فهرست مطالب

Psychology - Volume:13 Issue: 2, 2019
  • Volume:13 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Farideh Khojasteh, Afsaneh Marziyeh *, Abdulwahab Pourghaz Pages 8-42
    This study aims to predict the feelings of cognitive, social, and physical fatigue in university students via adaptive and maladaptive subtypes of perfectionism. This descriptive study follows a correlational design. It had a statistical population constituting of an all-male and all–female undergraduates (in the final year, studying in the 7th and 8th semesters) and graduate students in the Faculty of Social Sciences at the Razi University of Kermanshah in the academic year 2016–2017. A sample of 269 students was selected by using the stratified random-sampling method. To collect data, the Fatigue Impact Scale (Fisk et al., 1994) and the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scales (Terry-Short et al., 1995) were used. Data was analyzed by using several statistical methods, including a Pearson correlation coefficient, a stepwise regression analysis, an independent t-test, and a one-sample t-test. The results of this study indicate that feelings of cognitive, social, and physical fatigue are significantly and diversely related to adaptive perfectionism and maladaptive perfectionism (p< .01), respectively. Moreover, results revealed that the mean of perfectionism in female students was higher than that of male students. This difference was statistically significant. However, considering the feelings of cognitive, social, and physical fatigue, no significant differences were found between the male and female students.
    Keywords: fatigue, adaptive perfectionism, maladaptive perfectionism
  • Samaneh Najarpourian *, S. Abdolvahab Samavi, Hanieh Shaafizadeh Pages 43-66
    The aim of this research was to evaluate and explain the predicting role of "marriage expectation models" based on "differentiation" mediated by "marriage attitudes." The statistical population of this study consists of all the students of Hormozgan University. To this end, 200 female students were selected randomly as the sample. The research method was both descriptive and correlational. The research tools include the Jones and Nelson Marriage Expectation Scale (1997), Skowron Differentiation Scale as well as the Braaten and Rosén Marriage Attitude Scale (1998). For the evaluation of the proposed model, the Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS-23 software as well as the maximum likelihood estimation method was used. The results showed that the evaluated model benefit from acceptable goodness of fit indicators. The results of structural equations revealed that differentiation has a direct and positive effect on marriage attitude and on the realistic expectation of marriage. Differentiation also has a direct and negative effect on the pessimistic expectation of marriage. On the other hand, the differentiation has an indirect and positive effect on the realistic expectation of marriage and on the pessimistic expectation of marriage through the marriage attitude. The present study showed that differentiation can be a determinant for marital expectations and attitudes.
    Keywords: differentiation, marriage expectations, marriage attitude
  • Shiva Kamalipour *, Nahid Akrami, Ahmad Abedi Pages 67-88
    Suicide is a global problem whose causes have not been fully understood yet. Clearly, suicide is the result of complex interactions of various factors, yet Asian studies have reported social stresses and interpersonal problems as more important contributors. The purpose of the present study is to develop a model to predict suicidal ideations based on perceived social support, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness as the variables. The research method is correlational and the statistical population consists of single 20-30year-old girls in Isfahan City chosen by multistage clustering sampling. The sample size included 239 participants and the research tools were the multidimensional scale of perceived social support (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet & Farely, 1988), and the suicidal ideations (Reynolds, 1987-1988 quoted by Beaumont, 1994) questionnaires. Studying the general fitting of the recommended model was performed by AMOS-22 statistical software. The research results indicated that the social support of family predicts suicidal ideations through thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness directly and indirectly, and friends' support predicts it indirectly through thwarted belongingness. However, the relationship between support of significant others and suicidal ideations was not verified. The results also suggested the relatively different role of family and friends in development of suicidal ideations, but generally increase in the social support of family and friends can inhibit suicidal ideations.
    Keywords: Interpersonal needs, suicidal ideation, perceived social support
  • Fereshteh Baezzat *, Mahshad Motaghedifard, Tahereh Golestanibakht Pages 89-108
    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence with students' subjective well-being and its subscales. Spiritual intelligence has a significant influence on the well-being and it has been understood that youth is a sensitive period, which requires specific training to make a brighter future and be exposed to the difficulties. The research method was descriptive– correlational type. For this purpose, 220 students from the University of Mazandaran were selected through the multistage cluster sampling method. Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory Questionnaire (King, 2008) and Subjective Well-Being questionnaire (Keyes and Magyar-Moe, 2003) have been used to assess variables. Data analysis was performed by SPSS 22 software and regression analysis stepwise. Regression analysis results demonstrated the predictive capability of subjective well-being through spiritual intelligence (p< .01). The component of personal meaning production predicted 22% of changes in subjective well-being, 17% in psychological well-being and18% in social well-being. In addition, by 7% of the variances in emotional well-being can be explained by component of transcendental awareness. Spiritual intelligence could be called as superior intelligence and it paves the way for perfection and well-being. Therefore, it seems that proper training for promotion of spiritual intelligence can be an important step for satisfaction and a positive assessment for self and life.
    Keywords: Spiritual intelligence, Subjective Well-being
  • Parisa Sadat Seyed Mousavi *, Mohsen Poorganji Pages 109-140
    Considering the increasing tendency of people to access social network sites, the current study purposed to qualitatively investigate the amount, reasons, and perceived impacts of using social networks sites (SNS) based on attachment styles in college students. To this end, 200 students from three universities were selected by available sampling and asked to complete the adult attachment questionnaire. Thereafter, 36 students were classified into secure, ambivalent, or avoidant attachment style groups. Then, a 60-min interview was conducted with each participant to assess the amount, reasons for, and perceived impacts of different aspects of social network usage. Data w analyzed using the content analysis method. The results showed that although the amount of social network use was not different in the groups, the reasons for social network use differed. The reasons were categorized based on the facilities of SNS studied in this research. The main categories included leisure and entertainment, communication and interaction, research and learning, emotional and sexual needs, consumption and transaction. The results of using social networks were categorized under four positive and negative categories of personal, family, social, and educational outcomes. The perceptions of outcomes differed in the groups, and avoidant people reported fewer negative ones overall. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that individuals with different attachment styles utilize social networks in the same level and usually with similar reasons but different motives. The outcome of using social network sites might be different; further investigation is needed to explore these outcomes.
    Keywords: Students, attachment style, social network sites, Qualitative study
  • Saeed Rahimi, Pordanjani *, Bagher Ghobari Bonab, Mansooreh Fazilzti, Mohammad Ghasemi Pirbaloti Pages 141-162

