فهرست مطالب

Architecture and Urban Development - Volume:3 Issue: 4, 2013
  • Volume:3 Issue: 4, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Andrew Eigbeonan * Pages 5-12
    Aim of this paper is to search and find ways and methods of constructivism teaching and learning ideas inteaching the architectural design studio. The objective is to extract all the positive things constructivism has to offer the architectural design studio for efficient teaching and effective learning. Although there are similarities in the curricula of training architects all over the world, but educators go about it in their own convenient and suitable ways and styles. And this is leading to inadequacy in the standards of teaching the arch-design studios in the contemporary world. The topic has become very relevant and timely as arch-educators and other stakeholders are of the opinion that something has to be done to improve the ways and methods of training architects, especially the teaching of the arch-design studio. Through exploration of critical analytical review of literatures and interviews, this paper finds ways and methods of constructivism in teaching the arch-design studio. These ways and methods are critically explored through the research themes of collaboration, integration, adaptability and motivation. By teaching and learning withconstructivism ideas in the arch-design studio the students would be grounded in designing with creativity ideas and therefore we can have professionals that design and build creatively, functionally, satisfactorily and safely. It means we can have real buildings and places that satisfy our clients, the society and in harmony with the environment.
    Keywords: Effective constructivism, Arch-Design Studio, Collaboration, integration, Adaptability, Motivation, Teaching, learning
  • Farah Habib *, Sara Nahibi, Hamid Majedi Pages 13-18
    A’ view of nature within the framework of garden and in relation with human needs and drives that satisfy theneed to be rooted has caused the representation of nature in garden to be regarded as cultural heritage. Garden and garden designing are suitable cases for us to study cultural characteristics and traits. Thus, human beings have searched their eternal interest in an ideal and unattainable world in garden building and garden totally reflects each culture. Art and knowledge are both represented in garden in which engineering creativity reaches its summit. Japanese garden is one of the oldest patterns in gardening in the world.It demonstrates Japanese ideology, ontology, cultural views and rites. Relativity and multi religions represent its cultural difference. Changeability and cultural ease along with preserving basic core and nature of Japanese culture are the basis of Japanese culture. Japanese garden is one of the most obvious emblems and representatives of Japanese culture. The aim of this paper is to make a content analysis that will primarily study the cultural characteristics and will then focus and conclude the results of Japanese garden designing as a cultural physical symbol.
    Keywords: Culture, Cultural symbol, Japanese garden, Gardening
  • Aofiki Salau, Taibat Lawanson *, Omoayena Odumbaku Pages 19-26
    This paper investigates the relationship between the Lagos Megacity and Ota Township, a small township onits periphery. The study examines linkages between and Lagos in terms of growth, urban development as well as mobility. 553 questionnaires were administered to household heads across the 12 residential districts of Ota Township. Survey was carried out by systematic random sampling. Classified traffic counts were also taken at strategic locations along the four main axial roads in Ota. The data collected were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistical methods including cross-tabulation and correlation analysis. Findings of the research have shown that the proportion of inter-city traffic from Ota directed towards Lagos is about 48% of total inter-city traffic generated. More than 40% of Ota residents migrated from Lagos and still commute daily to the megacity. The paper concludes by recommending strategies for better synergies between Ota Township and the Lagos megacity. These include the implementation of integrated master planning, effective environmental management and traffic policies for the township as well.
    Keywords: Peri-urban, Settlements, Linkages, Lagos Megacity, Ota Township
  • Mohammad Naghizadeh, Sheida Khansari * Pages 27-34
    Mosque as the house of God has always been significant to rulers, people and Muslim artists. It is one of the most ancient architectural subjects. Varamin1Jami mosque from Ilkhanid2 era is one of the masterpieces of Iranian-Islamic architecture. It was one of the first projects which started the glorious era of renovation after the dark times of the Mongols3 invasion. Perfect stucco ornaments in mihrab4, inlaid mosaic in the iwans5 and beautifully done inscriptions with Kufic6 and Thuluth7 calligraphy in different parts of it, not only have created an admirable visual beauty but also have contributed to the spatial quality of the mosque. They deeply affect worshipers and make them concentrate and think of God only and ignore earthlymatters. This research tries to investigate the quantitative and qualitative aspects of these ornamentations and tries to find out how these ornaments affect the qualitative beauty of the space inside the mosque. The research methodology is qualitative and correlational with field study. Well decided choices on the ornaments of different parts of the mosque, the effects of Shia8, noticing some of the rules of beauty such as symmetry, repetition, massing and other areas are some of the results of this research.
