فهرست مطالب

Health Promotion Perspectives - Volume:10 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:10 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Manuela Pulimeno, Prisco Piscitelli*, Alessandro Miani, Salvatore Colazzo, Alfredo Mazza, Annamaria Colao Pages 1-2
  • Aziz Homayouni Rad, Leili Aghebati Maleki, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Hamideh Fathi Zavoshti, Aamin Abbasi* Pages 3-4
  • Ruchi D. Raval*, Mansi Mehta Pages 5-7

    Nipah instead was one of the most fatal outbreaks of diseases in the mankind which was initially assumed as Japanese encephalitis. A multidisciplinary exploration was done at several levels of microbiology, histopathology and genetics which led to the discovery of a new paramyxovirus named Nipah virus (NiV). The disease was primarily identified in Malaysia in 1998 and named after a village, Sungai Nipah. The main mode of transmission in the Malaysian outbreaks was thought to be the consumption of bat’s dropping, urine and fruit partially eaten by pigs. In Bangladesh and northeast India, the virus was directly transmitted from bats to human through consumption of raw date palm juice. To limit the epidemic, coordinated efforts by health care providers have become mandatory. This article gives a note about the NiV, its infection and on-going researches on its management strategies. Data were collected using electronic media consisting of articles, books and websites.

    Keywords: Communicable disease, Epidemics, Henipavirusinfections, Nipah virus, Review
  • Yuvaraj Krishnamoorthy*, Karthika Ganesh, Manikandanesan Sakthivel Pages 8-12

    National Nutritional Monitoring Bureau survey (2017) has found that more than half of the adults in India were overweight and obese. To halt this rising epidemic, development of various policy measures has been suggested in National action plan for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. One such measure is the introduction of fat tax which is a surcharge or tax placed on food and beverages containing high amounts of fat. Government of India has made various direct budgetary initiatives for boosting the sectors related to the production of items rich in fat, sugars and salt without realizing the potential public health consequences. Hence, increasing the taxes for unhealthy junk foods should encourage the people to take healthier food options which in turn lead to positive impact on health. However, fat taxation faced several challenges during implementation in countries like Denmark, Hungary, France and United States. Major challenges were the taxation debate, setting tax limit and encroaching into the autonomy rights of people. Evidences have shown that taxation alone cannot bring down the burden of non-communicable diseases but should be combined with measures like subsidies and access to healthy food items, public health education campaigns and programmes.

    Keywords: Food Legislation, India, Noncommunicable diseases, Taxes
  • Manuela Pulimeno, Prisco Piscitelli*, Salvatore Colazzo Pages 13-23
    Background

    Tales were transmitted from one generation to another, enriching young people with values, beliefs, imagination and creativity. Children’s literature still plays a crucial part in education as it provides knowledge and entertainment, representing a typical example of “edutainment”. In this paper, we carried out a review to examine pedagogic, didactic and psychological/therapeutic dimensions of children’s literature, with the aim of highlighting its role in promoting students’ holistic development and wellbeing.

    Methods

    We have searched for original articles (from 1960s to 2019), by using the following keywords: “fairytales” or “fairy tales” or “folktales” or “fables” AND “education” or “development” or “learning” or “teaching” or “school” or “curriculum” or “classroom” AND “children” or “child” or “kids” or “childhood” AND “health” or “wellbeing”.

    Results

    We found 17 studies concerning pedagogic aspect of children literature, while 21 and 17 studies were selected for didactic and therapeutic dimensions, respectively. From a pedagogic point of view, tales convey basic values useful for children lives. In a didactic perspective, properly chosen storybooks represent a valuable resource for school activities, improving students’ language skills and building up a friendly/respectful classroom environment. Children stories are also used by health professionals for therapeutic purposes (bibliotherapy) to prevent unhealthy habits and addictions, or address psychosomatic disorders. Finally, storybooks and web-based/digital stories can be an effective vehicle for health contents, to encourage the adoption of healthy lifestyles among schoolchildren.

    Conclusion

    Children’s literature and storytelling could be helpful in promoting students’ global development and wellbeing, when included in school curricular activities.

    Keywords: Children, Literature, Storytelling, Fairytales, Health, Wellbeing, School
  • Winifred Ekezie*, Enemona Emmanuel Adaji, Rachael L Murray Pages 24-37
    Background

    Conflict and violent crises have resulted in over 40 million of internally displaced persons (IDPs). Most affected regions lack access to basic health resources and generally rely on humanitarian support. The objective of this review was to appraise primary health service interventions among conflict-induced internally displaced populations in low and middleincome countries between 2000 and 2019.

