فهرست مطالب

علوم تربیتی - سال بیست و ششم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1398)
  • سال بیست و ششم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • داود حسین پور صباغ*، محمدرضا شرفی، جمیله علم الهدی، حسین سوزنچی صفحات 1-26

    موقعیت یک مفهوم حیاتی برای هر نظریه و مکتب تربیتی است و موفقیت تربیت ارزشی در گرو یک تلقی صحیح از موقعیت مندی است. در این پژوهش سه جریان مهم و اثرگذار معاصر که توجه خاصی به موقعیت در تربیت ارزشی نشان داده اند، انتخاب شده و انگاره ی موقعیت نزد آن ها مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. این کار بر اساس «روش تحلیل زبانی و مفهومی» در زبان فنی و رسمی صورت گرفته است. بر این اساس «موقعیت به مثابه کل» در رویکرد پراگمایستیم دیویی؛ «موقعیت به مثابه شرایط عمل»، در رویکرد نوارسطوگرایی، و «موقعیت به مثابه محرک های محیط» در رویکرد ضد ارسطوگرایی احصاء شده اند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که توجه به موقعیت در تقابل با رویکردهای اقتدارگرا در طیف های مختلف تربیت ارزشی مشترک است. رویکردهای سه گانه علی رغم اشتراکاتی اشتراکاتشان، دامنه ی متفاوتی برای موقعیت در نظر می گیرند؛ به گونه ای که از سه لایه، غایات، تطبیق مصادیق، و رفتار، پراگماتیسیم دیویی هر سه را، نو ارسطویی تطبیق مصادیق و رفتار را، و ضد ارسطوگرایی صرفا رفتار را وابسته به موقعیت قلمداد می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: موقعیت، پراگماتیسم، نوارسطوگرایی، ضدارسطوگرایی
  • مهدیه سادات وقور کاشانی*، غلام رضا حاجی حسین نژاد، نعمت الله موسی پور، عیسی ابراهیم زاده صفحات 27-50

    آموزش و پرورش با کیفیت، بستگی زیادی به وجود معلمانی متعهد و متخصص دارد. مهمترین راه اطمینان از وجود شایستگی های معلمی، وجود نظام ارزشیابی آنان است. هدف این مقاله ارائه ی مدل مفهومی ارزشیابی صلاحیت های حرفه معلمی در ایران است. برای دستیابی به مولفه های طراحی این مدل، نظرات صاحب نظران در خصوص ارزشیابی صلاحیت های حرفه معلمی، از بررسی نود منبع معتبر ملی و بین المللی و مصاحبه با 25 معلم خبره و 20 متخصص حوزه ی ارزشیابی آموزشی و تربیت معلم، جمع آوری شد. روش این پژوهش کیفی، شیوه ی استقرایی تحلیل محتوا است. مقولات استخراج شده، نشان داد مولفه های ارزشیابی از صلاحیت های حرفه معلمی، شامل شش مولفه ی اصلی، و بیست و شش زیرمولفه، مشتمل بر شصت و سه مفهوم کلی، و دویست و شصت و سه مفهوم خرد است. بر بنیاد دستاوردهای حاصل، مدل مورد نظر طراحی و توسط خبرگان اعتباریابی شد. این مدل دارای چهار وجه و یک مرکز ثقل بنیادین است؛ چهار وجه آن، مبانی فکری (کف خانه)، برنامه ی راهبردی (دیوار راست خانه)، برنامه ی نظام مند اجرا (دیوار چپ خانه)، نتایج قابل دستیابی ارزشیابی (سقف خانه) و مرکز ثقل آن، فرهنگ ارزشیابی (داخل خانه) است. این مدل را می‎توان مدل شبه خانه‎ای ارزشیابی صلاحیت های حرفه ی معلمی نامید.

    کلیدواژگان: صلاحیت های حرفه معلمی، ارزشیابی معلمان، مدل مفهومی
  • لیلا ولی زاده*، حمید رحیمیان، عباس عباس پور، علی خورسندی طاسکوه، قدسی احقر صفحات 51-70

    هدف از این پژوهش، شناسایی شایستگی های مدیران مهدهای کودک است. امروزه آموزش و پرورش کودکان پیش از دبستان دارای ضرورت و حساسیت می باشد؛ لیکن کار با کودکان، والدین و مربیان نیاز به مدیریت علمی دارد و تجهیز مدیران به دانش حوزه کودک و مدیریت، نوعی سرمایه گذاری است و بهره گیری از اندیشه های علمی و کاربردی به اثربخشی در این سطح می انجامد. روش جامعه مورد مطالعه و منابع جمع آوری داده ها شامل دو بخش بود: 1. پایگاه های داده ها و مجلات بین المللی، اسناد و قوانین کشورها در زمینه مدیریت مراکز نگهداری و آموزش کودکان 2. خبرگانی که دارای دانش و اطلاعات در زمینه این تحقیق هستند که از دیدگاه های آنان برای استخراج مولفه ها و مفاهیم استفاده شد. در فرآیند پژوهش، ابتدا اطلاعات مورد نیاز برای استخراج مولفه های شایستگی های مدیران مهدهای کودک، پیشینه پژوهش، اسناد و قوانین کشورها و پژوهش های بین المللی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. سپس برای تکمیل کدهای استخراج شده، با استفاده از روش دلفی در سه مرحله با توافق خبرگان، مولفه ها و زیرمولفه های شایستگی های مدیران مهدهای کودک شناسایی شدند. همچنین شناسایی خبرگان برای مشارکت در روش دلفی با روش هدفمند و گلوله برفی از مدیران مهدهای کودک، کارشناسان امور مهدهای کودک و اساتید صورت پذیرفت و با تجمیع نظرات مشابه و متفاوت از دیدگاه های آنان، مجموعه ای منسجم از شایستگی های مدیران مهدهای کودک استخراج و تدوین شد. نتایج پس از تطبیق کدها و توافق خبرگان، 43 زیر مولفه و 4 مولفه اصلی برای شایستگی های مدیران مهدهای کودک شامل موارد زیر استخراج شد: دانش، ویژگی های شخصیتی، توانایی و مهارت.

