فهرست مطالب

Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management - Volume:6 Issue: 2, 2020
  • Volume:6 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • E.N. Hidayah *, W.L. Lai, O.H. Cahyonugroho, F. Rizqa Pages 133-144
    A combination of high performance size exclusion chromatography with organic carbon detector and ultraviolet detector coupled with peak-fitting technique and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectrometry applied fluorescence regional integration method was conducted to determine the characteristics of organic matter during nitrification. The batch scale of bionet nitrification without organic carbon substrate under aerobic conditions was operated for around 150 minutes. Bulk organic parameters and NH4+-N concentration were analyzed. Five different molecular weights of organic matter were identified by using chromatography, and five different groups of fluorophores organic fractions detected by fluorescence. According to chromatography with carbon and ultraviolet detector, the main characteristics of organic matter shifted from building blocks aromatic compounds with percentage peak area of carbon/ultraviolet detector: 31%/53% to 14%/27.5% to humic-like substances with percentage peak area of carbon/ultraviolet detector 21%/17% to 27%/46.5% during nitrification. Those former compounds are biodegradable as well as properties of microbial products released during substrate utilization and endogenous phase, which are mainly identified as humic-like substances, thus underwent further biodegradation. However, there was significant change in the fluorophores organic fractions, which exhibited humic acid-like with percentage fluorescence regional index area 53% into 68%, as shown by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analysis. A combination of these methods indicated that the organic matter released during nitrification mainly consists of humic compounds. These results conjecture that a combination of high performance size exclusion chromatography with carbon and ultraviolet detector and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix can be used to determine the characteristic of organic matter and water quality change during nitrification.
    Keywords: Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM), Fluorescence regional integration (FRI), Nitrification, organic matter, Size exclusion chromatography
  • D. Sivakumar * Pages 145-164
    Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was implemented to select optimum values of process parameters and to attain the maximum removal of pollutants and power generation from dairy industry wastewater using double chambered salt bridge microbial fuel cell. The maximum chemical oxygen demand reduction, current, voltage, power, current density and power density in double chambered salt bridge microbial fuel cell from dairy industry wastewater was found to be 86.30 %, 16.10 mA, 886.34 mV, 14.27 mW, 1219.69 mA/m2 and 1081.06 mW/m2 respectively for the optimum value of 1M NaCl concentration, 10 % agar concentration and 0.10 m salt bridge length. Double chambered salt bridge microbial fuel cell was not only removed chemical oxygen demand and produced power, but it also removed other pollutants at the maximum level against the best optimum value of process parameters from the dairy industry wastewater. The proposed regression model was used to select the right combination of process parameters for obtaining a maximum reduction of pollutants and simultaneous power production from the dairy industry wastewater.
    Keywords: Analysis of variance, Dairy industry wastewater, Double chambered salt bridge microbial fuel cell (DCSB-MFC), Salt bridge, Signal to noise ratio, Taguchi L9 orthogonal array
  • D. Mahan, O. Waissbluth, D. Caceres * Pages 165-174
    Carcinogenic and systemic health effects of arsenic exposure in drinking water are well documented. This study estimated the risk associated with chronic consumption of water with high concentrations of arsenic in children and adults living in six Andean locations, in Chile. Concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water were analyzed between 2014 and 2017 based on health authority reports and data collected during this study. Average daily arsenic intake was estimated, and systemic (HQ) and deterministic carcinogenic risk (CR) indices were calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology. Threshold values ​​of HQ>1 and CR> 1 x 10–4 were considered to indicate high risk of adverse health effects. Four of the locations (Chucuyo > Putre > Humapalca = Visviri) had high concentrations of arsenic in the water, at levels 6.3–57.6 times the norm of 0.01 mg/L, Zapahuira and Belén, had values just below the threshold. Extremely high HQ values were estimated in children, at 1.3–119.8 times the threshold. Furthermore, CR values were several orders of magnitude (3.06–10790.6) above the tolerable value among all age strata. The locations studied have a high risk of adverse health effects from exposure to arsenic in drinking water. It is urgent to implement mitigation measures to improve water quality in these communities and to carry out probabilistic studies to provide more accurate assessment of exposure.
    Keywords: Arsenic, Cancer Risk (CR), Hazard Quotient (HQ), Risk Assessment, water consumption
  • V. Shcherbak *, L. Ganushchak Yefimenko, O. Nifatova, N. Fastovets, G. Plysenko, L. Lutay, V. Tkachuk, O. Ptashchenko Pages 175-190

