فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های راهبردی مسائل اجتماعی ایران - سال هشتم شماره 3 (پیاپی 26، پاییز 1398)
  • سال هشتم شماره 3 (پیاپی 26، پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • سیدعلیرضا افشانی*، علی روحانی، حامد کیانی ده کیانی صفحات 1-18

    پژوهش حاضر درباره فرایند شکل گیری بی قدرتی شغلی بین پرستاران بیمارستان های دولتی شهر یزد بررسی می کند. با استفاده از رویکرد کیفی و روش نظریه زمینه ای و با نمونه گیری نظری و هدفمند، 20 نفر از پرستاران بیمارستان های دولتی شهر یزد انتخاب شدند و با آنها مصاحبه های عمیقی انجام شد. فرایند نمونه گیری نظری تا مرحله اشباع داده ها ادامه یافت. داده های گردآوری شده با استفاده از کدگذاری باز، محوری و گزینشی تحلیل و در قالب خط داستان (شامل 20 مقوله اصلی و 1 مقوله هسته)، الگوی پارادایمی و طرح واره نظری ارائه شدند. نتایج نشان دادند بی قدرتی شغلی پرستاران به طور عمده به دنبال عواملی چون گفتار قدرت - مراقبت پزشکان، برساخت نارضایتی های مالی و وضعیت سیال بیماران برساخته می شود. پرستاران در مقابل بی قدرتی شغلی راهبرد های متفاوتی را برمی گزینند. کار عاطفی، درمان پراگماتیسمی و گفتمان اعتماد ازجمله این راهبردهاست که بین پرستاران فعال شده و با خود پیامد هایی مانند بی تفاوتی آموخته شده، حل گفتمانی اختلافات، هژمونی عواطف منفی و سبک های مراقبتی ترکیبی را داشته است. طرح واره نظری این فرایند را ترسیم می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: بی قدرتی، برساخت اجتماعی، گفتار قدرت - مراقبت، پرستاران، یزد
  • ابراهیم ایران نژاد، سیروس احمدی*، آرمان حیدری صفحات 19-34

    سلامت جسمانی از عوامل متعددی تاثیر می گیرد؛ اما در دوره معاصر بر نقش عوامل اجتماعی به طور خاص تاکید زیادی شده است. بر این اساس، با استناد به رویکردهای نظری تلفیقی در زمینه بررسی مسائل مختلف به ویژه در عرصه مطالعات اجتماعی، مطالعه حاضر تلاش کرده است احتمال ابتلا به بیماری قند خون را براساس سرمایه های اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی پیش بینی کند. این مطالعه از نوع کمی است که به روش پیمایشی در شهر تبریز انجام شده است. روش انجام پژوهش به این صورت بود که طی دعوت نامه ای از افراد منتخب خواسته شد برای انجام آزمایش خون به آزمایشگاه طرف قرداد در شهر تبریز مراجعه کنند. بر این اساس، در دوره زمانی یک ماهه از تحویل دعوت نامه ها، پرسش نامه پژوهش در اختیار 385 نفر از افرادی قرار داده شد که به آزمایشگاه ذکرشده مراجعه کرده بودند؛ سپس از آنها خواسته شد به سوالات آن جواب دهند. براساس یافته های توصیفی پژوهش، 327 نفر از پاسخگویان قند خون طبیعی و 58 نفر قند خون غیر طبیعی داشتند. به علاوه، براساس یافته های استنباطی با استفاده از الگوی رگرسیون لجستیک، مشخص شد رابطه معناداری بین سرمایه اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی با عضوشدن در گروه قند خون طبیعی وجود دارد و متغیرهای ذکرشده قادرند در مجموع 38% از تغییرات آن را تبیین کنند. با این تفاصیل، نتیجه ‎ اساسی پژوهش حاضر این است که سلامت جسمی از تعیین کننده های اجتماعی همچون سرمایه های اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی تاثیر می گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه اجتماعی، سرمایه فرهنگی، سرمایه اقتصادی، قند خون، سلامت جسمی
  • محمد امین کنعانی*، سید هاشم موسوی، زهرا بیگ زاده صفحات 35-56