    Keywords: Varamin Jami Mosque, Ornaments, Stucco relief, Tile work
  • Anthony Iweka * Pages 35-40
    In Nigeria, crowded housing is one of the housing stresses that bother policy-makers and housing authorities.This study examines the crowding levels in seven marital status categories among the occupants of Lagos State Development and Property Corporation’s apartments. The focus is on the capacity of an apartment’s internal spaces to meet the sleeping needs of households in different marital arrangements. A case study of four housing estates was purposively selected among Lagos State Development and Property Corporation’s multifamily categories, with a population of 7,764 apartments. A sample of 7.5% (582)was chosen using stratification and systematic random techniques. A pretested questionnaire instrument was used to collect therelevant demographic data of occupants. The occupants in different marital arrangements were grouped into three: households that harboured one to two occupants; households that harboured three to five occupants; and households that harboured six or more occupants. The result shows that households containing three to five persons were the most dominant in all apartment types while households that contain six or more persons were very few. Generally, the result showed no substantial disparity in the incidence of crowding among households of various marital classifications in different apartment types. The link between “Separated” and “Divorced” was revealed, as both types were not found among respondents living in two-bedroom apartments. The number of occupants in the “just single” and “married” categories were high compared to others. These results are significant for policies regarding occupancy, crowding and design of Lagos State Development and Property Corporation’s apartments.
    Keywords: Crowding, density, Dwelling density, Marital status, Household composition, Multifamily apartments
  • Fatemeh Mohammad Niay Gharaei * Pages 41-46
    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the privacy regulation and perception of crowding amongtwo Iranian sub-cultures (Kurdish and Northern women).The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether Northern and Kurdish women differed in their desired and achieved levels of privacy in parks. The second purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the desired and the achieved levels of privacy and the experience of crowding. The final purpose was to describe the cultural differences in the experience of crowding between Northern and Kurdish women. The research methodology was designed on interview and questionnaire. A random size of 600 Kurdish and Northern women was selected in Sanandaj and Rasht cities. Moreover, to examine the survey Chi-Square Test, Independent Sample Test and Analysis of variance were conducted. The results show that Kurdish women desired more privacy in public spaces than Northern women. Regardless of culture, women’s desired and achieved privacy levels have associations with the level of perceived crowding in public spaces. These findings assist environmental designers to present strategies for achieving privacy in relation to Iranian sub-cultures.
    Keywords: Privacy, Crowding, Culture, Iranian women
  • Zohreh Torabi*, Yalda Sima Pages 47-54

    Identity, a series of traits and characteristics that makes a person or a member of the community come to a kind of “ recognition” about individuals and other communities; The city also, following the example of this criterion gains character and gets independent. Identity in the city, through the creation and association with “public memories” of citizens causes the sense of interest and dependence which leads the inhabitants of the city toward becoming a citizen, which is a more active level of being just inhabitants. Although the identity is the effect of the culture of its citizens, it affects the process of becoming a citizen and cancause the formulation of criteria related to the participation and judging of observers and residents. Urban identity is a reflection of all the local people’s traditions, culture and aspirations grouped together. It reflects their needs, successes, failures and future. Constricted, the city is understood and interpreted through the technical rather than the sensory, yet it is the sensory from which people build their feeling and emotion. Sensuous requirements may coincide or conflict with other demands but cannot be separated from them in designing or judging urban spaces. The static physical setting, activities and meaning constituted three basic elements of urban identity places. Since place identity is a sub-structure of the self-identity of person consisting of broadly conceived cognitions about the world in which the individual lives. These cognitions represent memories, ideas, values, meanings and conceptions of behavior and experience. This study investigates and compares basic elements of urban identity in Zanjan city entrances with using Analytical Hierarchy Process Method and the proposed recommendations for the increase identity.

