فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:13 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Hassan Vatandoost*, Fatemeh Nikpour, Ahmad Ali Hanafi Bojd, Mohammad Reza Abai, Mahnaz Khanavi, Abbas Hajiiakhondi, Ahmad Raesi, Jalil Nejati Pages 344-352
    Background

    Malaria is the main vector–borne disease worldwide. There are several reports of insecticide resistant in malaria vectors worldwide due to using different insecticides. The aim of this study was to evaluate different native plant extortions against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi in Iran for choosing the appropriate plant for formula tion and use for vector control.

    Methods

    The larvae of An. stephensi were reared in insectary, extraction of plants were carried out at department of Pharmacology. The standard WHO method for biological tests was used for calculation of LC50 and LC90. Probit regra tion lines were plotted for calculation of LC50 and LC90.

    Results

    In this study several plants including: Mentha spicata, Cymbopogon olivieri, Azadirachta indica, Melia azeda rach, Lagetes minuta, Calotropis procera, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Cupressus arizonica, Thymus vulgaris, Lawsonia inermis, Cedrus deodara, Cionura erecta, Bunium persicum, Carum carvi, Artemisia dracunculus, Rosmarinus offici nalis were used. Results showed that Mentha spicata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, had the lowest and highest LC50 respectively.

    Conclusion

    Results indicated that Mentha spicata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, had the lowest and highest LC50 re spectively. Several other plant extract also showed significant mortality. The formulation of these plants should be pre pared and evaluate at the field condition against malaria vectors.

    Keywords: Plants, Malaria vector, Pesticide, Iran
  • Mehran Shahi, Reza Habibi Masour, Mehrdad Salehi, Mehdi Ghasemi Nang, Emadaddin Rafizad, Madineh Abbasi, Ahmad Ali Hanafi Bojd* Pages 353-361
    Background

    Every year, thousands of cases and many deaths from scorpion sting are reported in tropical areas of South and Southwestern parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to identify the fauna and dangerous species of scorpi ons in Rou dan County, southern Iran.

    Methods

    This descriptive study was conducted in 10 stations in Hormozgan Province. Scorpion sampling was done randomly by searching for their shelter and digging out their nests during day, and with the use of UV light during night from February 2013 to October 2014. Data of scorpion stings were obtained from health center of Hormozgan Province during 2014–2016.

    Results

    Overall, 155 scorpions were collected on a set of eight species belonging to Buthidae and Hemiscorpiidae fam ilies. These species were identified as Mesobuthus persicus, Mesobuthus phillipsi, Hottentotta schach, Odontobuthus doriae, Compsobuthus persicus, Orthochirus farzanpayi, Androctonus crassicauda and Hemiscorpius acanthocercus. One thousand and twenty-seven cases of scorpion sting were recorded during 2014–2016 with a peak period in summer. Most of cases were <44yr old. Five out of six medically important scorpions in Iran were actively identified in the study area.

    Conclusion

    Results of this study would greatly help to identify risk factors of scorpion sting in high-risk areas for planning, management and treatment of patients with scorpion sting in these areas.

    Keywords: Distribution, Scorpion, Scorpion sting, Scorpionism, Iran
  • Kayode David Ileke, Jacobs Mobolade Adesina* Pages 362-377
    Background

    Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) transmit malaria parasite that causes malaria fever in humans, causing millions of deaths every year among infants in tropical countries. This study was undertaken to assess the tox icity of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum against pre-adult stages and adult malaria vector, An. gambiae and non-targeted aquatic organism, fingerlings of Clarias garipienus.

    Methods

    Ethalonic extracts of O. basilicum and O. gratissimum were prepared according to the method described by WHO. The larvae and pupae of An. gambiae were exposed to plant extracts for 24h and their mortality was recorded. Toxicity of Ocimum species on non-targeted organism, fingerlings of C. garipienus was also investigated.

    Results

    Ocimum basilicum showed remarkably potency against pre-adult stages and adults An. gambiae causing 100% mortality at 0.4% concentration within 24h of treatment. The LC50 and LC90 of O. basilicum were lower than O. gratti simum in all stages of An. gambiae studied. Ocimum basilicum and O. gratissimum extracts significantly reduced the number of bites by the vector given a range of 72.25% to 81.75% protection. Ocimum species at the tested concentra tions did not significantly reduce the number of fingerlings introduced.

    Conclusion

    Ocimum species at the tested concentrations did not significantly reduce the numbers of non-targeted or ganisms, fingerlings introduced. Therefore, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum could be used to reduce malaria preva lence in the endemic areas of Nigeria as it poses no threat to aquatic organisms.

    Keywords: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Insecticide, Anopheles gambiae, Clarias garipienus
  • Faranak Firoozfar, Abedin Saghafipour*, Hassan Vatandoost, Mulood Mohammadi Bavani, Masoumeh Taherpour, Nahid Jesri, Mahmood Yazdani, Kourosh Arzamani Pages 369-377
    Background

    Scorpions pose one of the most important public health and medical problems in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the fauna and spatial distribution of scorpions.

