فهرست مطالب

Endocrinology and Metabolism - Volume:18 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:18 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Fereidoun Azizi *, Hengameh Abdi Page 1
  • Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Khosrow Kashfi, Asghar Ghasemi* Page 2

    An abstract is a self-contained, short, powerful statement that describes a larger body of work. It may be incorporated as part of a published paper, book, grant proposal, thesis, research report, or a conference paper. An abstract of a scientific paper will be published online independently, so it should make sense when it is read alone. An abstract of a hypothesis-testing paper consists of at least four key elements, as follows: (1) study question/hypothesis/aim, (2) experiments/material and methods, (3) results, and (4) response to the question/conclusion(s). The abstract usually begins with a background and may end in applications, recommendations, implications, or speculations. The abstract is one of the many features of a manuscript that competes for the readers’ attention; therefore, it should be informative, accurate, attractive, and concise. Since a huge amount of work must be compressed into a few sentences, writing an abstract may be a difficult task that needs professional skills. Here, we provide a practical guide to writing an abstract and selecting keywords for a hypothesis-testing medical paper.

    Keywords: Abstract, Medical Scientific Journals, Scientific Writing, Keywords
  • Ali Bijani, Seyed Reza Hosseini, Reza Ghadimi, Simin Mouodi* Page 3
    Background

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as an important risk factor arising from insulin resistance accompanying abnormal adipose deposition and function has become a major challenge to public health around the world.

    Objectives

    This research was conducted to evaluate the association of MetS and its components with survival of older adults.

    Methods

    This prospective study is a part of the Amirkola Health and Ageing Cohort Project (2011 - 2017) conducted among 1562 older adults (aged 60 years and over) living in Amirkola, north of Iran. MetS was defined according to four sets of definition: Iranian definition, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition, 2001 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III and 2005 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III.

    Results

    Eight hundred sixty-three (55.2%) males and 699 (44.8%) females with a mean age of 69.3 ± 7.4 years were included in the research. The results showed that 71.9%, 74.3%, 68.8% and 66.7% of older adults had MetS based on 2005 ATP III, Iranian, IDF and 2001 ATP III diagnostic criteria, respectively. Only raised fasting plasma glucose (FPG) had a significant association with a five-year survival rate of older adults (FPG ≥ 110mg/dL: adjusted HR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.51 - 2.78; P < 0.001). Other MetS components did not show any significant associations with survival (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, MetS itself significantly decreased the survival rate of older adults after adjusting age, gender and number of chronic diseases (HR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.16 - 2.41; P = 0.006).

    Conclusions

    MetS and one of its components, high FPG, have significant associations with survival of older adults.

    Keywords: Age, Metabolic Syndrome, Survival
  • Niloofar Naderinejad, Hanieh Sadat Ejtahed, Golaleh Asghari, Parvin Mirmiran *, Fereidoun Azizi Page 4
    Background

    Although high blood pressure is an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), it remains unclear whether diet can still influence the risk of CKD in adults with high blood pressure.

    Objectives

    This study aimed at investigating the association between major dietary patterns and the incidence of CKD in adults with high blood pressure.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 1,521 subjects aged ≥ 27 years with high blood pressure and with preserved estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline, who participated in the fourth examination survey of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The principal component analysis was performed to derive dietary patterns. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 120, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80, or the current use of antihypertensive drugs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the association between the dietary pattern scores and CKD risk.

    Results

    After 3.6 years of follow-up, the incidence of CKD was 16.8%. Three dietary patterns were produced by using factor analysis, including the Western, the healthy, and the traditional Iranian dietary patterns. The healthy and the traditional Iranian dietary patterns were not related to the risk of CKD, but scoring on the Western dietary pattern was associated with enhanced odds of CKD, after being adjusted for relevant confounders (odds ratio: 2.12; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 - 3.76).

    Conclusions

    Results of this study provided evidence that a high score on the Western dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of CKD in adults with high blood pressure.

    Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease, High Blood Pressure, Dietary Patterns
  • Mostafa Hosseini, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Masoud Baikpour, Mohammad Esmail Motlagh, Ramin Heshmat, Mostafa Qorbani*, Neamatollah Ataei, Mehdi Yaseri, Roya Kelishadi, Arash Abbasi Page 5
    Background

    The assessment of the trend of changes in the prevalence of abdominal obesity can provide useful health information.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to conduct an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis to provide the trend of the prevalence of abdominal obesity in the Iranian pediatric population through the three temporal dimensions of age, period, and cohort.

    Methods

    Data were gathered from a total number of 53,962 Iranian children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years through four surveys of a national surveillance program (the CASPIAN study) conducted in 2003, 2007, 2011, and 2015. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist-to-height ratio of ≥ 0.5. The APC analysis was performed using the “apc_ie”command in STATA software.

    Results

    A significant correlation existed between age, period, and cohort effects and the prevalence of abdominal obesity in children and adolescents. With increasing age, regardless of considerable fluctuations, the prevalence of abdominal obesity followed an overall increasing trend in both genders. The age effect coefficient increased from -2.1 in the age group of 5 - 9 years to 1.1 in the age group of 10 - 14 years and then decreased to 1.0 in the age group of 15 - 19 years among boys; figures followed an increasing trend in girls from -2.2 to 0.8 and 1.5, respectively. As for the period effect, in both boys and girls, the prevalence of abdominal obesity followed an increasing trend when coming from the earlier periods to the recent ones (from -4.6 to 4.0 in boys and from -4.1 to 2.4 in girls). Likewise, this prevalence increased from earlier birth cohorts to the recent ones in both genders.