    ابژه نسلی پدیده ‎ای مرتبط با نظام معرفتی نسل هاست که دراثر تغییرات سریع و برخورد تازه با پدیده ‎های نوظهور از نسلی به نسل دیگر تفاوت پیدا می کند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، تبیین تفاوت نسل ها براثر مصرف رسانه ‎هایی است که برای هر نسل حکم ابژه نسلی را پیدا کرده اند. بدین منظور با استفاده از نظریه های مانهایم و بالس و نظریه استفاده و خشنودی و اثرات جابه جایی و مکمل رسانه، این موضوع بررسی شد که آیا بین نسل ها به لحاظ مصرف انواع رسانه تفاوت وجود دارد یا خیر. روش پژوهش، پیمایشی و بر پایه پرسش نامه محقق ساخته انجام شده است. جامعه آماری همه شهروندان 18ساله و بالاتر شهر رشت بودند. روش نمونه‎ گیری از نوع طبقه بندی بود و 400 نفر برای حجم نمونه انتخاب شدند. یافته ها نشان دادند بین ابژه های رسانه ای نسل ها تفاوت معنادار وجود دارد و می توان تقسیم ‎بندی نسل ها را براساس رسانه موردعلاقه هر نسل در نظام معرفتی آنها شناسایی کرد؛ زیرا هر نسل در انتخاب نوع رسانه خاص خود درگیر تجربه مشترک تاریخی است و به ‎صورت انتخابی و فعال عمل می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: نسل، ابژه نسلی، مصرف رسانه، برخورد تازه، مانهایم
  • سیدحامد حسینیان، مسعود کیانپور*، علی ربانی خوراسگانی صفحات 57-82

    در حوزه مسائل اعتقادی، فراگرد ارتباط در تبلیغ دینی و ارشاد مردم در صورتی اثرگذار است که رابطه مردم و روحانیت به شکل مطلوب برقرار باشد و مردم،همچنان به شنیدن آموزه های دینی از زبان روحانیت علاقه داشته باشند. اکنون، پس از چهل سال از پیروزی انقلاب اسلامی رابطه مردم و روحانیت در حوزه تبلیغ دینی فرازوفرودهایی را تجربه کرده که باوجود تاثیرگذاربودن، به طور جدی نیازمند آسیب شناسی است. در این مقاله، پژوهشگران به دنبال شناسایی آسیب ‏های ارتباط مردم و روحانیت درزمینه تبلیغ دین هستند و هدف اصلی ما توصیف آسیب های این فراگرد است. چارچوب مفهومی این پژوهش، براساس مدل منبع معنی بنا گذاشته شده است که به روند فراگرد ارتباط و عناصر ششگانه آن توجه می کند و پژوهشگران، با بهره گیری از روش توصیف کیفی ساندلوسکی و مصاحبه های عمیق با طلاب مبلغ نخبه، آسیب های ارتباط مردم و روحانیت را درخصوص تبلیغ دین توصیف کرده اند. میدان مدنظر ما تمام روحانیان مبلغی هستند که هرساله در دفتر تبلیغات اسلامی تلاش های تبلیغی آنها ارزیابی می شود و نمونه برگزیده نیز بیست و دو نفر از این نخبگان هستند که در دو همایش«برترین های تبلیغ» از آنها تقدیر شده است. طبق یافته های حاصل شده، مشارکت کنندگان درزمینه تبلیغ دین آسیب های ارتباط مردم و روحانیت را در پنج مقوله فراگرد ارتباط، فاصله نقش، الزامات زمینه ای، میزان توان ارتباطی و بومرنگ تبلیغ توصیف کرده اند و مفاهیمی چون پرچم داری زید و عمر، اقتدار قضائی و اداری و توطئه اندیشی، در مقوله قطع فراگرد ارتباط و مضامینی مانند روحانی مکلا، دین وراونه، منبرهای پوچ و روحانی ابزاری در مقوله فاصله نقش معرفی شده اند. مقوله الزامات زمینه ای با مفاهیمی چون فرهنگ گریزی، ذائقه گریزی،ارزش گریزی و کاهش میزان توان ارتباطی توصیف شده و در مقوله بومرنگ تبلیغ، تبلیغ بی کلام و تبلیغ پاکتی به دست آمده است که مبلغان دین باید به آنها توجه کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: توصیف کیفی، روحانیت، تبلیغ دینی، مبلغان نخبه، آسیب شناسی تبلیغ دینی، فراگرد ارتباط
  • حکیمه ملک احمدی، اصغر میرفردی*، مریم مختاری صفحات 83-104