    کلیدواژگان: شایستگی، مهدکودک، مدیر، کودک
  • امید نوروزی*، جواد حاتمی، سعید لطیفی، هاشم فردانش صفحات 71-88

    هدف این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر آموزش استدلال ورزی در محیط بازخورد همتای آنلاین بر روی فرایند و پیامد های یادگیری دانشجویان رشته علوم تربیتی است. جامعه پژوهش کلیه دانشجویان کارشناسی رشته علوم-تربیتی دانشگاه خوارزمی-واحد کرج- بود که 40 نفر از آن ها به عنوان نمونه پژوهش انتخاب، و به صورت تصادفی در یک طرح آزمایشی پیش و پس آزمون با گروه کنترل جایگزین، و به صورت جفت های یادگیری (20 جفت) همتا شدند. به منظور اجرای پژوهش، یک محیط بازخورد همتای آنلاین طراحی و تولید گردید. دانشجویان در این محیط به نگارش مقاله کوتاه و سپس ارائه بازخورد به مقاله کوتاه یک دیگر، و سپس بازنویسی آن براساس نظرات همتایان خود پرداختند. محتوای مقاله کوتاه و بازخورد همتای استدلالی دانشجویان با استفاده از یک طرح کدگذاری مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. برای تحلیل داده های پژوهش از آزمون آماری تحلیل واریانس برای اندازه گیری مکرر، آزمون تی مستقل و آزمون همبستگی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که ترکیبی از آموزش نگارش استدلالی و بازخورد همتا کیفیت مقاله های کوتاه و کیفیت بازخورد استدلالی، و همچنین میزان یادگیری تخصصی دانشجویان را افزایش می دهد. به علاوه بین فرایند و پیامد یادگیری بازخورد همتای دانشجویان همبستگی مثبت و معناداری وجود داشت.

    کلیدواژگان: محیط بازخورد همتای آنلاین، نگارش مقاله کوتاه استدلالی، بازخورد استدلالی، آموزش استدلال ورزی
  • مرتضی امیدیان*، ایوب جابری، منیجه شهنی ییلاق صفحات 89-108
    پژوهش حاضر باهدف بررسی نقش میانجی هوش هیجانی و انگیزه پیشرفت در رابطه علی جو مدرسه و امکانات آموزشی با التزام شغلی معلمان انجام گرفت. نمونه پژوهش حاضر شامل 300 نفر (130مرد و 170 زن) بودند که به روش تصادفی و سرشماری از میان تمامی معلمان شهرستان رامشیر انتخاب شدند. شرکت کنندگان در این پژوهش پرسش نامه های جو سازمانی، هوش هیجانی، انگیزه پیشرفت، التزام شغلی و پرسش نامه محقق ساخته امکانات آموزشی را تکمیل نمودند. ارزیابی الگوی پیشنهادی از طریق روش تحلیل مسیر و با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS ویراست 21 و AMOS ویراست 23 انجام شد. جهت آزمودن اثرهای واسطه ای نیز روش بوت استراپ مورداستفاده قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان دادند که الگوی پیشنهادی از برازش خوبی با داده ها برخوردار نیست. برازش بهتر از طریق حذف مسیرهای غیرمعنی دار (امکانات آموزشی به هوش هیجانی، جو مدرسه به انگیزه پیشرفت، امکانات آموزشی به انگیزه پیشرفت و جو مدرسه به التزام شغلی) حاصل شد. علاوه بر این اثرات مستقیم امکانات آموزشی به التزام شغلی، هوش هیجانی به التزام شغلی، انگیزه پیشرفت به التزام شغلی، جو مدرسه به هوش هیجانی، هوش هیجانی به انگیزه پیشرفت معنی دار بودند. اثرات غیرمستقیم کلی جو مدرسه بر التزام شغلی با واسطه گری هوش هیجانی و انگیزه پیشرفت نیز معنی دار بودند ولی رابطه امکانات آموزشی با التزام شغلی از طریق هوش هیجانی و انگیزه پیشرفت معنی دار نبود. این نتایج نشان داد که توجه به جو مدرسه با میاجی هوش هیجانی در افزایش التزام شغلی معلمان و در نتیجه بهبود فرایند آموزش ضروری است.
    کلیدواژگان: امکانات آموزشی، جو مدرسه، هوش هیجانی، انگیزه پیشرفت، التزام شغلی
  • قدرت الله خلیفه، هاشم فردانش*، جواد حاتمی، ابراهیم طلایی صفحات 109-130

    هدف از انجام این پژوهش، طراحی و اعتباریابی الگویی برای تقویت مهارتهای تفکر انتقادی دانشجویان در محیط یادگیری برخط بود. روش تحقیق مورد استفاده از نوع روش آمیخته و شامل تحلیل محتوای کیفی از نوع قیاسی و تحقیق پیمایشی بود. جامعه آماری از منظر تحلیل محتوای قیاسی کلیه منابع و مقالات معتبر علمی نمایه شده در پایگاه های اطلاعاتی بود. روش نمونه گیری تحلیل محتوای قیاسی روش انتخاب هدفمند بود. جامعه آماری از منظر تحقیق پیمایشی نیز کلیه ی متخصصان حوزه ی تکنولوژی آموزشی بودند. روش نمونه گیری در تحقیق پیمایشی روش تصادفی ساده بود. برای این منظور از جامعه ی آماری 20 نفر به شکل نمونه ی در دسترس انتخاب شدند. ابزار اندازه گیری این پژوهش در بخش پیمایش یک پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود که روایی آن به تایید 7 نفر از متخصصان حوزه ی تکنولوژی آموزشی رسید. برای تعیین پایایی نیز از روش بازآزمایی استفاده شد. ضریب همبستگی به دست آمده (94/0) بین دو آزمون در سطح 01/0 معنادار بود. یافته های تحقیق نشان داد که عناصر الگوی پیشنهادی برای تقویت مهارت های تفکر انتقادی دانشجویان در محیط یادگیری برخط شامل ارائه مساله و رخدادهای تهییج کننده، کاوش و جستجو در ماهیت مساله، مباحثه و استدلال در مورد مساله ی ارائه شده، ارائه راه حل، حضور شناختی و حضور اجتماعی است. همچنین، بر اساس عناصر به دست آمده نحوه ی طراحی الگوی پیشنهادی مورد نظر تهیه و تدوین شد. در نهایت عناصر و نحوه ی طراحی الگوی پیشنهادی از نظر 20 متخصص حوزه ی تکنولوژی آموزشی اعتباربخشی گردید.

