cinnamon as assisted therapy is able to alleviate the disease and reduce the complications of H. pylori treatment

    Keywords: Cinnamon, Helicobacter pylori, Disease eradication, Complicity, Peptic ulcer
  • Cyrus Jalili, Amir Abdolmaleki, Shiva Roshankhah, Mohammad Reza Salahshoor* Pages 61-67
    Introduction

    Morphine (MOR) as a psychoactive agent in opium family causes free radicals accumulation which leads to failure in spermatogenesis. Gallic acid (GA), a polyphenolic acid, is found in various plants with antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, and anti-allergic activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of GA against MOR-induced damage to the reproductive parameter of rats.

    Methods

    Sixty-four male Wistar rats (8 weeks, 220-250 g) were categorized into 8 groups by random (n=8/each); normal control and MOR control groups; GA groups (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and MOR + GA groups (5, 10, 20 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intraperitoneally (i.p), daily for 4 weeks. The sperm parameters, spermatogenesis index (SI), total antioxidant capacity, testosterone level, and seminiferous tube diameter (STD) were assessed.

    Results

    All sperm parameters reduced significantly in MOR control group than to the normal control group (P < 0.01). All parameters were significantly improved in GA and GA + MOR treatment groups compared to the MOR control group (P < 0.01).

    Conclusion

    MOR caused a detrimental effect on male reproductive parameters. Also, no significant modifications were observed in all doses of GA treatments in comparison with the normal control group. GA compensates the toxic effect of MOR on reproductive parameters. Hence, GA administration is beneficial in MOR users.

    Keywords: Gallic acid, Testis, Rats, Medicinal plants, Morphine
  • Sahar Y. Al Okbi*, Doha A. Mohamed, Thanaa E. Hamed, Enas S.K. Al Siedy I Pages 68-74
    Introduction

    The interrelation between cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and renal dysfunction and the beneficial role of nutraceuticals are worthy to be studied. Nutraceuticals with anticancer effects are gaining great importance. The aim of this research was studying the anti-cancer, CVDs prevention and renal dysfunction properties of γ-oryzanol (γ-O) and rice bran oil/γ-O mixture (RBO/γ-O) as nutraceuticals.

    Methods

    Rats were divided into 7 groups. Group 1 was fed on balanced diet and served as normal control (NC). Group 2 consumed high-fat-sucrose diet (HFSD) as CVD control. Groups 3 and 4 were fed on HFSD and treated by γ-O and RBO/γ-O, respectively. Group 5 was maintained on HFSD with cisplatin injection (cardiorenal syndrome control) (CRSC). Groups 6 and 7 were treated like group 5 and given either γ-O or RBO/γ-O. Plasma lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), catalase activity, creatinine and urea were determined besides urinary creatinine clearance. Nutraceuticals’ anticancer effect was assessed in hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HepG2) line.

    Results

    Significant increases (P<0.05) in lipid parameters with reduction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were noticed in CVD control compared to NC group; the same changes were demonstrated in CRSC with lesser extent. In CVD control and CRSC groups; significant increase (P<0.05) in MDA and TNF-α with reduction in catalase were noticed. Kidney dysfunction was demonstrated in CRSC group. Administration of both RBO/γ-O and γ-O produced variable improvements in all parameters in both models and had anticancer effects.

    Conclusion

    RBO/ γ-O and γ-O had protective effects on CVDs and cardiorenal syndrome as well as anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities with superiority of RBO/γ-O.

    Keywords: γ-Oryzanol, Rice bran oil, Cardiovascular disease, Renal dysfunction, Cardiorenal syndrome, Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Alireza Naeini, Roya Yaraee, Hojjatollah Shokri* Pages 75-80
    Introduction

    Macrophages are one of the key phagocytes against various pathogenic fungi, particularly Candida species killed by various mechanisms such as nitric oxide (NO) agents. The purposes of this research were to investigate the anti-Candida and immunomodulatory effects of the extracts from Allium jesdianum on mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    Methods

    The antifungal assay of amphotericin B and nystatin, as well as hydroalcoholic extract from A. jesdianum was carried out using disk diffusion and broth macrodilution methods against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231). Furthermore, microculture tetrazolium (MTT) and nitrite assays (Griess test) were applied to study the influence of the aqueous extract from A. jesdianum on macrophage viability indices and NO production, respectively.

    Results

    The results showed inhibition zone values of 8, 16, 28 mm for A. jesdianum, amphotericin B and nystatin against the organism tested, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of A. jesdianum were found to be 330 and 663 µg/mL, respectively. Aqueous extract of A. jesdianum induced a significant decrease (2.8- fold at concentration of 5 mg/mL and 4.3-fold at concentration of 10 mg/mL) in macrophage viability indices in comparison with control group (P<0.001) but there was no toxic effect at 1 and 0.5 mg/mL. In addition, the aqueous extract of A. jesdianum resulted in a significant increase in NO production at non-toxic concentrations (77.6 µM nitrite at concentration of 1 mg/mL and 79.4 µM at concentration of 0.5 mg/mL) by macrophages (P<0.01).

    Conclusion

    The extract of A. jesdianum showed an in vitro anti-C. albicans and NO stimulatory effect. More studies with purified immunomodulatory components of A. jesdianum should be performed in future to shed light on the exact mechanisms of this activity.

    Keywords: Immunomodulatory activity, Allium jesdianum, Macrophage viability, NO production, Candida albicans
  • Aleksandra Aleksandrova, Mariia Nesterkina *, Svitlana Gvozdii, Iryna Kravchenko Pages 81-85
    Introduction

    The aim of this research is centered on phytochemical analysis and antiinflammatory activity of Cladophora aegagropila extract.

    Methods

    Total flavonoid content in the appropriate ethanol extract of C. aegagropila was determined using spectrometric method. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the models of carrageenan-induced and allyl isothiocyanate-induced (AITC-induced) inflammation of hind limb in rats. Experimental animals were divided into 3 groups, 5 animals each: 1st group – control; the animals without therapy of induced inflammation, 2nd group – animals were treated with application of 5% ointment containing C. aegagropila; 3rd group – animals were treated with application of 5% ibuprofen. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity was performed by determination of dynamic change of thickness and volume of affected animal limb for carrageenan-induced inflammation for 8 days (with daily registration of records), and for AITC induced inflammation for 24 h (with registration of records after 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h since phlogogen was introduced).

    Results

    Flavonoids content in C. aegagropila extract varied depending on ethanol concentration: usage of 40% ethanol led to 18.2 mg of flavonoid recovery on 1.0 g of dry raw material; 70% ethanol – 39.5 mg and 96% ethanol – 35.5 mg. Therapy of 5% ointment based on C. aegagropila extract decreased inflammatory response caused by subplantar introduction of corresponding phlogogen.

    Conclusion

    The ointment from C. aegagropila extract shows anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting inflammation caused by AITC and carrageenan.

    Keywords: Cladophora aegagropila, Phytochemical analysis, Anti-inflammatory activity