    چکیده عشق از مهم ترین مفاهیم انسانی و پایه اساسی شکل دهی ارتباط بین دو جنس است که در علوم مختلف و آرا و نظریات فلاسفه و متفکران به روش های متفاوتی بررسی شده است. با وجود این، درباره نگاه از درون و از منظر کنشگران درگیر در رابطه عاشقانه، کمتر بحث شده است. هدف پژوهش حاضر، کاوش در تجربه زیسته عشق و گونه شناسی آن بود. برای این منظور با رویکرد پدیدارشناسی با 14 نفر از دانشجویان دانشگاه اصفهان و دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان که عشق را تجربه کرده بودند، مصاحبه عمیق شد. تجزیه و تحلیل مصاحبه ها با استفاده از روش کولیزی، نشان دهنده آن بود که چهار گونه عشق ورزی از تجربه مشارکت کنندگان استخراج شدنی است: 1- عشق ‎ به منزله دستاورد، با دو زیرمقوله ساخت تجارب مشترک و صعود، 2- عشق به منزله تجربه عاطفی غیرمنتظره، با دو زیرمقوله تجربه دست‎یافتنی و تجربه دست نیافتنی، 3- عشق به منزله اعتیاد و 4- عشق به منزله تجربه فیزیولوژیک. همچنین گونه تجربه غیرعاشقانه ای در یافته ها شناسایی شد: «تجربه رابطه جنسی عاری از عشق». در مجموع می توان گفت کنشگران بر مبنای تجارب گوناگون در طول زندگی و ساختاری که در آن رشد کرده اند، گونه های مختلف عشق ورزی را شکل می دهند؛ اما تجربه مشترک در همه آنها، رویارویی با عشق به منزله امری زمینی و دست یافتنی است.

    کلیدواژگان: عشق، گونه شناسی، پدیدارشناسی، زندگی، رابطه
  • مرتضی پدریان، فریدون وحیدا*، رضا اسماعیلی صفحات 105-126

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف واکاوی کنش های احساسی - عاطفی در درمان اعتیاد و با استفاده از روش کیفی و استراتژی نظریه زمینه ای انجام شده است و مشارکت کنندگان در پژوهش، بیست و سه نفر از بهبودیافتگان شهر اصفهان هستند. برای گردآوری داده ها از تکنیک مصاحبه عمیق و مشاهده مشارکتی و به منظور تحلیل اطلاعات از سه شیوه کدگذاری باز، محوری و گزینشی استفاده شده است. طبق یافته های مقاله، در درمان اعتیاد کنش های احساسی - عاطفی حول یک مقوله هسته به نام «مناسک به مثابه بستر کنش های عاطفی رهایی بخش» و چند مقوله اصلی به تفکیک اجزای مدل پارادایمی پژوهش شکل گرفته اند که شامل این موارد هستند: درزمینه وضعیت علی: ارتباطات عاطفی، حرکات ریتمیک، شخصیت شمن و احساس آزادبودن، درزمینه وضعیت زمینه ای: مناسک دینی، ایجاد شور و هیجان و برانگیختن احساسات و درخصوص وضعیت مداخله گر: موسیقی، شعر، فضا و مکان، عزاداری، ناقلان احساس، عمل - تعامل ها، ارتباط معنوی، گرفتن فاز و تعریق زیاد. براساس این نتایج، پیامد اصلی این کنش ها نیز درمان جسمی و روحی افراد معتاد است.