    کلیدواژگان: محیط یادگیری برخط، تفکر سطح بالا، مهارتهای تفکر انتقادی، الگو و عناصر طراحی محیط یادگیری
  • اکرم شوشتری*، سعید ضرغامی همراه، یحیی قائدی، محمد عطاران صفحات 131-154

    میانجیگری فناورانه در مرکز تفکر پساپدیدارشناسی واقع است. دون آیدی به چهار رابطه انسان و جهان - تجسم، هرمنوتیک، تغیر، پس زمینه- که از طریق اثرات واسطه ای خاص رابطه انسان و جهان را شکل و تغییر می دهد، اشاره می کند. وی دو ویژگی خاص بزرگ نمایی و تقلیل در کاربرد هر گونه فناوری را ذکر کرده و معتقد است که کاربرد هر فناوری در عین اینکه باعث افزایش در یک زمینه زندگی انسان می شود، یک جنبه از زندگی انسان را کاهش می دهد. این ساختار افزایشی-کاهشی، یک دو بعدی است که نشان می دهد چگونه واسطه گری فناورانه، انسان و جهان را شکل می دهد. در این مقاله با روش پساپدیدارشناسی درباره شناسایی و تبیین افزایش ها و کاهش ها در ابعاد مختلف میانجیگری فناورانه در رابطه انسان و جهان در کلاس معکوس بحث می شود. نتایج تحقیق بیان کننده افزایش ها و کاهش هایی در چهار بعد در آموزش معکوس است؛ آموزشی که توانسته نقص های آموزش سنتی و آموزش الکترونیکی را تا حد زیادی مرتفع کند و بسیاری از مسایل مبتلا به نظام تربیتی موجود را رفع نماید. در نهایت باید اشاره کرد که دستیابی به افزایش ها و کاهش های آموزش معکوس در ابعاد چهارگانه پیش گفته، به ما کمک می کند تا درک روشنی از برآورد خود از کلاس معکوس در سطح اجتماعی و شخصی بدست آوریم.

    کلیدواژگان: ابعاد میانجیگری فناورانه، دون آیدی، پساپدیدارشناسی، ساختار افزایشی کاهشی، آموزش معکوس
  • امیر مثنوی*، سید عباس رضوی صفحات 155-176

    این پژوهش با هدف بررسی توانایی بازخورد ادراک شده دانشجویان و قابلیت پیش بینی آن بر اساس مولفه های محیط یادگیری سازنده گرا در یک طرح پژوهش همبستگی انجام گرفت. جامعه این پژوهش شامل کلیه دانشجویان دوره کارشناسی و کارشناسی ارشد رشته علوم تربیتی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز بود. برای انجام پژوهش 166 دانشجو با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. شرکت کننده ها، مقیاس بازخورد ادراک شده (Haghani et al) و دیگری مقیاس محیط یادگیری سازنده گرا (Tylor) را تکمیل کردند. داده ها با استفاده از آزمون های آماری رگرسیون چندمتغیری، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و تی تست گروه های مستقل تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین متغیر بازخورد ادراک شده و محیط یادگیری سازنده گرا همبستگی مثبت وجود دارد. تحلیل رگرسیون مشخص کرد که مولفه های محیط یادگیری سازنده گرا (از جمله: ارتباط با زندگی، عدم قطعیت، بیان انتقادی، نظارت مشترک، و مذاکره با دانشجو) پیش بینی کننده های بازخورد ادراک شده هستند (59% واریانس) همچنین پیش بینی کننده های بین دانشجویان دختر و پسر و کارشناسی و تحصیلات تکمیلی در میزان دریافت بازخورد ادراک شده تفاوت وجود ندارد. نیز تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد. شواهد این پژوهش بیانگر آن است که ایجاد یک محیط یادگیری سازنده گرا از طریق توجه به مولفه های آن می تواند موجب بهبود بازخورد در فرایند آموزش شود. با توجه به اهمیت بازخورد در فرایند ارتباط، محیط های یادگیری سازنده گرا موجب بهبود ارتباط و بهبود کیفیت آموزش می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: بازخورد ادراک شده، سازنده گرایی، محیط یادگیری، آموزش عالی
  • محسن آیتی*، ثریا رودی علی آبادی، محمد علی رستمی نژاد صفحات 177-196

    تشخیص صلاحیت های یادگیری مادام العمر دانشجویان حائز اهمیت است. برای این هدف ابزارهایی چون نگرش به یادگیری مادام العمر، ویژگی یادگیرنده مادام العمر و سواد یادگیری مادام العمر وجود دارد و در همین راستا دسترسی به ابزار ایرانی سنجش صلاحیت های دانشجویان در عصر دیجیتال ضرورت می یابد. هدف پژوهش، بررسی ساختار عاملی و پایایی ابزار صلاحیت یادگیری مادام العمر Uzunboylu & Hürsen (2011) بود. روش پژوهش توصیفی- همبستگی و از نوع کاربردی است. جامعه پژوهش شامل 12000 نفر دانشجویان دانشگاه بیرجند بوده و 300 نفر به عنوان نمونه به شیوه خوشه ‏ای انتخاب شدند. نتایج تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی شش مولفه صلاحیت های یادگیری مادام العمر را شناسایی کرد که 46/49 درصد از واریانس سازه صلاحیت های یادگیری مادام العمر را تبیین می کرد. نتایج تحلیل عاملی تاییدی نیز 42 گویه یادگیری مادام العمر را در 6 عامل با استفاده از شاخص های برازندگی مناسب از یکدیگر تفکیک کرد. شاخص های نیکویی برازش، شامل شاخص RMSEA، 051/0 و شاخص های GFI و CFI به ترتیب 96/0 و 85/0 بود. ضریب آلفای کرونباخ کل ابزار 91/0 و برای خرده مقیاس های خودمدیریتی، یادگیری چگونگی یادگیری، ابتکار و کارآفرینی، صلاحیت دیجیتال، کسب اطلاعات و تصمیم گیری بین 66/0 تا 85/0 بود؛ درنتیجه مقیاس صلاحیت یادگیری مادام العمر مقیاسی روا و پایا برای شناسایی صلاحیت های دانشجویان است. محاسبه همبستگی بین خرده مقیاس های نسخه فارسی و نمره کل مقیاس، ضریب 68/0 تا 88/0 را نشان داد. به این ترتیب هر شش خرده مقیاس، همبستگی بالایی با نمره کل مقیاس دارد. با توجه به نتایج مطالعه، از مقیاس حاضر می توان برای سنجش صلاحیت برای یادگیری مادام العمر استفاده نمود.

