- Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2020
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/20
- تعداد عناوین: 7
Investigation of Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern Among Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Patients Referred to Amir Al-Momenin Hospital, Gerash, IranPage 1Background
Antibiotic resistance is now considered as a global problem. Due to the increasing use of antibiotics, and subsequent increase in antibiotic resistance, treatment of bacterial infections has faced many difficulties.Objectives
This study aimed to investigate the pattern of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from patients referred to the hospital during the years 2016 - 2018.Methods
In this cross-sectional study, 2250 samples were taken from outpatient and hospitalized patients (inpatients) during three years (2016 - 2018). After collection, the specimens were cultured in blood agar and EMB media. One thousand six hundred and forty-two positive samples were obtained that from these, a number of 1067 specimens were recognized as E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using a disk diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar media for eight antibiotics. The result was evaluated based on the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).Results
In this study, 1642 positive samples were diagnosed that the largest isolated strains were associated with E. coli (65%). About 241 samples belonged to men (22.6%) and 826 samples were isolated from women (77.4%). Based on the findings, most cases of resistance were related to co-trimoxazole with 52.6% and the highest sensitivity was related to nitrofurantoin with 81%.Conclusions
The results of this study indicated that the pattern of antimicrobial resistance is increasing and urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by E. coli isolates with a high rate of resistance still remains an important healthcare problem. Therefore, continuous evaluation of the pattern of resistance in different areas is necessary for promotion of antibacterial management.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, Antimicrobial Resistance, Outpatients, Inpatients
The Effect of Running on Positive and Negative Slopes on Serotonin Levels in the Hippocampus Tissue of Rats with Alzheimer’s DiseasePage 2Background
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a type of age-related disease that affects hippocampus tissue. The AD is a type of amnesiac disorder with dysfunction of the brain in which the patient’s mental ability is gradually dissipated.Objectives
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of running on positive and negative slopes on serotonin in the hippocampus tissue of rats with AD.Methods
In this experimental study, 18 rats were injected with 8 mg/kg trimethyltin chloride (TMT) intra-peritoneally and after being assured of AD, they were divided into three groups of 6 rats, including (1) control, (2) training on positive slope, and (3) training on negative slope. To investigate the effects of AD induction on the serotonin levels, 6 rats were assigned to the healthy control group. Positive training group (at a speed of 16 m/min on positive upward slope) and negative training group (at a speed of 16 m/min on negative downhill slope) ran on the treadmill for eight weeks, five sessions per week and 60 minutes per session. The Shapiro-Wilk, one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc tests were used to analyze the data (P ≤ 0.05).Results
The induction of AD significantly decreased serotonin gene expression levels (P = 0.04); nevertheless, running on positive (P = 0.01) and negative slopes (P = 0.001) significantly increased serotonin gene expression levels in rats with AD.Conclusions
Running on positive and negative slopes seems to improve serotonin gene expression levels in the hippocampus tissue of rats with AD.
Keywords: Running, Positive, Negative Slope, Serotonin, Alzheimer
Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) has dramatically increased. Thus, finding a new therapeutic option is necessary to fight such isolates.Objectives
This study aimed to explore the influence of opium on carbapenem-resistant and carbapenem-sensitive P. aeruginosa.Methods
During the study period from December 2018 to March 2019, a total of 20 non-duplicate P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from clinical samples in Shahid Mohammadi and Pediatrics hospitals (teaching hospitals) affiliated to Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in Bandar Abbas, the South of Iran. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was tested by the disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The influence of opium was tested by broth microdilution and agar disc diffusion methods against P. aeruginosa isolates.Results
We studied 20 isolates of P. aeruginosa, of which 30%, 30%, 15%, 10%, 10%, and 5% were collected from wound, urine, discharge, blood, tracheal tube, and other specimens, respectively. According to the antimicrobial susceptibility testing results, the highest and lowest rates of resistance were to ofloxacin and piperacillin, respectively. Unexpectedly, all clinical and standard isolates of P. aeruginosa were resistant to different concentrations of opium.Conclusions
Based on our experiments, no antimicrobial effect was found for opium against the tested isolates. Studies of opium need to be continued as it may show some bacteriostatic or bactericide activities in other conditions.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Activity, Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Effects of Training and Octopamine Supplementation on Expression of M1 and M2 Monocyte/Macrophage Surface Markers in White Adipose Tissue of Rats Poisoned with Deep-Fried OilPage 4Background
It showed that the infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue is the origin of inflammation. Despite the positive effect of training and octopamine on the inflammatory process and adipose tissue permeability to macrophages, the simultaneous effect of aerobic training (AT) and octopamine (O), as a lipolytic agent on macrophage permeability in a high-fat diet situation, is unclear.Objectives
This study aimed to investigate the effect of AT and O supplementation on CD86 and CD206 concentration in white adipose tissue of rats poisoned with deep-fried oil (DFO).Methods
A total of 30 male Wistar rats were divided into groups, including healthy control, DFO control, AT + DFO, O + DFO, and AT + O + DFO. During the four weeks the O groups received 81 μmol/kg octopamine for five days/week intraperitoneally, and AT groups performed training with moderate intensity (26 m/min). Forty-eight hours after the last intervention, the rats were anesthetized and subcutaneous adipose tissue was removed for CD86 and CD206 assays.Results
DFO significantly increased CD86 and reduced CD206; AT was able to reduce the CD86 increase, however, it had no effect on CD206; O significantly reduced CD86 and increased CD206; in addition, interaction of AT and O on CD86 was significant.Conclusions
Both AT and O can reduce the negative effect of deep-fried oil on macrophage permeability in adipose tissue.