    کلیدواژگان: اعتیاد، مناسک، کنش های احساسی - عاطفی، درمان
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  • Seyedalireza Afshani *, Ali Ruhani, Hamed Kiani Dehkiani Pages 1-18
    Introduction

     The establishment of hospitals caused many people with different medical profession start working there. But, nurses always received less attention. When it comes to healthcare in hospitals, the community of nurses are taken into consideration. In most of medical institution, nursing department is one of the largest part and nursing staffs make up 40 to 60 percent of all human resources. In hierarchy of hospital class the community of nurses may get exposed to heavy pressure that refers to the system of the hospital, the patients, and their companies. This pressure may cause dissatisfaction. Besides the dissatisfaction, this pressure causes this community feel exhausted in hospitals. Many studies proved that job stress, dissatisfaction and burnout are common among nursing experts. For this reasons, among all hospital staffs, nurses need to be empowered to be effective for patients, doctors and the other health care experts along with for themselves. As usual, powerless nurses are those who are not effective in hierarchy of hospital class. Powerless nurses most of the time are dissatisfied about their career and also Prone to burnout. Regarding powerlessness problem among nurses, the present paper attempts to use a conceptual framework of sociology and an interpretive approach to describe the formation the processes of job powerlessness among nurses of Yazd governmental hospitals. In addition, in this paper, the question of how nurses’ powerlessness in Yazd governmental hospitals can be constructed will be answered. 

    Material & Methods

    In this paper, the qualitative methodology with its underlying theory is used. For conducting a substantial interview, the number of 20 nurses of Yazd governmental hospitals were selected. The interviews were continued until reaching theoretical saturation stage. After finishing every interview, the recordings were written and then analyzed by researcher. In analyzing process, line-by-line analysis technique was utilized for open coding step. Along with the development of concepts and their abstraction, axial and selective coding steps were performed on the text. This paper considered ethical concepts such as legal harm prevention, informed consent, privacy, anonymity and confidentiality. Aliases are used to maintain the anonymity criterion, and for the sake of privacy, the participants' private information was kept safe. By long-term contact with the research environment, continuous observation in the field of research, review, referral adequacy, rich description and approval of the participants, the reliability of research findings was confirmed. Also, the validity of the research was confirmed by observing the principles of interviewing, recording, and implementing the results of interviews. 

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    After analyzing the collected data, a core category entitled ‘hegemonic construction of job powerlessness’ was made up of 157 concepts, 33 sub-categories, and 20 main categories. The results were presented in the form of story line, paradigm model and theoretical schema. The result showed that job powerlessness of nurses is basically originated from physician care, financial dissatisfaction, and the fluid situation of patients. In this situation, nurses choose different strategies against job powerlessness. Emotional work, pragmatic treatment, and trust discourse are the strategies that are common among nurses. Its implications are for some cases like learned apathy, conflict resolution, hegemony of negative emotions, and blended care styles. The overall result is that the social construction of job powerlessness is hegemonic in its acute state. This will include micro, mid and macro levels. In fact, hegemonic job powerlessness construction among nurses, at the micro level, is mentally created by nurses and is stabilized at the intermediate level by the hospital system organization and eventually is reproduced at the society level. This suggests that the construction of powerlessness constantly stems from the social context and thus can be altered by changing substrate, thus job powerlessness may increase or decrease.

    Keywords: Powerlessness, Social Construction, Power, Care Discourse, Nurses, Yazd
  • Abrahim Irannejad, Siroos Ahmadi *, Arman Heydari Pages 19-34
    Introduction

    Health is not essentially a biological concept and instead, it includes the socio-psychological aspects. Moreover, health is not a personal theme and it is rooted in the structure of the society. There is valid evidence that social determinants of health have a great effect on physical health. Based on some estimation, almost half of people’s health is determined by the social factors like, poverty, literate, housing, occupation, and respecting the women rights, and the other half is due to the health system, genetic issues, and the environment. Diabetes as a metabolic disease that results from disorder in insulin leakage, insulin function, or both has been rapidly increasing during the past several decades and now, it is becoming a public health problem all over the world. The outbreak of diabetes was 285 million in 2010, this rate reached 371 million in 2012, and it is predicted that it will reach 552 million by 2030. Based on the evidence, the epidemic of diabetes in Iran is high and around 7 million people are infected to diabetes in this country. The rapid increase of diabetes has a close relation with social factors. In this regard, it could have a close connection with the social capitals. It is assumed that social spaces including participation and trust through social support, awareness and sensitivity, facilitate the health or create it as well. In fact, social capital can raise health through providing social support, self-esteem, and mutual respect. On the other hand, it is believed that people who have cultural capital are equipped with a set of knowledge and cognitive skills, which prevent them committing high risk behaviors. Finally, economic capital gives people the possibility to provide their basic needs like food and house, cope with the problems that bring about less stress, and have more access to health and therapy. As a whole, it seems that social, cultural and economic capitals are able to influence diabetes. Given that, this relationship has been rarely studied, the main purpose of this research is to investigate whether the social, cultural, and economic capitals affect physical health (diabetes).

