فهرست مطالب

Family and Reproductive Health - Volume:13 Issue: 3, 2019
  • Volume:13 Issue: 3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mario Pereira Lourenco*, Duarte Vieira Brito, Bruno Jorge Pereira Pages 120-131
    Objective

    To review in literature about the concept of premature ejaculation from physiology to treatment.

    Materials and methods

    A literature search conducted with Pubmed and Cochrane.

    Results

    An accurate clinical history is the best diagnostic method, and in the majority of the cases it is enough to differentiate between primary and acquired premature ejaculation. Nowadays the treatment is not curative but is effective in increasing the Intravaginal Ejaculatory Latency Time, improving the couple’s sexual satisfaction.

    Conclusion

    Although PE is the most frequent sexual dysfunction, it is still sub-diagnosed. Combining behavioural techniques with pharmacotherapy is the best way of treatment.

    Keywords: Premature Ejaculation, Physiology, Treatment, Sexual Dysfunction
  • Shervin Assari*, Mohsen Bazargan Pages 132-140
    Objective

    The positive effect of high socioeconomic position (SEP) on health is well established. According Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory, however, the SEP-health link is smaller for Blacks compared to Whites. Using a 25-year follow up data of a national sample, this study tested racial differences in the effects of marital status on life expectancy among American adults.

    Materials and methods

    The data of Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL, 1986 – 2011) were used. The ACL is a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study followed 3,361 White or Blacks adults from 1986 to 2011. The predictor of interest was marital status in 1986. Confounders included demographic factors (age and gender), SEP (education and employment), health behaviors (drinking, smoking, and physical activity), and health status (depressive symptoms, chronic disease, and self-rated health) all measured at baseline. Race was the moderator variable. All-cause mortality was the main dependent variable (outcome). Cox proportional hazard modeling was applied for data analysis.

    Results

    In the overall sample, individuals who were married at baseline had a lower risk of mortality during the 25 years of follow up. Race altered the effect of marital status on life expectancy, indicating smaller protective effect for Blacks relative to Whites. Race –specific Cox regression models showed an association between marital status and life expectancy for White but not Black Americans.

    Conclusion

    In line with the MDRs theory, the health gain that follows marital status is diminished for Black Americans compared to White Americans. Only equalizing SEP across racial groups may not be adequate for eliminating racial/ethnic health inequalities. Policies should go beyond SEP and reduce societal and structural barriers that disproportionately hinder Blacks from translating their SEP indicators to desirable health outcomes.

    Keywords: Population Differences, Population Groups, Ethnicity, Ethnic Groups, Blacks, AfricanAmericans, Chronic Medical Conditions, Chronic Disease, Socioeconomic Status, SocioeconomicPosition, Marital Status, Family Type
  • Tahereh Eftekhar, Marjan Ghaemi, Aref Abedi, Mahboobeh Shirazi* Pages 141-145
    Objective

    Heavy menstrual bleeding is one of the most frequent complaints of women. Various therapeutic approaches have been applied to treat this condition. In this study, we compared the efficacy of mefenamic acid and misoprostol in reducing menorrhagia.

    Materials and methods

    This is a randomized clinical trial study performed on 60 patients with menorrhagia. They were divided into two equal groups and randomly received mefenamic acid or misoprostol. Cycle duration, bleeding volume (according to the pictorial blood assessment chart), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and pad count were recorded before and after treatment. Side effects of treatment regimens were recorded.

    Results

    Blood loss volume per menstruation day in the mefenamic acid group was 118.40 ± 36.26 ml before treatment which decreased to 48.50 ± 24.71 ml after treatment (p = 0.262). Misoprostol reduced menstrual bleeding volume from 135.37 ± 34.85 ml per day to 49.40 ± 32.161 ml (p = 0.003). Mean duration of the menstrual period in patients receiveding mefenamic acid was 9.50 ± 3.27 days which decreased to 7.73 ± 2.14 days after treatment (p = 0.001). The similar change occurred in the misoprostol group and the mean duration of the menstrual period decreased from 7.70 ± 2.10 to 6.37 ± 2.29 days (p = 0.002). The number of pads used by patients in the mefenamic acid group before treatment was 23.20 ± 12.61 which was decreased to 14.33 ± 5.86 after treatment (p = 0.001). This alteration in misoprostol group was from 20.67 ± 6.12 to 15.53 ± 6.49 (p = 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Misoprostol can significantly reduce menstrual bleeding.

    Keywords: Dysmenorrhea, Mefenamic Acid, Menorrhagia, Misoprostol
  • Emily Olig, Shanalee Mountan, James Beal, Abe Sahmoun* Pages 146-153
    Objective

    The evaluation of racial disparities in access to and use of infertility services in the U.S. has been documented. The aims of this study were to: 1) investigate racial differences in length of time women report attempting to become pregnant until seeking medical help; and 2) determine the predictors of seeking medical help to achieve pregnancy.

    Materials and methods

    The National Survey of Family Growth 2011-2015 was used to analyze the duration women attempted to get pregnant among those who sought medical help.

    Results

    563 women reported seeking medical help to achieve pregnancy. The majority 422 (81%) were white. Multiple linear regression showed that age (β = .93; p = .00), having less than high school education (β = 14.64; p = .01), and higher body mass index (β = .59; p = .00) are significantly associated with an increased length of time for seeking medical help to get pregnant. Religions other than Catholic or Protestant (β = -8.63; p = .04) is significantly associated with a decreased length of time for seeking medical help to get pregnant. Race was not associated with a significant difference in the length of time attempting to become pregnant (β = -1.80; p = .44).

    Conclusion

    Age, education attainment, religious affiliation, and body mass index are significantly associated with the length of time pursuing pregnancy. Once women have utilized medical resources, racial differences in the length of time pursuing pregnancy are not apparent.