    Methods

    In this descriptive study, scorpions were captured using ultra-violet (UV) light, pitfall traps and digging methods in North Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran in 2017. After being encoded, the collected scorpions were stored in plastic containers of 70% ethanol and then transferred to the medical entomology lab of Tehran University of Medical Sciences for species identification based on morphological keys. In addition, Arc GIS 9.3 software was utilized for mapping spatial distribution of scorpions.

    Results

    Overall, 143 scorpions were captured and identified. All of collected scorpions belonged only to Buthidae family. They were also classified into four genera (Androctonus, Mesobuthus, Odontobuthus, Orthochirus) and five species: M. eupeus (59.44%), A. crassicauda (16.78%), O. doriae (12.59), M. (Olivierus) caucasicus (9.09%), and O. farzanpayi (2.10%). Furthermore, spatial distribution of scorpions was performed in this area.

    Conclusion

    Regarding the diversity, high frequency and wide geographical distribution of scorpions and their longterm seasonal activity in this area, the probability of occurrence of scorpion sting is high. Therefore, in order to prevent the occurrence of this public health problem, health educational programs be implemented by health- care providers in the area.

    Keywords: Scorpions, Spatial distribution, GIS, Iran
  • Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Mahmoud Fazeli Dinan, Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Fatemeh Ghorbani, Yaser Salim Abadi, Hassan Vatandoost, Ahmad Ali Hanafi Bojd, Ahmadali Enayati* Pages 378-390
    Background

    Culex pipiens play an important role in transmission of infectious diseases. Vector control by chemi cal pesticides, leads inevitably to resistance development. Understanding the underlying resistance mechanisms can help improve the control programmes and insecticide resistance management.

    Methods

    The total contents of cytochrome p450s and the activities of glutathione S-transferases, alpha- and beta-esterases and inhibition rates of acetylcholine esterase (by propoxur) were measured in the field population of Cx. pipiens collected from Sari County, North of Iran, in 2016 and the results were compared with those of the laborato ry susceptible strain according to the biochemical assay methods of WHO for adult mosquitoes. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the mean values of enzyme activities/contents between filed and laboratory susceptible popula tions.

    Results

    The enzyme ratio of cytochrome p450s, alpha- and beta-esterases in the field population was 2.07, 3.72 and 1.36 respectively when compared with the results of the laboratory population. Although not statistically significant, the mean GSTs activities in the field population was marginally less than the laboratory population (ER=0.92). Ace tylcholinesterase was insensitive to propoxur in 62.82% of the individuals of the tested field population. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) between all values of the activities/contents of the enzyme in the field population except for GSTs compared with the laboratory susceptible strain. The highest enzyme activity was related to alpha esterase.

    Conclusion

    The present study showed a range of metabolic mechanisms, comprising p450s and esterases combined with target site insensitivity of AChE, contributing to organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid resistance in the field population of Cx. pipiens.

    Keywords: Culex pipiens, Insecticide resistance, Enzyme, Iran
  • Vahideh Moin Vaziri, RemiN Charrel, Mehdi Badakhshan, Xavier De Lamballerie, Nourina Rahbarian, Mulood Mohammadi Bavani, Shahyad Azari Hamidian* Pages 391-398
    Background

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses such as West Nile (WN), dengue, Rift Valley fever, and Sindbis viruses are reported in Iran, but large-scale studies have not been performed on mosquitoes to find their vectors. A molecular study of the adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for flaviviruses was carried out in a focus of WN infection, Guilan Prov ince, northern Iran.

    Methods

    Mosquito collections were carried out in five stations of two counties (Anzali and Rasht) using light traps, hand catch by manual aspirators and night landing catch during August–September 2013 and 2014. Molecular screening of WN virus and more widely for Flavivirus RNA was carried out using specific PCR technique.

    Results

    In total, 1015 adult mosquitoes were collected including 8 species representing four genera. The most preva lent species were Ae. vexans (33.2%), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (22%), Cx. pipiens (20.7%), and An. maculipennis s.l. (15.6%). Molecular screening was carried out on the 1015 mosquitoes after they were organized as 38 pools according to sex, species and trapping location. None of the pools were positive.

    Conclusion

    Surveillance should be continued while increasing the sampling campaigns due to the presence of wetlands in the region and abundant species which are considered as vectors, feeding both on birds and humans.