    Material & Methods

    This cross-sectional survey has been carried out on the people aged 40 to 60 in Tabriz. Thus, 385 people were selected by means of random multi-sage sampling method. In a one-month phase, the respondents were invited to a special laboratory in Tabriz for doing a blood test free of charge. After referring to the laboratory and doing the test, they were given the research questionnaires to respond. For assessing social capital variable, the social capital questionnaire developed by Onyx and Bullen (2000), was employed. This instrument had been used before in Iran and of course its psychometric properties had been confirmed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire, which was 0.875. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to measure cultural capital consisting of three dimensions: institutional, visual and objective. This questionnaire has 15 items, which is measured at two-level nominal rating scale (yes = 1 and no = 0) and scores range from 0 to 15. According to the items of this questionnaire, which were mainly based on objective reality assessment, the content validity and opinions of the reviewers were used to determine its validity. Internal consistency was used to determine its reliability by Kuder-Richardson method which was 0.766. For measuring economic capital operationally, researcher-made questionnaire consisted of 10 items was used to measure the operational capital of the economy, consisting of 2 items (yes = 1 and no = 0) at nominal level, with scores ranging from 0 to 10. Considering that the items of this questionnaire are also based on objective reality assessment, content validity was used to assess validity and Kuder-Richardson coefficient was used to determine its reliability, which was 0.780. Finally, for measuring physical health, the result of blood sugar extracted by the blood test was made use of. The Logistic Regression Analysis lastly was used for the calculation of the relationships between the variables.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    Based on the descriptive research findings, the rate of infection to abnormal diabetes among the respondents was 15.1% which is approximately compatible with the formal statistics in Iran which is 12% of the population over 18 years of age. According to the research findings, social capital has a significant impact on physical health, and with increasing social capital, the proportion of the chance to join the normal blood sugar group increases. This research finding in accordance with the theoretical bases of the study which show that social networks with decreasing anxiety, enforcing health, requesting more suitable health service, and activating the defensive body system, can improve the health. The research findings also indicate that, cultural capital has a significant effect on physical health (diabetes) so that, with increasing the cultural capital the probability of being a member of the normal group (non-diabetes), increases. This research finding in agreement with the theoretical framework of the study and displays that the respondents who have a higher level of information and cognitive abilities, are more sensitive toward their health and as a result, they avoid doing behaviors which can increase the risk of being infected with the diabetes like over consuming sweets, sugar substances, soda or tolerating the severe hunger that are able to create disorder in exudation insulin. Finally, the research findings demonstrate that, economic capital has a significant effect on physical health (diabetes) so that, the higher economic capital people have, the higher chance they have to be the member of the normal group (non-diabetes). It should be pointed out that, this research finding in harmony with the theoretical bases which show that increased economic capital will provide greater access to health services as well as exercise and more opportunities for physical health.

    Keywords: Social Capital, Cultural Capital, Economic Capital, Diabetes, Physical Health
  • Mohammad Amin Kanani *, Seyyed Hashem Mousavi, Zahra Beygzadeh Pages 35-56
    Introduction