    کلیدواژگان: صلاحیت های یادگیری مادام العمر، صلاحیت دیجیتال، دانشجویان، تحلیل عاملی
  • محمد قمیشی*، مهروز ساداتی صفحات 197-216

    این مقاله با هدف شناخت ترجیح بصری کودکان جهت ارتقاء خلاقیت با استفاده از روش کارت سورتینگ انجام گردیده است. برای نیل به این مقصود، از رویکرد کیفی و روش تحلیل محتوایی و جهت تجزیه، تحلیل و آنالیز اطلاعات از نرم افزار Optimal Sort استفاده شد. جامعه پژوهش، کودکان سنین 4 تا 10 سال بودند که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری غیرتصادفی هدفمند و براساس پژوهش های تولیس و وود (2004)، در مجموع 30 نفر از آن ها به عنوان مشارکت کنندگان در پژوهش انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش شامل مصاحبه و آزمون مرتب سازی کارت باز بود. نتایج یافته های تحقیق، حاکی از آن است که که محیط های طبیعی با داشتن ویژگی های ساختاری چون ایجاد کنجکاوی و حس اکتشاف، تعامل و انعطاف پذیری، انسجام و در عین حال پیچیدگی و رمز و راز که بر روان و ذهن کودک موثر است می توانند بستر مناسبی را در جهت بهبود خلاقیت و ارتقاء حوزه های یادگیری کودک (شناختی، عاطفی، حرکتی) فراهم آورند. همچنین ارزیابی های متعدد و کیفی، بیان میکنند که با درگیر کردن فضاهای آموزشی با طبیعت و استفاده از ویژگی های محیطی، می توان خلاقیت و نوآوری در کودکان را بهبود بخشید و با استفاده از این ویژگی ها می توان راهکارهایی را به عنوان الگو در طراحی محیط های ساخته شده کودکان در جهت پرورش خلاقیت آن ها ارائه داد.

    کلیدواژگان: باغ، کودک، خلاقیت، بازی، باغ کودک
  • محمدفائق محمدی، سیروس قنبری* صفحات 217-238

    هدف از پژوهش حاضر شناسایی عوامل موثر بر رفتار آوایی کارکنان در دانشگاه های غرب کشور بود. روش پژوهش آمیخته اکتشافی است. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه کارکنان، دانشگاه های کرمانشاه، همدان و کردستان بود (1585 نفر). در بخش کیفی به صورت هدفمند و بر مبنای اصل اشباع نظری تعداد 41 نفر از کارکنان مورد مصاحبه قرار گرفتند. در بخش کمی بر اساس جدول کرجسی و مورگان 310 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. ابزار مورد استفاده در بخش کیفی مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته و در بخش کمی پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود. برای تحلیل داده ها از تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی جهت شناسایی عامل های زیر بنایی رفتار آوایی کارکنان، سپس تحلیل عاملی تاییدی به منظور تعیین میزان توان مدل عاملی استفاده شد. بر اساس نتایج حاصل، در بخش کیفی شاخص های موثر بر رفتار آوایی در قالب 52 گویه اصلی دسته بندی شد. در بخش کمی، تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی گویه ها به منظور شناسایی عامل های زیربنایی رفتار آوایی صورت گرفت. نتایج در قالب 9 عامل زیربنایی شامل جو سازمانی عدالت محور، ویژگی های مدیریتی و سبک رهبری، فرهنگ سازمانی حامی مشارکت، مکانیزم بازخورد و ارزشیابی، پذیرش تغییر و تکنولوژی، ویژگی های شخصیتی و حرفه ای، فعالیت تیمی و همکاری متقابل، پایبندی به نقش و اهداف سازمانی، تناسب شغلی و سازمانی مشخص شدند. در بخش تاییدی نیز مدل ارتباط عامل ها با رفتار آوایی، برازش مناسبی داشت، که نشان از مناسب بودن عامل ها در توسعه رفتار آوایی دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: رفتار آوایی کارکنان، مشارکت سازمانی، سکوت سازمانی، دانشگاه های غرب کشور
  • زیبا بشارت*، بدری شاه طالبی حسین آبادی، نرگس سعیدیان خوراسگانی صفحات 239-256

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی مولفه ها و ارائه مدل رهبری اخلاقی در دانشگاه های آزاد اسلامی کشور انجام شد. در فاز اول پژوهش روش تحقیق تحلیل مضمون استقرایی بر پایه مدل استرلینگ بود که از بین 24 سند داخلی و خارجی، 250 مضمون استخراج گردید و در قالب 23 مضمون پایه و 6 مضمون سازمان دهنده، سازماندهی شد. مولفه های شناسایی شده در فاز دوم در قالب پرسشنامه بسته پاسخ (69 گویه ای) که روایی محتوایی آن از طریق ضریب توافق نسبی (CVR) با 8 پانلیست، مورد تایید متخصصان قرار گرفت در اختیار 303 نفر از اساتید دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی در سراسر کشور از طریق الکترونیکی قرار گرفت. روش پژوهش در این فاز همبستگی می باشد. پایایی ابزار گردآوری داده ها از طریق آلفای کرونباخ و اعتبار همگرا بالاتر از 7/0 و پایایی ترکیبی بالاتر از 8/0 برآورد گردید. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها در بخش کمی از تحلیل عاملی مرتبه دوم استفاده شد. نتایج بخش کمی نشان داد؛ بارهای عاملی رهبری اخلاقی با مولفه های کنش، توانش، بینش، منش، و دانش اخلاقی بالاتر از 9/0 و نگرش اخلاقی بالاتر از 8/0 در سطح 001/0 و بالاتر از مقدار بحرانی برازش یافت.

    کلیدواژگان: واژگان کلیدی: رهبری، رهبری اخلاقی، دانشگاه های آزاد اسلامی، تحلیل مضمون
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  • Davoud Hoseinpour *, Mohammadreza Sharafi, Jamile Alamolhoda, Hosein Souzanchi Pages 1-26