    Keywords: Pregnancy, Infertility, Length of Time Pursuing Pregnancy, Race, Medical Help
  • Seyedeh Mahsa Poormoosavi*, Mohammad Behmanesh, Sima Janati, Hosein Najafzadehvarzi Pages 154-159
    Objective

    To assess the correlation between the levels of BPA in the serum and follicular fluid (FF) using oocyte morphology.

    Materials and methods

    In this cross-sectional research, oocyte, FF, and serum samples were obtained from a sample population consisting of 90 women undergone in vitro fertilization in Ganjavian Hospital in Dezful, Iran during October 2017-March 2018. The ELISA kit was utilized for the measurement of the BPA levels. In addition, oocyte morphology simultaneous with inverted optical microscopy.

    Results

    Follicular fluid BPA levels had no significant effect on MII oocytes (p ≥ 0.05). However, the mean levels of degenerated oocytes and germinal vesicle (GV) were significantly higher in the women with high BPA levels in the FF (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the mean counts of MII oocytes and oocytes were significantly higher in the women with serum BPA levels of ≤ 50 ng/ml (p ≤ 0.05), while the mean count of GV oocytes was significantly higher in the women with serum BPA levels of ≥ 150 ng/ml (p ≤ 0.05).

    Conclusion

    According to the results, higher FF BPA levels were associated with the higher counts of GVs and oocytes, while oocytes with higher maturity can be achieved in lower levels of BPA in the serum of patients.

    Keywords: Bisphenol A, Follicular Fluid, IVF, Oocyte Morphology
  • Farideh Akhlaghi, Zeynab Sabeti Baygi*, Mohsen Miri, Mona Najaf Najafi Pages 160-166
    Objective

    Women frequently experience perineal damage after a vaginal delivery. This study aimed to investigate the effect of perineal massage (PM) during labor on the need for episiotomies.

    Materials and methods

    The study is a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted with 99 patients (n=49 controls; n=50 cases). Participants comprised of nulliparous pregnant women aged from 18 to 35 years in the 37th-42nd week of gestation, who referred to the Um-al-Banin Hospital of Mashhad from July to October 2018, for vaginal delivery and were in the active stage of labor. Allocation to study groups was based on a random allocation list generated by a software application. PM was performed for the cases in the active stage four times, each lasting for two minutes at intervals of half an hour. The massage was continued at the beginning of the second stage of labor for ten minutes. Control women received routine care. The delivery was practiced by a midwife who was blinded to the study groups and the performance or non-performance of massage. Data were analyzed in SPSS software version 16.

    Results

    The need for episiotomy was significantly lower in the PM group than in the control group
    (p = 0.05). Spontaneous perineal tears were significantly higher in mothers of the PM group (p = 0.05. The spontaneous tear degree in the 20 mothers who did not require episiotomy (p = 0.5) and the degree of perineal tear in mothers who needed an episiotomy (n = 79; p = 0.1) were not significantly different in the two groups. In the PM group members who did not require episiotomy (n = 14) and the mother underwent a spontaneous tear, first-degree tears were more frequent than second-degree ones. The median duration of the active stage of labor until the stage completion was lower in the PM group than in the control group, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.3). The median of the second stage duration in the control and intervention groups were 55 and 45 minutes, respectively, where the difference was significant (p = 0.002), and the median time of completion of the active stage until delivery in the PM group had reduced.

    Conclusion

    PM had a significant impact on the reduction of the need for episiotomies and the duration of the second stage of labor. Thus, it can be suggested as a safe, simple, low-cost, and effective technique to reduce the perineal damage during delivery.

    Keywords: Perineal Massage, Delivery, Episiotomy
  • Farnaz Sahhaf, Somaiyeh Saiyar Sarai, Reza Piri, Sahar Mohammadi, Mohammad Naghavi Behzad* Pages 167-172
    Objective

    To compare the difference in Vitamin D level between women with ectopic pregnancy and control group.

    Materials and methods

    In the present case-control study, 150 patients with ectopic pregnancy were included as case group and 150 women with normal pregnancy as a control group. Then, serum vitamin D levels were measured in both groups and they were then compared with each other. P less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    Results

    The mean age in ectopic pregnancy group was 28.12 ± 5.91 and 27.35 ± 6.21 years old in control group; the difference between two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.43). The vitamin D level in control group was higher than that of ectopic pregnancy group (p = 0.002). Of all patients, 182 patients (60.66%) had vitamin D deficiency and 64 patients (21.33%) had vitamin D insufficiency.

    Conclusion

    Serum vitamin D level among patients with ectopic pregnancy was statistically lower than women with normal pregnancy.

    Keywords: Ectopic Pregnancy, Vitamin D Deficiency, Pregnancy
  • Zinat Ghanbari, Maryam Pesikhani, Tahereh Eftekhar, Leila Pourali*, Atiyeh Vatanchi, Soudabeh Darvish, Elnaz Ayati Pages 173-175
    Objective

    To report the neglected pessary in a patient with pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is one of the most important medical challenges in women especially elderly. One of the conservative treatments of symptomatic POP is pessary placement.

    Case report

    A 84-year-old woman, para 10 was referred to female pelvic floor clinic of an academic hospital for vaginal bleeding and neglected vaginal pessary. Vaginal examination in the pelvic floor clinic revealed an entrapped ring pessary in severely atrophic vaginal mucosa with purulent discharge.

    Conclusion

    Although pessary is the first choice and one of the best conservative treatment for pelvic organ prolapse, it shouldn’t be used for poor cooperative patient who cannot comply with regular follow-up visits which may cause harmful complications.

    Keywords: Pessary, Pelvic Organ Prolapse, Conservative Treatment