    Methods

    A systematic review of literature in the following databases: Embase, MEDLINE, PsyArticles, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, LILAC and CAB Articles, was performed to identify interventions implemented in conflict IDP settings.

    Results

    Initial searches yielded 4578 papers and 30 studies met the inclusion criteria. Descriptive synthesis analysis was used, and the final selections were assessed using a customised Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Included papers were from Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Middle East regions. Most studies were on prevention interventions, especially water treatment and maternal health. Treatment interventions mostly focused on malaria and mental health. Only one food and nutrition study with outcome data was identified, indicating limitations in IDP health-related intervention publications. Reported interventions were conducted between one week to five years, and the study qualities were moderate. The most effective interventions were integrated programmes and common challenges were weak study methodology and data reporting.

    Conclusion

    Regardless of the intervention types and durations, the services offered were beneficial to the IDPs. More intervention evidence are, however required as shown in gaps around food and nutrition, health education and disease surveillance.

    Keywords: Primary healthcare, Earlymedical intervention, Armedconflict, Internally displacedpersons, Low, middleincome countries
  • Ali Asghar Pouri, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Babak Baiaz, Fatemeh Soghra Hamzavi, BehrouzPourasghari, Mohammad Hossein Somi* Pages 38-42
    Background

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA pathogen that requires the presence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) for infection. Middle East countries are endemic areas for HDV infection. So, it is important to estimate the prevalence of HDV in these countries. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HDV in HBsAg positive patients participated in Azar cohort study, North-west of Iran.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, out of 4949 participants of the Azar cohort study, 51 HBsAg positive patients were selected. Five participants did not consent to HDV testing. The presence of anti-HDV IgG was checked in 46 patients (13 chronic hepatitis B and 33 inactive chronic hepatitis B) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The serum level of liver enzymes was measured and a questionnaire about risk factors was completed.

    Results

    In this study, the mean age of HBsAg positive patients was 50.06 (SD 9.14) years and 41.3% were female. Only one out of 46 patients was positive for HDV infection. Thus, the prevalence of HDV infection among hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positive patients was 2.17% (95% CI: 0.1-11.5). The positive anti-HDV patient was in the inactive chronic hepatitis B state and she had a history of hospitalization and dental procedures.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that the prevalence of HDV infection in HBsAg positive patients was 2.1% that was lower than the reported prevalence in many other regions of Iran. Health policymakers and healthcare providers should design coherent and orderly epidemiological studies for planning and monitoring HDV infection.

    Keywords: Hepatitis D, Hepatitis B, Prevalence, Cohort studies, Iran
  • Kristina R Anderson, Kevin Naaman, Edna Omodior, Grace Karikari, Lori Pennington, Gray, Oghenekaro Omodior* Pages 43-49
    Background

    Incidents of vector-borne disease have recently tripled in the United States. Chikungunya disease is a particularly common disease in the Caribbean, posing a threat to international tourists. However, the relationship between psychological variables derived from the protection motivation theory (PMT), and adoption of protective behaviors against the disease, is uncertain. This study sought to identify the psychological predictors of travelers’ protective health behaviors, specifically (1) appropriate clothing use, and (2) indoor spatial repellent use.

    Methods

    An online, retrospective survey of U.S. international travelers to Caribbean destinations measured the five constructs of the PMT in the context of Chikungunya disease: Perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge. Hierarchical logistic regression analyzed whether these five theoretical constructs predicted the two protective behaviors in respondents who met study criteria (n = 184).

    Results

    Results suggest that the interaction between chikungunya knowledge and perceived chikungunya severity predicts both appropriate clothing use (odds ratio [OR]: 1.95, CI: 1.18-3.25, P=0.010) and indoor spatial repellent use (OR: 1.55, CI: 1.05-2.29, P=0.029). In the cases of appropriate clothing use, the interaction between perceived chikungunya severity and perceived vulnerability was also a significant predictor (OR: 9.67, CI:1.23-75.80, P=0.031). Additionally, indoor spatial repellent use was also predicted by the interaction of chikungunya knowledge and perceived vulnerability (OR: 1.88, CI:1.18-3.02, P=0.009).