    Recognition of the concept of "Situation" in contemporary approaches to values education. Davoud Hoseinpour Sabbagh(1), Mohamadreza Sharafi(2), Jamile Alamolhoda(3), Hosein Souzainchi(4) 1. PhD student Educational Philosophy of Tehran University.Tehran, Iran. 2. Associate Prof. of Tehran University Department of philosophy of Education. 3. Associate Prof. of Shahid beheshti University Department of Educational Science. 4. Associate Prof. of Bagheralolum University Department of Social Science. Introduction the term "values education" applies to all aspects of the process of education, which either explicitly or implicitly relate to ethical and axiological dimensions of life and are such that can be structured, guided, And monitored with appropriate educational methods and tools. But in general education and values education in particular is faced with the challenge of time and space. But education in general and values education in particular is faced with the challenge of locality. Therefore the situation is a vital concept for educational theories, and the success of value education depends on the proper perception of situation. In this research, three important and influential contemporary approaches in value education that have shown particular attention to the situation have been selected and their perception of the situation has been analyzed. Method This is based on the "linguistic and conceptual analysis" method in the technical and formal language. Results In contrast to the authoritarian approaches, attention to the situation is commen in the various values of education. Triple approaches, in spite of their commonalities, consider a different domain for situation: In the Dewey's approach all of the "ends", "the implementation of the principle" and "behavior" are situational. In the NeoAristotlelians approach just "the implementation of the principle" and "behavior" are situational. And in the anti-Aristotelian approach only the "behavior" is sitational. Discussion "The situation as a whole" in the Dewey's pragmatism approach; "Situation as the conditions of action", in the NeoAristotlelians approach, and "Situation as the stimuli of the environment" in the anti-Aristotelian approach, have been recognized. In analyzing the concept of position in these three approaches, attention to surrounding concepts is very effective in determining its semantic distinctions; the concept of Situation in Dewey's pragmatism must be understood in relation to the surrounding concepts of "experience", "desire", "environment" and "organism". On the other hand, the concept of the sitution in Neo-Aristotelianism is related to the peripheries concepts such as "action", "reasoning", "virtue" and "personality".and finally In the anti-Aristotelian approach, the concept of siyuation is related to the peripheral concepts such as "environment", "behavior", "experiential adequacy" and the same time is in contrast the concept of "person".

    Keywords: Situation, Pragmatism, Neo-Aristotelianism, Anti-Aristotelianism
  • Mahdieh Sadat Vaghoor Kashani *, Gholam Reza Haji Hossein Nejad, Nematollah Moosapour, Issa Ebrahim Zadeh Pages 27-50
    Introduction

    Regarding the affordances of an online learning environments, it is expected that such environments facilitate teaching and learning processes and increase higher-order thinking skills, especially critical thinking skills. However, evidence suggests that many of online learning courses are designed in ways that do not carry the required capacity to enhance higher order thinking skills such as t critical thinking skills. The purpose of this study is to design and validate a model for reinforcing students' critical thinking skills in an online learning environment.

    Method

    The present study uses a mixed-method research approach including content analysis and survey. The content analysis focused on a corpus of all research articles indexed in the database. We used a targeted sampling method for inclusion. For survey research we used a convenient sampling method to select among the body of experts in the field of instructional technology. The sample size included 20 participants.The instrument used for the survey was developed by the researcher and was validated using a expert panel of seven experts in the field of instructional technology. The reliability of the tool was ensured using a test-retest method. The correlation coefficient (0.94) between the two tests was significant at the level of p = 0.01.

    Results

    The findings of the research indicated that the proposed model elements for reinforcement the students' critical thinking skills in the online learning environment, including the presentation of the problem and the stimulating events, explored and searched the nature of the problem, the discussion, and argumentation about the proposed problem, the presentation of the solution, cognitive presence and social presence. Guided by the observed themes, we also came up with proposed design model. Finally, the themes were cross validated in consultation with a subgroup of 20 experts in the field of educational technology.

    Discussion

    Based on the results of the present study, the presentation of the problem or stimulating events should happen in the early phase of the instructional design model. In the next stage, the learning environment should provide an opportunity for students to explore the nature of the problem. This stage should be followed by an opportunity for learners to discuss different sides of the problem and ultimately present their solutions and reasoning that comes with it. Both social and teaching presence are elements that are present throughout the steps and processes of reinforcement critical thinking skills in online learning environments. The two aspects are important in design of learning environment because they create not only an affective bond for students but also balance and systematize the process of learning activities.The results of the present study indicate that online learning environments, if designed systematically and following sound design principles as shown in the present study, have the very potential to enhance critical thinking skills.

    Keywords: Teacher Professional Competencies, Teachers Evaluation, conceptual model
  • Leila Valizadeh *, Hamid Rahimian, Abbas Abbaspour, Ali Khorsandi Taaskouh, Ghodsi Ahghar Pages 51-70
    Introduction

    The purpose of this research was to identify and analyze the competences of the managers of child care centers. In recent years,childhood and its significance have been addressed by scientists from all fields of science and have shown the impact of care quality and education of early childhood in all aspects of the individual and social life; this has led to the policymakers paying special attention to childhood. One of these policies is to select and train effective managers in line with the objectives of academic education, government policies and the social environment governing the care and education of children, Too this endeavor may also meet the needs of families and society. However staff of child care centers need training in modern management which requires that managers should have the required knowledge and skills needed for the successful management of child care.

    Method

    This research was conducted with a qualitative approach and Delphi method. The statistical society consisted of two parts: (1). International databases and magazines, national laws and regulations on the management of child care and education centers. (2). Professors and experts who have knowledge and information in this field were contacted, and their ideas were used to extract the components and concepts. First, the information needed to extract the components and competency components of the managers of child care and education centers was studied using theoretical literature and international research, bearing an the subject. Subsequently, In order to complement the extracted codes, by invoking the experts help components and subcomponent of the child-centers managers, componences were pinned down using Delphi method in three stages. the components and codes of competencies of the managers of child care and education centers were extracted from related documents and related texts. After three steps of the Delphi method and reconnection to the experts, the components and codes were recognized and approved.

    Results

    Finally 43 subcomponents and four main components were extracted. the foure main components regarding the competencies of child care centers managers were: knowledge, personality tracts, personal abilities and skills.Kindergarten administrators, as responsible for all internal affairs of kindergarten, should have special, human and moral measures for caring and development of all children. Activities that go even beyond the home of kindergarten. In order to achieve this level of education in the field of daycare, it is essential to gain the skills, personality, knowledge and ability of the managers of these centers.

    Keywords: competence, nursery school, manager, child
  • Omid Noroozi *, Javad Hatami, Saeed Latifi, Hashem Fardanesh Pages 71-88
    Introduction

    Peer feedback is one of the promising educational strategy to improve students’ argumentative essay writing. However, resently, researchs have indicated that imlicit approach (Scripts and prompts) in online peer feedback environment improved student’s academic writing skills, these approaches bring some issues. More resently researches for solving this issues propose explicit approaches (sach as instruction and worked example). On the base, this study investigates the effects of online peer feedback environment with argumentation training on students’ learning process (argumentative feedback quality) and outcomes (argumentative essay quality and domain-specific knowledge acquisition) in the field of educational sciences.