    Keywords: Identity, Urban Identity, Elements of the urban identity, Entrance, AHP1 method
  • Hassan Rezaei *, Iraj Etessam, Seyed Mustafa Mokhtabadamre’Ei Pages 55-64
    By its academic-aristocratic approach at the beginning, and the mere artistic vision of art afterwards, Beaux Arts had become the cottage of hopes and dreams for art-lovers and artists from Iran and all around the world. Accordingly, Iran, like many other countries, has had consecutive associations and interactions with these schools, especially beaux-arts school, in qualitative and quantitative dimensions “Beaux-arts” school has had an extraordinary expanded character among classical educational schools in Italy and Germany and has played a positive and rooted role on art education world. What was going on continuously in E’cole formany years was nothing but a stone sinking in a pond, whose inevitable waves’ beams affected the whole pond. Art Education was the pond, Beaux Arts the stone. E’cole de Beaux-Arts set up the starting point of many artistic, educational and political events in the domain of art education. So, may we assume Beaux-Arts as the starting point and the godfather of most of Iranian art education systems? Examining this subject in the context of art education history can be done through various methods. Historical periods,geopolitical entities, nationalism, international network of effects, and subjects orthemes each can have a framework or composition for forming the international history of art education. This article sets to express France’s E’cole de Beaux-Arts Education historically, and tries to assess the deep qualitative and quantitative influences of the E’cole on Iran’s Art educational system, especially on architecture education, by gathering information through well-known artists and graduates of Beaux-Arts.
    Keywords: E’cole de Beaux-Arts, History of art education, Art higher education, Art school founders, Architecture education
  • Mohammad Taghi Rahnamaee, Mostafa Taleshi, Neda Moradi * Pages 65-70
    Large cities and metropolitan areas in developing countries are growing rapidly. These areas grew by attracting all facilities, services and capital of the country. Tehran has been the major city and center for decision and policy making in various administrative, political, economic and socialaspects. This political focus has brought economic, social, educational focus that attracted a vast majority of students of Iran. Based on measures by TOPSIS technic, Tehran province has ranked 19th in terms of development Indicators; therefore, its status is not favorable. There are total of 91 universities or educational institute inTehran province 75 of which are located in the city of Tehran. There are 527 thousand students currently studying in these institutions which itself indicates the focus on capital city, especially in the field of education. National programs should take decentralization policies from growth poles. Decentralization of higher education as an integrated development policy for Tehran province and the country can bring many fruitful results. Based on recent policy on decentralization, cities of FiroozKooh and Damavand areproposed for attracting students of Azad universities and Varamin is proposed for attracting Payam-e- Noor students of the province and Hashtgerd is proposed for accepting part of activities of governmental universities for undergraduate studies as appropriate locations for identical spatial distribution.
    Keywords: Higher Education Center, development, Decentralization, Tehran metropolis
  • Nasim Ashrafi * Pages 71-80
    The following study aims to present a consistent framework for the sustainable development of the troglodyte village of Kandovan, taking into consideration the present situation of the village and the paramount importance of preserving its unique way of life with the ultimate goal of making efficient improvements on the living conditions of its inhabitants. Located in north-western Iran, this tourist location, which is the sole troglodyte village in the world still occupied by human dwellers, is carved entirely out of a chain of cliffs. This stone-age lifestyle in the midst of our modern times has bestowed incomparable charmsto Kandovan, turning it into a major source of wonderment and fascination. Regrettably, however, the emigration of its inhabitants has placed the village and what it stands for under serious threat. This research will attempt to identify and analyze the reasons for the diminishing of the local population, and goes some way to providing practical solutions to tackle this problem, utilizing an effective application of the principles of sustainable development on both environmental and architectural aspects.
    Keywords: Kandovan village, Human Life, Sustainable development, Tourism, revival