    Conclusions

    The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing among Iranian children and adolescents and this rising trend is affected by age, period, and birth cohort effects. The findings of this study emphasize the necessity of implementing comprehensive interventions for tackling the epidemic of childhood obesity.

    Keywords: Prevalence, Children, Adolescents, Abdominal Obesity, Age-Period-Cohort Analysis, CASPIAN Study
  • Parisa Amiri, Sara Jalali Farahani, Maryam Zarkesh, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Mehdi Hedayati, Fereidoun Azizi * Page 6
    Objectives

    This study aimed to compare the effects of a three-month motivation-based educational program and conventional dietary counseling on body composition and relevant outcomes among overweight and Obese adolescents.

    Methods

    A total of 115 overweight and obese adolescents (46% boys) were randomly assigned to either a motivation-based program or a conventional dietary counseling. The assessments were conducted at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after intervention.

    Results

    Mean age and body mass index (BMI) Z-score were 14.5 ± 1.2 and 2.42 ± 0.62, respectively. Considering time trend analysis, the two groups achieved significant improvements in BMI Z-score, wrist and waist circumferences, body composition indices, and HRQoL total scores after a one-year follow-up. Wrist circumference and the HRQoL reported by parents revealed significant differences between the study groups in favor of the motivation-based program.

    Conclusions

    Although both programs could improve anthropometric indices and HRQoL over time, the motivation-based program was more effective in reducing adolescents’ wrist circumference and improving HRQoL, as the parents reported.

    Keywords: Adolescents, Motivation, Overweight, Obesity, behavioral Intervention, Weight Management
  • Azam Alamdari, Ghazal Asadi, Farzaneh Sadat Minoo, Mohammad Reza Khatami, Seyed Mansour Gatmiri, Simin Dashti Khavidaki, Saba Heydari Seradj, Neda Naderi * Page 7
    Background

    Serum magnesium (Mg) status in kidney transplant recipients has been a center of attention in the past few years. Current evidence suggests an association between pre-transplant hypomagnesemia and post-transplant hyperglycemia.

    Objective

    The purpose of this study was to assess the associations of pre-transplant magnesemia with blood glucose disturbances within 6 months post-kidney transplantation.

    Methods

    In this retrospective cohort, 89 first-time kidney transplant recipients with 6 months of follow-up were included. None of the participants had a positive history of rejection, pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus or fasting plasma glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL.

    Results

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 6 months post-transplant was found in 7.9% and 41.6% of the study group, respectively. The mean pre-transplant serum Mg level was 1.92 ± 0.30 mg/dL in the study population (n = 89), and it was significantly lower in IFG (n = 37) and IFG/PTDM (n = 44) groups compared to normoglycemic (n = 45) recipients (1.83 ± 0.31 mg/dL vs. 2.00 ± 0.27 mg/dL, P = 0.008, and 1.84 ± 0.31 mg/dL vs. 2.00 ± 0.27 mg/dL, P = 0.012, respectively). Patients with serum Mg less than 1.9 mg/dL were nearly 2.6 times more likely to develop IFG or IFG/PTDM within 6 months post-transplant (P = 0.044 and P = 0.040, respectively).

    Conclusions

    Pre-transplant hypomagnesemia may be considered a risk factor for developing post-transplant glycemic disturbances, and patients with lower pre-transplant Mg concentration could be at a higher risk for developing IFG.
    Keywords

    Keywords: Impaired Fasting Glucose, Kidney Transplantation, Serum Magnesium
  • Elna Kochummen, Vatcharapan Umpaichitra, Albara Marwa, Krittika Joshi, Vivian L. Chin, Sheila Perez Colon * Page 8
    Background

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a marker of vascular damage. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) predicts vascular complications. The EndoPAT (peripheral arterial tonometry) device calculates the reactive hyperemic index (RHI), a measure of endothelial function. The greater the vasodilation, the higher the RHI. We hypothesized that children with poorly-controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) and non-diabetes mellitus (NDM) obese children have ED.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study using the EndoPAT device was performed on children with poorly-controlled DM and NDM children. ANOVA, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, multiple linear regression and Spearman correlation were used.

    Results

    Of 58 children that completed the study (aged 13.1 ± 3.42 years), 33 with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), 8 with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 17 were NDM obese children. Eighty-five percent were African-American, 60% were female and 79% entered puberty. The RHI of children with DM (1.42 ± 0.48) versus NDM obese group (1.40 ± 0.34) was not different (P = 0.86) regardless of the type of DM or body mass index. In the DM group, for every 1% increase in latest A1C, the RHI decreased by 0.097 (P = 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, and type of DM. The RHI of DM patients with latest A1C of < 10% (1.70 ± 0.58) versus those with A1C ≥10% (1.21 ± 0.19) was statistically different (P = 0.02). In the total study population, males had significantly lower RHI (1.28 ± 0.36) when compared to females (1.51 ± 0.46), P = 0.04 but this difference disappeared when considering pubertal status and type of diabetes.

    Conclusions

    Our data showed that patients with poorly-controlled DM as reflected by latest A1C of ≥ 10% had worse endothelial function as reflected by lower RHI score.

    Keywords: Children, Diabetes, Endothelial Dysfunction, Obese, Reactive Hyperemic Index