    Method

    The population of the study was all undergraduate students of educational sciences at Kharazmi University in Karaj in which 40 students were randomly selected as a sample and were assigned to either experimental (with training and worked example) or control group (without any additional support) in a pre- and posttest design. They were then divided over 20 dyads and were asked to write an argumentative essay, engage in argumentative peer feedback with their learning partner, and then revise their essay based on feedback they received. In the peer feedback phase, the students of the experimental group received on how to write a high quality argumentative essay before giving feedback. To do so, a collaborative e-learning environment was designed and developed. A coding scheme was developed based on research literature to measure both argumentative essay and argumentative peer feedback quality.

    Result

    The results favoured students in the experimental condition in terms of their argumentative essay writing, argumentative peer feedback quality, and the acquisition of domain-specific knowledge. Furthermore, there was a positive and significant correlation between the learning process (argumentative peer feedback quality) and the outcome (argumentative essay writing quality).

    Discussion

    The results of this research indicated the importance of argumentation training as a support for peer feedback process in increasing the students’ feedback quality, academic writing and domain specific learning. Providing argumentation training befor peer feedback activity can familiarize students with criteria for a higher quality feedback, and thus improve the quality of their writing. Also, high quality feedback requires a more cognitive elaboration of learning material which can enhance student learning in subject at hand.
    The results of this research indicated the importance of argumentation training as a support for peer feedback process in increasing the students’ feedback quality, academic writing and domain specific learning. Providing argumentation training befor peer feedback activity can familiarize students with criteria for a higher quality feedback, and thus improve the quality of their writing. Also, high quality feedback requires a more cognitive elaboration of learning material which can enhance student learning in subject at hand.

    Keywords: online peer feedback environments, argumentative writing, argumentative peer feedback, argumentation training
  • Morteza Omidian *, Ayoub Jaberi, Manijeh Shehniyailagh Pages 89-108
    Job engagement has been considered as a source of commitment and professional passion in recent years. Because of the positive effects of this variable on the teachers' proficiency, its predictors have particular importance. Focusing on individual predictors such as types of intelligence, motivation, and needs alone does not provide a complete explanation. On the other hand, attention to social variables such as culture, social atmosphere, employee behavior and environmental factors such as facilities and equipment have an undeniable effect on employees' behavior. Concurrent attention to these factors has been considered in less research. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of emotional intelligence and motivation as mediated variables in causal relationship between school climate and educational facilities with job engagement. In this research, educational facilities as the environmental factor and the school climate as a social factor, and emotional intelligence and achieved motivation as individual factors, have been tested in a causal model. The sample consisted of 300 teachers (130 men and 170 women) who were randomly and census selected from Ramshir city. Participants in this study completed the Halpin and Croft Organizational Climate Questionnaire, Schutt Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Hermans, achievement motivation Questionnaire, Utrecht Job Engagement Questionnaire and Job Training Facilities. The proposed model evaluation through path analysis was performed using SPSS software and AMOS. Also in order to examine indirect paths the bootstrap method was used. Results showed that the model was not fit to the data. Better fit was achieved through the elimination of non-significant paths (educational facilities to emotional intelligence, school climate to achievement motivation, educational facilities to achievement motivation and school climate to job engagement). In addition, to the direct paths of educational facilities to job engagement, emotional intelligence to job engagement, achievement motivation to job engagement, school climate to emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence to achievement motivation were significant. Also the indirect paths from school climate to job engagement through emotional intelligence and achievement motivation were significant. These results showed that attention to the role of the school climate as an intermediate variable in increasing the job engagement of teachers and thus improving the educational process is essential. Therefore, teachers 'job motivation and engagement can be enhanced by improving teachers' emotional intelligence, achieved motivation and improving the school climate. In addition, the improvement of educational facilities will help to improve the professional engagement of teachers without any intermediary. This research emphasizes the need for simultaneous attention to individual, environmental and social elements in order to improve teachers' job engagement.
    Keywords: school climate, educational facilities, emotional intelligence, motivation, job engagement
  • Ghodratolah Khalifeh, Hashem Fardanesh *, Javad Hatami, Ebrahim Talaee Pages 109-130
    Introduction

    Quality education depends heavily on committed, learned, and expert teachers. The most important way to ascertain the existence of teachers' competencies is to develop a system for evaluating them. The purpose of this research was to design and validate a conceptual model for evaluating the competencies of teachers' performance in Iran. In this research, scientific, practical, and applied views on designing a conceptual model for evaluating the professional qualifications of the teachers were collected from books, articles and scientific researches out of ninety nationally and internationally accredited textual resources, as well as through interviews with 25 expert teachers from three different education areas and 20 experts in the field of teacher evaluation and teacher training.

    Method

    The method used in this qualitative research was the inductive method of content analysis.

    Results

    The issues extracted from the opinions of the experts showed that the components of evaluation of the professional qualifications of teachers include six main components, twenty-six sub-components comprising sixty-three concepts and two hundred sixty-three minor concepts. The six main components include intellectual principles, strategic planning, evaluation indicators, systematic implementation plan, expected and achievable results and evaluation complexities of professional qualifications. Based on known components, the desired model was designed and then validated by experts.

    Discussion

    The final model for the evaluation of professional qualifications consists of four facets and a fundamental center of gravity. The four aspects of this evaluation model include the rational basis of evaluation (home floor), the evaluation strategy (the right wall of the home), the systematic appraisal program (the left wall of the home), and the expected and achievable results of the evaluation (home roof), and its center of gravity is the evaluation culture (heart or interior of the home). This model can be called a "home-like model for evaluating professional competencies of teachers". According to the proposed model, the evaluation culture involves many complexities indicated by the fact that the evaluation of the competencies of the teacher's profession, at each stage, is influenced by the dominant complex culture. On the other hand the evaluation strategy and the systematic appraisal program both are influenced by the rational basis of evaluation and also they are influenced by the evaluation culture. Overall the more strategic and implementable the plans are, the more realistic and clear expected outcomes will be. This, it is believed, will result in the teachers improving their professional expertise and the strengthening the culture of accountability and evaluation.