    Conclusion

    Two-pronged educational approaches may be most efficacious in increasing protective health behaviors. Such efforts could reduce incidents of chikungunya disease and other vectorborne diseases in travel destinations featuring high exposure risks.

    Keywords: Caribbean region, Chikungunya virus, Health education, Protective factors, Travel-related illness*Corresponding Author:
  • Mazin Omer, Axel Kroeger, Anand Ballabh Joshi, Murari Lal Das, Lina Ghassan Younis, Vivek Kumar Singh, Chitra Kumar Gurung, Megha Raj Banjara* Pages 50-58
    Background

    As visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has recently expanded in previously non-endemic areas of Nepal, the health system is facing new challenges. Female community health volunteers (FCHVs) are playing an important role for VL elimination in Nepal. This study aimed to analyze the actual and potential role of FCHVs for VL elimination program as well as community awareness of the disease (VL) and protective measures.

    Methods

    We used a concurrent embedded mixed methods design. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with FCHVs of 22 VL endemic villages of 3 districts. Concurrently quantitative data were collected through formal interviews of 203 household heads of the same villages.

    Results

    FCHVs are able to perform their duties in an efficient way with the support of their families and specific incentives. FCHVs in the VL-endemic region have a good ability to recognize the VL suspects and refer to health facilities. The feedback by the district health office on referred patients was weak thus missing the opportunity of involving FCHVs in the 6-months follow up. In houses with a previous VL case knowledge levels of prevention and treatment of VL were significantly better than in houses without a previous VL case. More people in houses with a former VL patient were aware on VL transmission.

    Conclusion

    FCHVs are playing an important role for VL elimination in Nepal through detection of suspected cases and referral and may play a role in vector surveillance.

    Keywords: Female community healthvolunteers, Vector surveillance, Visceral leishmaniasis, Elimination
  • Robert E. Davis*, Martha A. Bass, M. Allison Wade, Vinayak K. Nahar Pages 59-65
    Background

    Among student populations, literature has identified associations between prescription opioid misuse and symptoms of depression such as hopelessness, sadness, and emotional pain. Thus far, existing literature has yet to investigate associations between prescription opioid misuse and depression using validated screening instruments for depression when exploring such associations. The purpose of this study was to utilize a validated screening tool to explore quantifiable presence of depression among college students who engage in recreational prescription opioid misuse (RPOM). Additionally, gender differences in depression and co-occurring substance use are examined.

    Methods

    Students (n = 104) of a large university in the Southeastern United States who reported RPOM within the past 6 months completed instrumentation assessing demographics, substance use, as well as, screening tools for depression and possible opioid use disorder (OUD).

    Results

    Positive depression screens were significantly higher among females, however, nearly 56% of participants screened positive for major depression. Though high levels of co-occurring substance use were observed among the entire sample, males were significantly more likely to report cocaine use, more frequent use of alcohol and marijuana, as well as, exhibit a positive screen for disordered opioid use, at a rate 5 times that of their female counterparts.

    Conclusion

    Students who engage in RPOM are a particularly heightened-risk subsample of the college population who exhibit high levels of depressive symptomatology and substance use behavior. Targeted programming and further investigations are needed among this specific population. Future studies are encouraged to utilize validated instruments when assessing depression among students.

    Keywords: Depression, Marijuana, Opioid, Sadness, Students
  • Yasmin Jahan*, Michiko Moriyama, Md Moshiur Rahman, Kana Kazawa, Mariko Mizukawa, AtiqurRahman, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin Shahid, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti Pages 66-73
    Background

    Hypertension (HTN) is well established as a leading cause of common serious illnesses worldwide. We carried out this qualitative research to understand perception of and experiences related to HTN among rural Bangladeshi hypertensive women.

    Methods

    A total of 74 female hypertensive participants who were diagnosed as HTN were purposively recruited in a rural community in Mirzapur, Bangladesh. A focus group discussion (FGD) was applied to share their perception and experiences. Transcripts were read in an iterative process, and a thematic analysis was performed. This paper is reported followed by COREQ checklist.

    Results

    Three main themes were generated; (i) Perception of HTN based on experiences, (ii) Knowledge of management of HTN, and (iii) Barriers of management of HTN. Under the themes, seven subthemes were identified. The participants only knew about their high blood pressure (HBP) when they had symptoms, and they applied traditional remedies in the rural context to deal with those symptoms. Even though more than half of participants had relevant knowledge of how to manage HTN, but still there were social-cultural and economic barriers and lack of social infrastructure to access healthcare, existed to practice them.