    This study provides a multidimensional analysis of sustainable socio-economic development and its challenges in the rural areas of Ukraine. The methodology of realization of sustainable development’s conceptual provisions was created. The advantages of using indicative assessment at the regional level were justified. The methodical approach how to define the indicators of sustainable development (including economic, socio-demographic, labor and environmental domains) of rural areas was proposed. Statistical data, experts’ and rural residents’ evaluation were used to assess the level of socio-economic development of rural areas. The proposed system of indicators is applicable not only to the rural areas of the whole region, but also to its different parts. The tracking model is based on the consistent use of economic, mathematical and expert

    methods

    SWOT-analysis, factor, cluster and discriminant analysis. The construction of the dendrogram allows to determine the type of representative for each cluster. The modeling of sustainable socio-economic development for each sample is applicable to all areas within same cluster. A representative sample from each cluster makes it possible to identify the presence in the region of the so-called "points of growth" and to forecast their development. Two scenarios are considered: maximum (the share of GRP accumulation growth 21.2%) and moderate (the share of GRP accumulation growth 10.6%). GDP Gross Domestic Product growth will differentiate by the type of activity: cluster 1 (agriculture, hunting and forestry) 13% increase; cluster 2 (trade, service and household services) 21% increase; cluster 3 (tourism and international cooperation) 18% increase; cluster 4 (processing industry) 8% increase. Therefore, the using of key indicators for monitoring the sustainable development of rural areas provides an opportunity to take into account the specifics of sustainable development of different specialization branches of rural areas that will support high economic and social growth in the future.

    Keywords: Indicators, Monitoring, rural areas, socio-economic development, Sustainability
  • R. Mostafaloo, M. Asadi Ghalhari *, H. Izanloo, A. Zayadi Pages 191-202

    Ciprofloxacin antibiotic that is used to cure several kinds of bacterial infections have a high solubility capacity in water. The influent of ciprofloxacin to water resources in a low concentration affect the photosynthesis of plants, transforms the morphological structure of the algae, and then disrupts the aquatic ecosystem. 75% of this compound is excreted from the body down to the wastewater which should be removed. BiFeO3, a bismuth-based semiconductor photocatalyst that is responsive to visible light, has been recently used to remove organic pollutants from water. In this study, the optimal conditions for removing ciprofloxacin from aqueous solutions by the BiFeO3 process were investigated. Effective parameters namely pH, reaction time, ciprofloxacin initial concentration, BiFeO3 dose, and temperature on ciprofloxacin removal were studied by using response surface methodology. The validity and adequacy of the proposed model was confirmed by the corresponding statistics (i.e. F-values of 14.79 and 1.67 and p-values of 2 = 0.9107, R2adjusted = 0.8492, R2 predicted = 0.70, AP = 16.761). Hence the Ciprofloxacin removal efficiency reached 100% in the best condition (pH 6, initial concentration of 1 mg/L, BiFeO3 dosage of 2.5 g/L, reaction temperature of 30° C, and process time of 46 min).

    Keywords: aqueous solution, BiFeO3 (BFO), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Magnetic nanocomposites, Photocatalytic degradation, Response surface methodology
  • R. Siringo, H. Herdiansyah *, R.D. Kusumastuti Pages 203-214
    This study aims to understand influential factors for Jakarta’s residents to participate in a formal electronic waste recycling programme. It questions the efficacy of providing facilities to collect electronic waste despite the lack of legislated regulations or policies. Using the goal-framing theory as a foundation, a survey conducted on 208 respondents in 2018 revealed that selling obsolete electronic devices to peddlers or retaining them at home were standard practices in society, and only 2% of respondents recycled their electronic waste at formal facilities. The results show that electronic waste recycling intention correlates highest with information and convenience, 0.521 and 0.411, respectively. While knowledge has the least correlative value with attitude and intention, that is 0.204 and 0.240.  It clarifies that the normative goal is weaker than hedonic and gain goals. Respondents had enough awareness about the hazards of electronic waste. However, their behaviour did not exhibit it. It is imperative to lessen the gap between normative and hedonic goals by campaigning continuously and place the facilities at easily accessible locations to increase recycling participation. Furthermore, collecting electronic waste requires a collaboration between the government and electronics businesses, and must be supported by a legal framework.
    Keywords: Drop-off facilities, E-waste collection, E-waste management, Indonesia, Pro-environmental behaviour
  • H.A. Khawaldah *, I. Farhan, N.M. Alzboun Pages 215-232
    This study analyzes the characteristics of land use/land cover change in Jordan’s Irbid governorate, 1984–2018, and predicts future land use/land cover for 2030 and 2050 using a cellular automata-Markov model. The results inform planners and decision makers of past and current spatial dynamics of land use/land cover change and predicted urban expansion, for a better understanding and successful planning. Satellite images of Landsat 5-thematic mapper and Landsat 8 operational land imager for the years 1984, 1994, 2004, 2015 and 2018 were used to explore the characteristics of land use/land cover for this study. The results indicate that the built-up area expanded by 386.9% during the study period and predict further expansion by 19.5% and 64.6% from 2015 to 2030 and 2050 respectively. The areas around the central and eastern parts of the governorate are predicted to have significant expansion of the built-up area by these dates, which should be taken into consideration in future plans. Land use/land cover change and urban expansion in Irbid are primarily caused by the high rate of population growth rate as a direct result of receiving large numbers of immigrants from Syria and Palestine in addition to the natural increase of population and other socio-economic changes.
    Keywords: CA-Markov model, Jordan, Land use, land cover change (LULC), population growth, Urban expansion
  • N. Barforoush *, A. Etebarian, A.R. Naghsh, A. Shahin Pages 233-244
    A carbon-based industry, such as oil refinery, needs to change its business model to achieve a green business. Considering the existing too much data, the modeling procedure is complex. Therefore, combination of the Fuzzy Delphi method and System Dynamics can be considered to cover this complexity. The starting point in this work is literature review of prior studies on the same common topic and green business, and it relies on a Fuzzy Delphi method to define main parameters. Based on the experts’ opinions, management support (0.78), cost (0.77), knowledge management (0.73), quality (0.64), staff training and empowering (0.63) customer satisfaction (0.63), environmental plan (0.61), production and process design (0.58) as well as suppliers (0.35) are the determining parameters in modeling green oil refining industry, respectively. Application of the results of the scenarios proposed based on importance illustrates the increasing share of the green business financial resource in considerable growth (39 %) of applying the green business model by 50% chance. Financial investing in the recycling plan leads up to a positive effect (43%) by almost equal chance of 50%-100%. Investing in staff training and empowerment leads to 37.5 % growth in exploiting the green business model with 50% chance. In conclusion, the oil refining organizations must pay attention to the above-mentioned part of their business to generate income and save environmental resources.
    Keywords: Delphi fuzzy, Green business, Modeling, Oil refining industry, System dynamics approach
  • B.S. Igulu *, E.E. Mshiu Pages 245-260