    Keywords: Online Learning Environment, Higher-order thinking, Critical Thinking Skills, Design model, elements
  • Akram Shooshtari *, Saeid Zarghami Hamrah, Yahya Ghaedi, Mohamad Ataran Pages 131-154
    Introduction

    At the center of postphenomenological thinking is the technological intermediary. Don Ihde’s typology of human-world relationships-embodiment, hermeneutic, alterity, and background provides a methodology dealing with how technologies shape and reshape both “humans” and “world” through specific intermediary effects. He mentions two specific features of magnification and reduction in the application of any technology, and believes that the application of any technology while enhancing the aspect of human life, reduces another aspect. The magnification-reduction structure is a two-sidedness that It can be seen in various dimensions, and there is no mere empirical fact about technological intermediary. Empirical fact of technological intermediary, the two-sidedness of technological intermediary expresses how technological intermediaries shape both “world” and “human”. In this study, various aspects of incremental reduction of flipped classroom are being examined in four different dimensions of technological intermediary and technological formation of our world life. By addressing the various dimensions of technological intermediation, we can examine the different aspects of our world life .Here, by addressing the increases and decreases in flipped classroom in various dimensions, we seek to find out if the reverse flipped pattern, as a model of the combination of traditional technology and education, is an appropriate model for solving problems with the educational system? In other words, does the flipped learning pattern solve problems and shortcomings of the existing educational system? In this paper, the post-phenomenology approach is used to identify and explain the increases and reductions in the various dimensions of technological intermediary in the relationship between human and the world in flipped learning. The method in this research Post-phenomenology. It is a branch of phenomenology that, by combining phenomenology and pragmatism, explores the human-technology relations. Finally, it should be noted that the achievement of the reverse education increases and reductions in the four dimensions above helps us to get a clear understanding of our estimate of the flipped learning at the social and personal level.

    Method

    The method of this research is Post-phenomenology. It is a branch of phenomenology that, by combining phenomenology and pragmatism, explores the human-technology relations.

    Results

    The results of the research indicate that reverse education, with increases and decreases in four ontological, epistemological, practical and ethical dimensions, has dramatically improved the problems and deficiencies of traditional education and e-learning, and is a useful model for solving many problems in any educational system.

    Keywords: Dimension of technological mediation, Don Ihdi, Postphenomenolog, Magnification reduction Structure, Flipped learning
  • Abas Razavi Pages 155-176
    Introduction

    This Study to aim was conducted to investigation to prediction students perceived feedbach basedon the constractivist learning context in a correlation design.

    Methodology

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' perceived feedback and its predictability based on components of constructivist learning environment. This study is an applied research in terms of the purpose and is a type of descriptive-correlational researches in terms of data collection method. The population of the current study consisted of all undergraduate and master of art students of Shahid Chamran Universtiy of Ahvaz. 166 students were selected using simple random sampling method. The participation completed: the Perceived Feedback Scale (Haghani et al) and Constructivist Learning Environment Scale (Tylor). Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient and independent t-test.

    Results

    The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between students’ perceived feedback and constructivist learning environment, Also regression analysis revealed that constructivist learning environment components (such as: relation to life, uncertainty, critical statement, shared control, student negotiation are predictions significant students’ perceived feedback and (%59 variance). In additions there aren’t difference between male and female students and in the rate of receiving feedback undergraduate and graduate students.

    Results

    The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between students’ perceived feedback and constructivist learning environment, Also regression analysis revealed that constructivist learning environment components (such as: relation to life, uncertainty, critical statement, shared control, student negotiation are predictions significant students’ perceived feedback and (%59 variance). In additions there aren’t difference between male and female students and in the rate of receiving feedback undergraduate and graduate students.

    Discussion

    The evidence from this study suggests that creating a constructivist learning environment through attention to its components can improve feedback in the teaching-learning process. Given the importance of feedback in the communication process, constructivist learning environments improve communication and improve the quality of education. Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that teachers use active and learning-based approaches to teaching. Traditional approaches that are often teacher-centered and teaching-oriented, passive learners whom lack the opportunity to understand and create the structure of knowledge. It is also suggested that teachers in educational design take in to account the characteristics of a constructivist learning environment and adapt their teaching to them. In this way, students will experience a more effective environment and can adjust their performance by receiving more effective feedback.

    Keywords: Perceived feedback, constructivism, learning environment, Higher Education
  • Mohsen Ayati *, Sorya Roudi Aliabadi, Mohammad Ali Rostaminezhad Pages 177-196
    Introduction

    Knowledge is changing and there are many changes in science and technology, so citizens must be updated and upgrade their knowledge and skills. Today lifelong learning is based on competence that has attracted the attention of the learning community. Students' lifelong learning competency is important. There are some scales such as attitudes to lifelong learning, lifelong learner characteristics, education lifelong learning and effective lifelong learning for this purpose. But in this context there isn't scale for measureing students lifelong competencies with rergard to digital competencies in Iran. The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure and reliability of Uzunboylu and Hursen (2011) lifelong learning competence scale.

    Method

    In terms of data collection quantitative study employing a descriptive-correlational research design were used in this study. The research population was all students in University of Birjand (12,000 students). The sample size is based on a valid general rule for factor analysis is 300 subjects. Accordingly, a sample of 300 students from University of Birjand were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. In this way, from colleges of science, literature, agriculture, engineering, education-psychology and art three college of education and psychology, agriculture and art were selected. After administrating questionnaire data analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software.

    Results

    Exploratory factor analysis results identified six components for lifelong learning competencies that explained %49.46 variance of lifelong learning competency constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis Results Separated clearly of 42 items lifelong learning in the 6 Factor using the Appropriate fitness indicators. The findings of the model indicate that the fitness indices are desirable. the Chi-square ratio to degrees of freedom was1.72 which is small and indicating the fit of the model with the data, the comparative fit indicate (CFI), the Fit Fitness indicate (GEI), the Adapted Fitness indicate (AGFI) are 0.85, 0.96 and 0.92, respectively, which expresses the good fit of the model with data. The root mean square error (RMSEA) is also 0.051 which is also the appropriate fit condition for the model. In general, these fitness indices indicate a good fit of the model with research data. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of all items was 0/91 and for subscales self-management, learning how to learn, initiative and entrepreneurship, digital competence, acquiring information and decision-making was between 0/66 to 0/85. For correlation between total score and subscales Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The results showed of the correlation between the subscales of the Persian version and the scale of the whole scale in the range of 0.86 to 0.88. Thus, each of the six sub-scales has a high correlation with the total scale scores.

    Discussion

    the scale can be used to assess the competency of lifelong learning and ultimately to improve the quality of education in the digital society. As efforts to improve the quality of education are essential in higher education, and expected students to become independent and lifelong learners. As a result, it can be seen from these scale that the do teaching method at universities develop these competencies.