Keywords: Aerobic Training, Octopamine, CD86, CD206
Inhibition of Cervical Cancer Cell Line Hela by Human Wharton’s Jelly Stem Cells Through Induction of ApoptosisPage 5Background
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers of women in the world, which causes high mortality. The human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) can inhibit various cancer cells.Objectives
This study aimed to investigate the effects of conditioned medium and cellular extract of human umbilical cord hWJSCs on cervical cancer cell line, Hela.Methods
After isolation and primary culture of hWJSCs, conditioned medium and cellular extracts of hWJSCs were prepared, and its anti-proliferative effects were evaluated on cervical cancer cells, Hela using micro-culture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. After total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, expression of apoptosis-related BCL-2 and BAX genes were evaluated using real-time PCR.Results
The results showed that conditioned medium (55% concentration in 72 hours) and cellular extraction (10% concentration in 24 hours) caused death of 50% cancer cells (IC50). The anti-cancer effects of conditioned medium and cellular extraction were concentration- and time-dependent. The conditioned medium and cellular extract of hWJSCs significantly down-regulated and up-regulated mRNA expression of apoptosis-related BCL-2 and BAX genes, respectively.Conclusions
Our study showed that conditioned medium and cellular extract of human umbilical cord hWJSCs inhibit viability and proliferation of cervical cancer cells. However, further studies on animal models are necessary for more accurate results.
Keywords: Stem Cells, Wharton’s Jelly, Conditioned Medium, Cellular Extraction, Cervical Cancer, Apoptosis
Investigating Antibacterial Properties of Tecomella undulata and Momordica charantia Plant Extracts on Some Pathogenic BacteriaPage 6Background
Today, due to microbial resistance to antibiotics, herbs and their compounds are commonly used as alternative antibiotics. The extracts of some plants can inhibit the growth of microorganisms as new antimicrobial agents. Thus, they can have great applications in medical science and food industry.Objectives
The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of Tecomella undulata and Momordica charantia extracts on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Shigella dysenteriae.Methods
After the identification and collection of plant samples, they were dried and underwent extraction using a rotary machine following the soaking method. The microdilution method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extracts on standard strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Shigella dysenteriae.Results
The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Tecomella undulata extract against the studied bacteria were 1.87 to 3.75 mg/ml. The highest lethal concentration of leaf extract was 15 mg/mL and the lowest lethal concentration of Momordica charantia extract was 1.87 to 3.75 mg/mL. The highest Momordica charantia extract concentration was 15 mg/mL and Shigella dysenteriae were eliminated at this concentration,Conclusions
The results of this study revealed that various concentrations of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tecomella undulata and Momordica charantia had inhibitory effects on human pathogens.
Keywords: Hydroalcoholic Extract, Antibacterial Effect, Tecomella undulata, Momordica charantia, Drug Resistance
The Relationship Between Promoter Methylation of RASSF1A Gene and Prognosis of Patients Affected with Breast Cancer in Khuzestan ProvincePage 7Background
DNA methylation is one of the most frequent molecular changes that are associated with human cancers. Tumor suppressor genes are the important targets of hypermethylation in breast cancer and thus may result in cancer by deregulation of cell growth and division.Objectives
The purpose of this research was to compare the methylation pattern of the RASSF1A gene in cancerous and normal tissues.Methods
Twenty breast cancer patients with known clinicopathologic characteristics and 20 healthy women as control were studied for analysis of the methylation status of the RASSF1A gene promoter by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) technique.Results
The findings showed that the frequency of RASSF1A promoter methylation was in 15% of tumor tissues and 5% of normal tissues. These results indicate that there is no statistically significant relationship between the RASSF1A promoter methylation status of tumor tissues and normal tissues (P > 0.05).Conclusions
Until now, the evidence for powerful methylation biomarkers is still incomplete and the recognized biomarkers require further validation.
Keywords: Breast Neoplasm, Epigenetic, Genetic, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, Case-Control Studies