    The lack of hydrological data for urbanizing watersheds in developing countries is one of the challenges facing decision making. Msimbazi River is located in the city center of Dar es Salaam and is highly influenced by human activities; this includes dense populations that are characterized by informal settlements. The catchment is currently undergoing flooding, which triggers a dilemma in its surface runoff trending. This study aimed to simulate rainfall-runoff of an urbanizing Msimbazi watershed that will provide an understanding of hydrological data including peak flows and discharge volumes of Msimbazi River. The data used in the study include soil, rainfall, DEM and land use. HEC-GeoHMS and ArchHydro tools in ArcGIS were used to generate hydrological inputs to be used in the HEC-HMS interface. The resulted sub-watersheds have high CN values ranging from 70 to 90 implying the possibility of high runoff potential. Sub-watershed W620 indicates the highest runoff, among others with the highest runoff of 290mm for the year 2015. The peak flow on the river indicates the value ranging from 7.2 m3/s to 30m3/s with the highest values being on the downstream. The overall trend indicates an increasing surface runoff and peak flow in sub-watersheds from 1985 to 2015. Simulated results in this study were validated with the observational data of the catchment recorded in 2017. Given that most of the rivers in Tanzania are ungauged, the approach applied in this study can be used to enhance decision making on settlement planning, water resource, and disaster management in the currently observed urbanizing areas.

    Keywords: ArchHydro, Curve Number (CN), Hydrological Engineering Centre (HEC), Hydrologic modeling system (HMS), Msimbazi River, Soil conservation service (SCS), surface runoff simulation
  • A.A. Shayesteh, O. Koohshekan, F. Khadivpour, M. Kian, R. Ghasemzadeh, M. Pazoki * Pages 261-274

    Due to the growth of population and industrialization, a great number of problems associated with producing industrial wastes have been created for both the environment and human beings. The industrial waste management in Brujen industrial park, located in the western part of Iran, has been investigated in this study using the environmental rapid impact assessment matrix technique. For this purpose, the effective activities and components were classified. The determination of the best scenarios with the least impact on the environment was performed by developing the scenarios for possible industrial waste disposal and making calculations by the rapid impact assessment matrix method. The components of the environment were first classified into physical/chemical, economic/operational, biological/ecological, and social/cultural items. Afterward, with respect to the criteria of the rapid impact assessment matrix method, the importance of environmental impacts was determined by standard scoring of the developed scenarios. Ultimately, the environmental score of each component for the scenarios was calculated using the rapid impact assessment matrix method, and the best scenario with the least environmental impacts was selected through a quantitative comparison. According to the results, scenario 3 (pyrolysis) and scenario 1 (recycling) were found to have the most negative impact and the most positive impact on the environment. Scenario 4 (incineration), with its severe air pollution, obtained a high negative score and was excluded from the options. As a result, two systems of recycling (scenario 1) and the sanitary landfill (scenario 2) were identified as complementary to each other and were selected as a solid waste management method.

    Keywords: Environmental impacts assessment (EIA), Industrial waste management, Rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM), Recycling, Sanitary landfill