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of instruction based on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences on deaf students' career self-efficacy in vocational schools. In order to achieve this goal, 60 male and female students from deaf vocational schools in Isfahan, Iran, were randomly selected and divided into experimental and control groups with 30 students in each group (15 males and 15 females). This study used a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest and control group. Career self-efficacy questionnaire (Betz, 2000) and Tirri, K., & Nokelainen (2008) was administered during pretest, posttest and follow-up stages. The instruction lasted about three weeks, two sessions per week with each session lasting two hours for the experimental group. On the other hand, the control group did not receive any instruction other than their conventional instruction. Data analysis, using analysis of repeated measures design, showed that the tow groups were significantly different in terms of career self-efficacy. The obtained results indicated that instruction based on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences significantly enhanced the career self-efficacy of deaf students. Theoretical implications and practical applications of this research are discussed further.

    Keywords: Career counseling, multiple intelligences, deaf students, self-efficacy
  • Masoumeh Talebi *, Mohammad Hasani, Afshar Kabiri Pages 163-194
    Cultural capital influencing students̓ attitudes toward school and the value of schooling, as well as transmitting notions about the nature of the wider society and people around them. In this study, the relation between students’ cultural capital and three non-cognitive attitudinal outcomes developing in the process of schooling including social trust, institutional trust (both as long-term outcomes), and sense of school belonging (a short-term outcome) was investigated.The present study was conducted with a descriptive-correlational design. A total of 528 students selected from Urmia secondary schools through stratified sampling responded to the questionnaire. The research data were collected using the standard questionnaires (Cultural capital: A researcher-made questionnaire based on the Bourdieu's theory, Social trust: Based on the Rosenberg’s (1956) notion of misanthropy, Institutional trust: A researcher-made questionnaire (Sabbagh et al., 2013) and Students' sense of school belonging: A 5-point Likert scale designed by Goodenow (1993)) and their validity and reliability were confirmed.Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to study and evaluate the relationships between the studied variables. Path analysis results showed that, there is a positive and significant relationship between cultural capital and (social–institutional) trust, cultural capital and sense of school belonging and, between (social–institutional) trust and sense of school belonging.So, it can be concluded that, there is a positive and significant relationship between cultural capital of students and sense of school belonging by mediating role of trust in high school students.
    Keywords: Cultural capital, Institutional Trust, Social Capital, Sense of school belonging
  • Afsaneh Ghanbari Panah *, Mohamed Sharif Mustaffa Pages 195-228
    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between family dynamics (cohesion, flexibility and communication) and family functioning in family life cycles. The sample was selected by stratified random sampling from 500 Iranian married women. To collect data FACES IV family function scale (McMaster, 1983) was used. Using structural equation modeling, the findings of this study provided an acceptable representation of the relationships between the variables. The findings also revealed that family flexibility had a greater impact on changes in family functioning than family cohesion. Also the results of bootstrap showed directly effect of family communication on family functioning was not significant but indirect effect was significant. Other findings showed the contribution of enmeshment on family cohesion and the contribution of rigid on family flexibility was very low.  However, comparison of models showed that different levels of cohesion and flexibility were different in stages of family life cycle. These findings can be helpful for family professionals to better understand family functioning.
    Keywords: family cohesion, family flexibility, family communication, Family Function, family life cycle
  • Susan Alizadehfard * Pages 229-257
    Migraine is a debilitating disease in the world today. Depression, stress and anxiety could be mentioned as the most important psychological correlates of migraine. The present study was to investigate the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy on depression, stress, anxiety and migraine's symptoms. This quasi-experimental intervention was conducted as a pretest-posttest design with experimental and control groups. The population consisted of all the migraine patients in 5 neurological clinics of the Iran Medical Sciences University. Then, 30 patients from the population agreed to collaborate in the treatment and randomly assigned into two groups (n = 15 per group). The instruments applied in this study was Ahvaz migraine headache questionnaire (Najarian, 1998), and the short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress (DASS-21) Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). The dialectical behavior therapy program was conducted for interventional group within 12 sessions. Data was compared through covariance analysis. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups, and we observed reduction of depression, stress, anxiety and migraine's symptoms of DBT group compared with the control group. The implicit inference of this study showed the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy on decreasing the level of migraine's symptoms and this effect along with the reduction of depression, anxiety and also stress.
    Keywords: migraine, Dialectical behavior therapy, depression, Stress, Anxiety