    Conclusion

    Based on our study reports, health education programs at the household and community level could be a potential starting point for any preventive and containment strategy in rural communities of Bangladesh.

    Keywords: Perception, Experience, Understanding knowledge, Barriers, Hypertension
  • Sepideh Herizchi, Habibeh Barzegar, Shahrokh Amiri, Ali Fakhari, Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani, Seyed Gholamreza Noorazar, Mostafa Farahbakhsh*, Mostafa Ghaneei Pages 74-79
    Background

    In older adults, depression symptoms may be masked by physical complaints and be even attributed to the natural aging process, which may be resulted in improper diagnosis. Native-language scales can be highly effective in the detection of depressive disorders. In this study we attempted to assess the reliability and validity of the Azeri Turkish version of the geriatric depression scale (GDS).

    Methods

    In this psychometric study, the GDS and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID) questionnaires were administered to a sample of 387 older adults (60 years and older) from the member households of Tabriz health centers. The English version of GDS was translated into Azeri Turkish. Translation-back translation process was conducted. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve as well as sensitivity and specificity were used to determine the validity of the questionnaire, and the test-retest method was used to calculate reliability.

    Results

    The mean age of participants was 69.30. The area under the ROC curve for the scores higher than five was 0.832 and for the scores equal to ten and above was 0.871. The sensitivity and specificity for the scores higher than five were 90.9% and 73.4%, respectively. The reliability of this scale was confirmed based on intraclass coefficient (ICC) = 0.79.

    Conclusion

    The Azeri Turkish version of GDS was found with appropriate levels of validity and reliability

    Keywords: Depression, Older adults, Geriatric depression scale, Reliability, Validity
  • Dilek Güleç*, Selen Yılmaz Işıkhan, Emine Orhaner Pages 80-87
    Background

    Social media represents a revolutionary new trend that offers opportunities for and threats toward modifying health behaviours. Although social media has considerable health promotion and education tools, this article summarizes the relationship between the healthpromoting lifestyle and Facebook usage, as Facebook is one of the most popular tools in social media.

    Methods

    We carried out a cross-sectional, descriptive study with 423 Facebook users living in Ankara, Turkey. Nonlinear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) was used to describe the complex links between health behaviours, social media usage and demographic characteristics.

    Results

    In this study, a two-dimensional solution with an actual fit measure equal to 0.958 was found, and this solution can be interpreted as about 48% of the explained variance. This two-dimensional result shows the relationships and differences between healthy lifestyle subdimensions, social media usage and some demographic characteristics.

    Conclusion

    Using OVERALS, we found evidences supporting associations among social media use, health promoting lifestyle and socio-demographic factors. Further, the complex correlations among these variables were interpreted.

    Keywords: Social media, Healthylifestyle, Health promotion, Multivariate analysis
  • Paul D. Loprinzi*, Sara Pazirei, Gina Robinson, Briahna Dickerson, Meghan Edwards, Ryan E. Rhodes Pages 88-93
    Background

    To empirically evaluate a cognitive affective model of physical activity. This bidirectional, cyclical model hypotheses that executive control processes directly influence habitual engagement in exercise and also directly subserve the exercise-induced affective response to acute exercise associated with future physical activity.

    Methods

    The present study employed a one-week prospective, multi-site design. Participant recruitment and data collection occurred at two separate University sites (one in the United States and the other in Canada). Participants completed a bout of treadmill exercise, with affect and arousal assessed before, during and after the bout of exercise. Subjective and objective measures of executive function were assessed during this visit. Following this laboratory visit, seven days of accelerometry were employed to measure habitual engagement in physical activity.

    Results

    Within our inactive, young adult sample, we observed some evidence of 1) aspects of executive function were associated with more light-intensity physical activity in the future (1-week later) (r = 0.36, 95% CI = -0.03 to 0.66, P = 0.07), 2) aspects of executive function were associated with post-exercise affect (r = -0.39, 95% CI = -0.67 to -0.03, P = 0.03) and forecasted affect (r = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.72, P = 0.01), and 3) aspects of acute exercise arousal and affect were associated with current mild-intensity physical activity behavior (r = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.68, P = 0.03).

    Conclusion

    We demonstrate partial support of a cognitive-affective model of physical activity.

    Keywords: Cognition, Awareness, Metacognition, Mental processes