    Generational object is a phenomenon related to the epistemic system of generations which differs from one generation to another due to rapid changes and fresh contacts of each generation to emerging phenomena. The introduction and expansion of mass and social media in the recent history of the country and how various social groups have dealt with it, along with the restrictions imposed on these technologies by the state, have been such that the emergence of the media has become a form of historical fact and remained in the memory of those generations. So, these facts can be considered as one of the most important events that, as Mannheim puts it as the "fresh contact" with new objects for generations in which periods were continually entering the cultural stream of society, and it can be claimed that each of these media are generational objects. Although Mannheim has spoken of socio-historical events as a generational object, he refuses to empirically identify them. Christopher Bollas frequently refers to instances of generational objects and considers generations to be a set of human beings that share generational objects. In his view, these objects are explainers of the individual's generation, and remembering them generates a sense of his generation in his mind. Bollas begins his essay by mentioning some of the famous authors' biographies and mentions Kim Newman's generational object as "television and later horror videos and movies". Therefore, he is one of the first who introduces the media as a generational object. In the sociology of media, recently, the concept of generation has been widely discussed, with some scholars discussing the approach of the media generation. For these researchers, generational identity formation is linked to media technologies at two levels: First, media experience in the years of identity formation through media consumption culture; second, representations made through media produced works help to define a particular generation's identity and sense of belonging to a particular generation. The purpose of the present study is to describe and explain the intergenerational differences in media use and to investigate whether media can be considered as an object for different generations. To this end, by the use of Mannheim and Bollas's theories, as well as the theory of use and gratification, and the theory of displacement and complementarity effects of media, it is explained whether there is a difference between generations in terms of media consumption.

    Material & Methods

    The research method was survey based on a researcher-made questionnaire. The population of the study was all citizens of Rasht in the year 2017. Sampling method was stratified and 400 persons were selected as the sample size.
     

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The findings showed that there is a significant difference between generations' media objects and increasing social media consumption caused differences in the thoughts and values of the younger generation with those of the previous generations. Each generation, focusing on their need for news or entertainment, uses the media they are interested in and remember it as one of their generational objects. Since the media are the communicating mediators in a society, their use during the formative years of generational identity and through the generational fresh contact has made generations, especially the younger generations who are aware of the community around them, and by increasing generations' knowledge of other individuals and groups, they have been able to influence intergenerational interaction and intergenerational norms. It can therefore be acknowledged that generational media objects have created common elements in generations' memories. The media objects that were adopted and consumed during the 1980s in Iran, as part of the lived experiences of the Islamic Revolution and the imposed war generation and the interpretation of this generation's life and social life were the print press, especially the domestic newspaper and domestic radio. With the end of this decade and the end of the war, media such as domestic television and foreign satellites and video became the focus of attention by the next generation (middle-aged generation). Despite the opposition of the official community space to the use of foreign satellite and video media, these media continued to be used until the arrival of new media (Internet and virtual social networks, especially telegrams). They attracted the attention of the younger generation, and this fresh contact to the new media has witnessed many widespread changes in the generational mindset. For this reason, and with the increasing use of the media in the social life of different generations, along with other economic, social and cultural developments in the past decades, more research is needed to understand the generations and objects that shape their mentality and identity.

    Keywords: generation, Generational Object, Media Consumption, Fresh Contact, Mannheim
  • Seyed Hamed Hoseinian, Masoud Kianpour *, Ali Rabbani Khorasgani Pages 57-82
    Introduction

    The communication process in Islamic preaching and guidance of people in the realm of beliefs can be effective only when the relationship between people and the clergy is desirably at work, and that people are still willing to listen to clerics’ Islamic teachings. Over the past forty years after the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the relationship between people and the clergy in the realm of Islamic preaching have been experiencing ups and downs which require serious pathology despite its efficacy. The researchers in this article investigated the harms in the communication between people and the clergy in Islamic preaching, and the main purpose of this study was to describe this pathological process. What are the harms in the relationship between people and the clergy in Islamic preaching? Is the process of communication formed between people and the clergy in Islamic preaching?  Do the clergy preach considering the audience’s social context needs? And do they need the audience’s negative feedback in the process of communication? To answer these questions, the conceptual framework of the study was based on the model of meaning source dealt with the process of communication and its six-fold elements.  