    Keywords: lifelong learning competencies, digital competence, students, Factor Analysis
  • Mohammad Ghomeishi *, Mahrouz Sadati Pages 197-216
    Introduction

    The beginning of cultivating of many human abilities is in childhood; so is the beginning of developing the power of creativity and innovation is period. Studies on the behavior of children indicate that open spaces and gardens can play a significant role in the health and development of children. However, the architectural designs are unique and vague, and the truth is that our children's learning spaces are more likely to undermine their creativity. This study aims to review the necessity of nature in promoting the creativity of the child and the characteristics of these environments that enhance the creativity and innovation of children. The aim of this research is to identify the visual preferences of children in order to boost their creativity using card sorting technique and to review the necessity of nature in promoting the creativity of the child and the characteristics of these environments that promote the creativity and innovation of children. The main objective of this study is to find ways to improve the creativity and innovation of children through the accommodation of educational spaces with nature and the use of environmental features in the design.

    Method

    To fulfill the study’s aim, a qualitative content analysis method was utilized and the Optima Sort software was used to assess and analyze the information. The statistical research population of this study were children aged 4 to 10 who were picked using the purposeful non-random sampling method based on the researches carried out by Tullis and Wood (2004). A total of 30 children were finally selected as the participants of the research. The tools for research were interview and an open card sorting technique.

    Results

    The results of the study demonstrate that natural environments – due to their structural characteristics which help create a sense of curiosity and a will to discover, interaction and flexibility, coherency whilst being complex and mysterious allot which affect a child’s mind – may provide a suitable base on the way of boosting creativity and promoting the various aspects (cognitive, emotional and motion) of a child’s learning. Also, numerous and qualitative assessments suggest that by accommodating learning spaces with nature and utilizing environmental characteristics, we can improve and boost children’s creativity and innovation levels. By using these characteristics, various suggestions and solutions may be introduced as design examples for building spaces in way of promoting children’s creativity.

    Discussion

    Since designing the environments and spaces for developing and flourishing of the children's talents is a new subject, it has received no attention in the design of the environments and spaces built for children in Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that effective solutions be sought regarding the educational spaces designs. It is hoped that the solutions proposed in the present paper maybe heeded by the authorities concerned.

    Keywords: Children Perception, creativity, Cognitive Properties, User Participation, Design Solutions
  • Mohammadfaegh Mohammadi, Siroos Ghanbari * Pages 217-238

    Identifying the Factors Affecting the employee voice behavior in Western Universities of Iran Employee engagement and collaboration in the organization is one of the most important development and productivity strategies. Changes in management style and theories are due to the attention of employees as an important source of transformation and investment on their vision and opinions. Accordingly As rapidly environmental and technology changes What can guarantee the survival and development of organizations and their development, attention to the participation and expression of the staff's perspective and voice. Method therefore, the purpose of the present study was Identifying the factors that affecting the employee voice behavior in the western universities. The research method is exploratory mix method. The statistical population consisted of all employees, Kermanshah, Hamedan and Kurdistan universities(1585 person). In the qualitative section, 41 employees were interviewed according to purposeful and based on theoretical saturation principle. The sample size was 310 according to the Krejcie & Morgan tables. The instrument in the qualitative section semi-structured interview And in the quantitative part researcher's questionnaire was used. For data analysis use of the exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying factors of employee participation in voice behavior, Then, a confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the power factors of the model. Results The results of the qualitative section were categorized into 52 items. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify the underlying factors of voice behavior. Based on the exploratory factor analysis, this items were identified in the nine core factors: The justice-based organizational climate, Managerial features and leadership style, Organizational culture supportive of participation, Feedback and evaluation mechanism, Embracing change and technology, Personal and professional characteristics, Teamwork and interaction, Adherence to organizational roles and goals, Job and organizational fitness. In the confirmation section, the model of the relationship of factors with voice behavior was fitness, that indicating the appropriateness of factors in the development of voice behavior. Discussion Therefore, it can be concluded that the development of voice behavior in organizations, and in particular academic organizations, Requires recognition the several factors including individual, managerial and organizational variables, This can be used to enhance the employees voice behavior and to enable collaboration and participation between different levels of the organization in order to achieve productivity. Therefore, it can be concluded that the development of voice behavior in organizations, and in particular academic organizations, Requires recognition the several factors including individual, managerial and organizational variables, This can be used to enhance the employees voice behavior and to enable collaboration and participation between different levels of the organization in order to achieve productivity.

    Keywords: Employee voice behavior, Organizational participation, Organizational silence, Western universities
  • Ziba Besharat *, Badri Shah Talebi Hossein Abadi, Narges Saeidian Khorasgani Pages 239-256
    Introduction

    The existence of moral dilemmas are one of the most important reasons why organizations have been implementing ethical leadership; therefore, ethical leadership is one of the major concerns and issues of today's organizations, to the extent that scientific flourishing, industrial progress, and social affluence is affiliated with ethics in organizations.

    Methodology

    In terms of the purpose, the present study is applied research and it was carried out in two quantitative and qualitative phases. In the first phase of the research, the used research method is the type of analysis of the subject based on the inductive approach (data-based). In the second phase the present study has described the objective, realistic and regular characteristics of a subject and is a descriptive survey. The researcher identified and selected a list of the first articles that appeared to contain data relevant to the research objectives by using the books written in the field of higher education with a focus on ethical leadership and management, to better identify relevant issues related to the subject of research. By careful examination, a total of 250 Themes were identified in 24 documents. The statistical population in the second part of the study included all subject specialists in Azad universities of the country; 303 were sampled. In order to evaluate the content analysis, the "use of independent coders and experts group" was used. Using of independent coding is a common process for evaluating and controlling the quality of the analysis of the subject. In the quantitative section, content validity and face validity were used to assess the validity.

    Results

    the content was identified in the form of a closed-ended questionnaire whose content validity was approved by experts through the CVR of 8 panelists. The reliability of the information gathering tool was higher than 0.7 in convergent validity and higher than 0.8 in combined reliability by Cronbach's alpha. For analyzing data, a second-order factor analysis was used in quantitative section. The results, in quantitative section, show that ethical leadership load factors fitted with the themes of action, ability, foresight, character, and ethical knowledge with greater than 0.9 and it fitted with ethical attitude with higher than 0.8 at 0.001 and above the critical value.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that ethical leaders in Azad universities have ethical action, foresight, character, attitude, knowledge and ability. These individuals, while being an ethical strategist and diplomat, are observant, pragmatic, opportunist, listener, transformative, supportive, and capitalist. In addition, they must have values like conductivity, worldview, justice, law-order, value –oriented, benevolence. In large organizations such as Azad University, ethical leadership can be seen with having good attributes and correct values and being rich in terms of performance.

    Keywords: leadership, Ethical leadership, Islamic Azad universities, thematic analysis