    Keywords: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquilletidia, Culex, Flavivirus
  • Kourosh Arzamani, Yavar Rassi*, Hassan Vatandoost, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Mohammad Reza Abai, Mohammad Alavinia, Kamran Akbarzadeh, Mehdi Mohebali, Sayena Rafizadeh, Fateh Karimian, Mehdi Badakhshan, Azad Absavaran Pages 399-406
    Background

    Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of leishmaniasis. There are different methods for sand fly collection with different performance. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effect of different traps for collection of Phlebotominae sand flies in three endemic leishmaniasis foci in North Khorasan Prov ince, northeast of Iran.

    Methods

    Sand flies were collected using seven different traps from three villages, three times each twenty days during peak periods of seasonal activity in 2016.

    Results

    A total of 7253 sand flies were collected. The specimens belonged to19 species. Phlebotomus sergenti was the most predominant species in the study area. Light trap baited with Carbon dioxide (CLT) and sticky paper trap (SPT) caught 22.6% and 22.3% of sand flies respectively. Animal baited trap (ABT) and white Shannon trap (WST) caught significantly fewer sand flies than the other traps. The sex ratio was different by phlebotominae sand fly species and collection methods. The sex ratio was highest in SPT and lowest in black Shannon trap (BST). Species diversity and species richness in SPT were more than other traps.

    Conclusion

    Our findings confirm that CLT and SPT are the most efficient sand fly collection methods. CLT is higher attractive for females and Phlebotomus genus and is an ideal method for monitoring the population of Phlebotomus ge nus during surveillance. SPT is an inexpensive, convenient and easy to be used to detect the presence of sand flies at low densities and provide a more realistic estimation of sand flies biodiversity.

    Keywords: Collection method, Biodiversity, Sandflies, Leishmania, Iran
  • Teimour Hazratian, Azim Paksa, Mohammad Mahdi Sedaghat, Hassan Vatandoost, Seyed Hassan Moosa Kazemi, Alireza Sanei Dehkordi, Yaser Salim Abadi, Masoumeh Pirmohammadi, Saideh Yousefi, Masoumeh Amin, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi* Pages 407-415
    Background

    Culiseta longiareolata is an important vector for many human diseases such as brucellosis, avian influen za and West Nile encephalitis. It is likely an intermediate host of avian Plasmodium that can transmit Malta fever. The aim of this study was to determine the  susceptibility level of Cs. longiareolata to different classes  of imagicides  which are recommended by World Health Organization .

    Methods

    Larval stages of the Cs. longiareolata were collected from their natural habitats in Marand County at East Azerbaijan Province, northwestern of Iran in 2017. Adult susceptibility test were carried out with using impregnated papers to insecticides including DDT 4%, Cyfluthrin 0.15%, Deltamethrin 0.05%, Propoxur 0.1% and Fenitrothion 1% by standard test kits.

    Results

    Results showed that Cs. longiareolata adult is more susceptible to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides. Among tested insecticides, Cyfluthrin was the most toxic against Cs. longiareolata with LT50 value of 11.53 minutes and  Fenitrothion had the least toxic  effect (LT50: 63.39 min).

    Conclusions

    This study provided a guideline for monitoring and evaluation of insecticide susceptibility tests against Cs. longiareolata  mosquitoes for further decision making.

    Keywords: Baseline susceptibility, Culiseta longiareolata, Insecticides
  • Mohammad Hassan Aelami, Alireza Khooei, Hamidreza Ghorbani, Farrokh Seilanian Toosi, Elham Poustchi, Bibi Razieh Hosseini Farash, Elham Moghaddas* Pages 416-419

    Canthariasis is a human disease caused by infestation of beetle larvae. We report here an unusual cause of urogenital in fection due to Tenebrio molitor in a 10-year-old boy suffering from severe and intermittent suprapubic pain from Nehban dan City, Northeastern Iran in 2018. After 9 months, three larvae were excreted. Keratinization of bladder wall was ob served in histopathology. All laboratory evaluations were normal except for presence of microscopic hematuria. This re port implicated that T. molitor could infest bladder accidentally and cause canthariasis and clinical symptoms that may lead to severe pain and bladder inflammation and hyperemia.

    Keywords: Canthariasis, Bladder, Human, Child
  • Kamel Eddine Benallal, Rafik Garni, Lazhari Bouiba Pages 420-425
    Background

    Based on the reporting of the presence of stripped mosquitoes by a citizen in the Algiers residential neighborhood of Bir-Khadem, where residents experienced huge daytime mosquito nuisance an entomological inves tigation was carried out in July 2016.

    Methods

    Ovitraps and BG sentinel traps baited with Lure were used during three consecutive days to collect adult mosquitoes. Eighteen residential houses of the Bir-Khadem neighborhood were also inspected to search larvae breed ing sites such as water fountains, baskets and flowerpots.

    Results

    A total of 57 Aedes albopictus specimens were collected in five villas, consisting of 21 eggs, 20 larvae and 16 adults.

    Conclusion

    This is the first record of this invasive species in Algiers.

    Keywords: Aedes albopictus, Mosquitoes, Arbovirus, Algiers, Algeria