    Material & Methods

    The population was composed of clergies whose preaching efforts were evaluated annually in the Islamic Propagation Office. The participants of the study were 22 that showed the standard of ‘success in preaching’ in the apex of ‘elitism’ and acquired a high score. They were chosen as the best in two conferences on propagation in terms of such indices as the rate of reception and presence of the youth in religious and cultural activities, selection of appropriate content along with appropriate methods, practical ways of life, social behaviors and interactions, creativity and innovation in proposing religious issues among the youth, creation of spiritual atmosphere, revival of religious rituals, generation of positive attitude toward Islamic Revolution and the clergy, education, compilations, teaching, research, etc. For the purpose of credibility of the results, a meeting under the title of Focus Group was held consisting of seven preaching elites who were among the successful university teachers and lecturers in the realm of preaching. After numerous talks among the researchers, all believed that codes, classifications and conceptual categories were rightly extracted from the interviews, and in addition, a few alterations were suggested and applied to some words and concepts. A qualitative-descriptive method was employed for this study. In the qualitative description, the data collection was conducted through ‘open interview’ or interviewing the ‘focus group’. Utilizing Sandelowski’s (2000) qualitative description, the present researchers, without manipulation, organized and described the data deeply taken from the elite preacher clergies concerning the harms in the relationship between people and the clergy in Islamic preaching in order that the results of the study would be closer to the reality of the data.  

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    Based on the findings of this study, the participants described the harms in the relationship between people and the clergy in Islamic preaching under the umbrella of the process of communication, the role distance, the contextual requirements, the power of communication and the preaching boomerang, and concepts such as waving someone’s flag (advocating someone), judicial and administrative authority and conspiracy theorizing (conspiracy theory) under the category of severing the process of communication, Mokalla cleric (a clergy without a turban), inverted religion, hollow sermons and instrumental cleric (abusing the clerics as a means of achieving one’s ends) under the category of the role distance were introduced. The category of the contextual requirements was described via concepts such as culture eluding (inattentiveness to the audience’s culture), taste eluding (inattentiveness to the audience’s taste), value eluding (inattentiveness to the audience’s values) and the reduction of the power of communication. This category was under the category of the preaching boomerang, nonverbal preaching and envelope preaching (on the basis of wage), which the Islamic preachers should pay attention to.

    Keywords: Qualitative Description, Clerics, Islamic Preaching, Elite Preachers, Pathological Study of Islamic Preaching, Communication Process
  • Hakimeh Malekahmadi, Asghar Mirfardi *, Maryam Mokhtari Pages 83-104
    Introduction

    Love is one of the most important human concepts and is the basis of the formation of the relationship between the two sexes, which has been studied by various scholars in various ways. There has been little agreement on the nature of love. Love is influenced by different social conditions and the type of dominant lifestyle of each era defines its nature. In addition, love is an event, that most people have experienced at least once in their lives. However, every experience from the perspective of the actors is a unique experience. Therefore, love is a multifaceted phenomenon, that, on the one hand, is related to the deepest individual emotions and particular personality traits as well as psychological and subconscious traits and, on the other hand, is influenced by social conditions and structures. 

    Material & Methods

    This study is a phenomenological study. Phenomenology examines the experiences of subjects. Researchers in the present study, studied the participants' experiences of ‘love’. The concept of love in this study, is the title of an experienced, attainable and earthly issue. The purpose of the present study was to explore the experience of living of love and its typology. For this purpose, by the in-depth phenomenological approach, 14 students at the University of Isfahan and Isfahan University of Technology, who had experienced ‘love’, were interviewed in depth. Findings were analyzed using Gollizzi method.  

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

     Analyzing the interviews indicated that four types of love can be deduced from the participants' experience. The first type of typology was ‘love as an achievement' with two sub-categories of  build shared experiences and climbing. The meaning of love as an achievement is a relationship that can turn into components of love. The central idea in this way is that the parties themselves, must make love. In this view, love is formed by mutual effort over time. So there is no belief in love at a glance. The second type of typology  was ‘love as an unexpected emotional experience’ with two sub-categories of achievable experience and unattainable experience. In this type of love, there is a relative belief in love at a glance and parties expect a perfect relationship. So, there is no attempt to build a relationship. Itseems  that part of this relationship have been assigned to ‘accident’, ‘chance’, and ‘fortune’. The Third type of typology was ‘love as an addiction’. In this way, falling in love is a form of addictive behavior. It is important to experience the excitement and to deal with abnormal acts. But, as soon as the initial emotions are over, the person loses interest in the lover. Not reaching the lover is one of the central ideas of this kind of love. The fourth type of typology was ‘love as a physiological experience’. In this way, the experience of love is more of a physiological and hormonal process. But, love as a hormonal process can be the basis for other forms of relationships. Generally, participants shape different kinds of love based on different experiences in life and structure in which they grew up.  But, they encounter love as something earthly and attainable, which is common among all of them. Another finding of the study was the extraction of a kind of non-romantic experience: ‘love-free sexual experience’. In this way, there is no belief in love, and love is just a beautiful cover to meet needs, especially sexual desires. After analyzing the findings, theories related to love were reviewed, although there are different theories about love in different fields, but the recent conceptual foundations of research are drawn from the theories of Alan Badio, Robert Stenberg, Sigmund Bowman, and Helen Fisher. For this purpose, after coding and extracting the categories, the theories in the field were studied, and those that somehow supported the findings and explained it more clearly were selected.

    Keywords: Love, typology, Phenomenology, Life, Relationship
  • Morteza Pedariyan, Fereydoon Vahida *, Reza Esmaili Pages 105-126
    Introduction

    The phenomenon of addiction is one of the great problems of human societies. Drug and psychotropic addiction are considered as the fourth global crises along with the three global crises of poverty, environmental destruction, and nuclear threat. Drugs are complex and multifaceted phenomena that are influenced by multiple physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and cultural factors, so the application of any treatment program that emphasizes these dimensions can be effective. Therefore, the present study, considering emotional activities as one of the effective factors in the treatment of addiction, seeks to study the treatment process of addiction at this center to analyze the experiences of those who have improved with this method in Isfahan Abolfazli Board as one of the therapist group that focused on treatment through emotional activities.  

    Material & Methods

    The research method was qualitative based on the theory of systematic approach. The participants of the study were twenty-three individuals recovered by emotional actions in Abolfazli Board of in Isfahan. The sampling method in this study was purposive. Depth interviewing and participatory observation techniques were used to collect research data and three methods of open coding, axial and selective coding were used to analyze the data. In order to validate the research, current accreditation techniques were used in the field theory method, including control or accreditation by members of analytical systems and external evaluator or inspector technique.  

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The research findings indicated that emotional interactions in the treatment of addiction in the study position revolved around a core category called ‘rituals as the bedrock of emancipatory affective actions’ and several major categories of components of the paradigm model research were causal conditions like emotional communication, rhythmic movements, shaman personality and sense of freedom; contextual conditions such as religious rituals, excitement and arousal; interventionist conditions of music, poetry, space and place, mourning, vectors of emotion; action-interactions includig spiritual connection, phase taking and perspiration. The main outcomes were physical and mental therapy of people with drug addiction. The most important result of the present study was a situation in which the rituals serve as a bedrock for emotional activities leading to the treatment of addicts and their relief from the disease. In other words, the main context for the formation and activity of Abolfazli Board as one of the addiction treatment centers acting in a distinct and largely unique way in the treatment of addiction was the rituals and activities associated with this phenomenon. Setting up rituals and performing them provided the basis for the emergence of emotional actions that, in addition to establishing the spiritual connection of the person referred to with sacred power, provided a context for their mobility and physical activity that leaded to high sweating resulting in the removal of toxins from their bodies and unwilling to take drugs. Therefore, it can be said that the treatment of addiction occurs in the context of rituals, through emotional actions, a treatment that liberates the consumer from the troubles, mental and physical limitations of drug abuse. All that is happening in the context of rituals that are influenced by emotional activities is a topic that is the main focus and goal of most addiction treatment methods and that is the detoxification of the body of addicts. In other words, detoxification, or the removal of drug-related toxins from the body of addicts, is a subject that is followed in most addiction treatment modalities. But, what sets the detoxification process apart from other methods in the context of the study is the use of emotional actions and persistently high sweating that occurs in the healing room with the characteristics mentioned earlier. Therefore, it should be said that people's involvement in emotional activities at the center of leaving AbolFazli, in addition to the mental, emotional actions, and behavioral changes that occur for the clients, is the most important consequence and a purely biological and chemical phenomenon known as detoxification of these individuals through high sweating, which ultimately results in their treatment.

    Keywords: Addiction, Rituals, Emotional-emotional Actions, Treatment